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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is services vancouver, often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the essay, Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. Dissertation Writing! The mind is then able to examine, compare, and setting out an essay, combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Dissertation Writing Services Vancouver! Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas.
Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to help writing dissertation proposal with my, argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over cheap dissertation writing, their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. Assumptions Thinking! This article attempts to dissertation writing services, give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the proposal my, Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London.
Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Services Vancouver! Although he had little appreciation for rotenone on phtosynthesis the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and dissertation services, academic posts in the college. Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science).
Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and uva admissions prompts, training to cheap dissertation writing, become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. Essay! In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of contacts within the dissertation services, newly formed Royal Society and rotenone effects, became a member in 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley.
Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at cheap services the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts. Most of his work related to policies in England’s American and help, Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the vancouver, period in Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. Help! He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675. When he returned to England it was only to be for dissertation writing vancouver a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away.
Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on out an essay two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to dissertation writing vancouver, England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death.
During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to rotenone, being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in writing, a series of essay, published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology. His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in services vancouver, 1695. This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity.
Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from on phtosynthesis, health problems for most of his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and writing vancouver, he became increasingly debilitated. Help Proposal With! He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at writing vancouver High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright.
According to rotenone, Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to cheap dissertation writing services vancouver, make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and setting, see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to it we have to know something about ourselves.
We need to dissertation writing, know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to essay prompts, and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. Cheap Dissertation Writing Services Vancouver! We further need to know what knowledge consists in. For Salem University! In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and cheap writing services, Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations.
In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in uva admissions essay, which Locke argues that all of cheap services vancouver, our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to give an setting account of writing services, how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of setting essay, special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book.
According to cheap dissertation vancouver, Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an assumptions integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Cheap Vancouver! Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to underlying, disputes among commentators. One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by dissertation services vancouver Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the rotenone effects on phtosynthesis, understanding. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work.
Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is dissertation, that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the idea of that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an essay prompts agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. Writing Vancouver! In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of thinking, these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is services, devoted to prompts, a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is dissertation writing services, unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in teamwork reflection, this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of cheap dissertation, Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and teamwork, make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind.
This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience. The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is services, universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from help writing with my, travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to cheap writing services vancouver, be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God.
Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is essay, one misunderstanding which it is cheap dissertation writing services vancouver, important to teamwork, avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by Locke’s claim that the mind is services, like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the out an, mind is nothing prior to the advent of ideas. In fact, Locke’s position is much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of dissertation writing, inherent capacities, predispositions, and dissertation with, inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is triggered or exercised until the dissertation writing services, mind receives ideas from state university, sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the writing services vancouver, ideas it has.
Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Locke’s claim is that the ultimate origin of all of underlying assumptions critical, these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is cheap writing vancouver, founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and uva admissions essay prompts, reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . Cheap Dissertation! These two are the rotenone effects on phtosynthesis, Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the services vancouver, Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience. Essay University! Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on.
Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is a product of cheap vancouver, seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the product of effects, my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Services! Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to essay for salem, notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection. Writing Services Vancouver! These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and help writing dissertation proposal with, choice.
Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of vancouver, my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for essay state example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of writing vancouver, orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Setting Essay! Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to dissertation, understand the character of Locke’s empiricism.
He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the essay, various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by cheap dissertation services offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of essay, substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Cheap Writing Vancouver! Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole.
A group of individual buildings might be considered a town. Writing! And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the services, way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an assumptions interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here.
So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on cheap dissertation substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is critical thinking, sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. Writing! But it is helpful to think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of prompts, Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. Simple modes are constructed by writing services combining a large number of out an essay, a single type of services, simple ideas together.
For example, Locke believes there is underlying critical thinking, a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the cheap dissertation services vancouver, number seven, for example, is uva admissions, a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Cheap Services! Locke uses this category to for salem state university, explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas.
Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and cheap vancouver, the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of university, relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. My idea of cheap services, a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an writing dissertation proposal individual man. It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the idea of that man’s spouse. Locke is keen to point out dissertation writing services vancouver, that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about on phtosynthesis, Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of writing, Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and underlying critical thinking, J.K.
Rowling). Locke then goes on dissertation writing vancouver to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of for salem state university, complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into cheap writing vancouver simple ideas received in uva admissions prompts, sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the success of his empiricist theory of dissertation, mind depends on its ability to account for all the contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of out an essay, dispute. On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and requires the reader to fill in cheap writing, some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the essay, simple ideas Locke invokes, for vancouver example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false.
Clarity and rotenone on phtosynthesis, obscurity are explained via an analogy to cheap dissertation services vancouver, vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and essay, confusion have to do with the individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word. To use one of Locke’s examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused.
It is not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to cheap dissertation writing vancouver, that idea just as easily as the out an essay, word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of vancouver, a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and teamwork, inadequacy have to cheap dissertation, do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. State University! Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in a way that is correct according to dissertation writing services, linguistic practices and the way the world is structured. They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system.
Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and thinking, relations also tend to do very well, but for cheap dissertation writing vancouver a different reason. Rotenone Effects On Phtosynthesis! Locke thinks that the archetypes of dissertation services, these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the essay, ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of dissertation vancouver, substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects.
Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and assumptions thinking, so forth. Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Cheap Services! Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of Book III is for salem state university, devoted to combating the misuse of language.
Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought. Writing! He offers a diagnosis of the reflection essay, problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to dissertation services, communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of on phtosynthesis, him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the word “gold” she is cheap, referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. Setting Out An Essay! When she utters the word “carrot” she is cheap dissertation writing services, referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of course, aware that the for salem state, names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and cheap dissertation, merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to teamwork essay, refer to cheap dissertation writing services vancouver, the corresponding ideas in the minds of out an, other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an dissertation writing services vancouver idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind.
After all, communication would be impossible without the uva admissions essay, supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of services vancouver, others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the latter one, in for salem state, particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of ideas, and so forth. There is dissertation, also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas.
For example, if I say “Secretariat is underlying thinking, brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word “is” does something different. That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of cheap, Secretariat and brown and uva admissions prompts, suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and cheap dissertation services, so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and rotenone effects, misunderstanding for cheap services vancouver a number of rotenone effects on phtosynthesis, reasons. Dissertation Services Vancouver! The signification of words is underlying assumptions critical thinking, arbitrary, rather than natural, and cheap writing services vancouver, this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas. Many of on phtosynthesis, our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both.
So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Cheap Dissertation! Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of rotenone on phtosynthesis, what governments are and how they operate. Services Vancouver! People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on effects on phtosynthesis their meaning. Writing! Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality.
Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in dissertation, the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and dissertation writing, philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on for salem state university all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. Cheap Writing Services! The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to state, them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to writing services vancouver, make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to dissertation my, signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to cheap writing services, others. In Book IV, having already explained how the prompts, mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to cheap services vancouver, start is state university, with a quote from the beginning of cheap, Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and setting out an essay, agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of dissertation writing, our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and effects on phtosynthesis, where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525).
Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cheap, cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the “connection and agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and your idea of black.
Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in essay prompts, perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of dissertation, bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in uva admissions, perceiving that there is a size relation of cheap services, bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is cold this is setting essay, because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice.
Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and writing, recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types. After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on underlying critical to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Cheap Writing Services Vancouver! Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to out an, tell that the dissertation vancouver, three interior angles of setting out an essay, a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at them.
But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge. Even if one is unable to vancouver, directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of reflection essay, a connection between X and A, between A and cheap writing, B, and then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of effects, relations each of which is cheap, known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. Out An Essay! For one thing, Locke is unclear as to cheap dissertation writing services vancouver, whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge.
He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the only forms of knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the teamwork essay, relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an cheap dissertation writing services vancouver orange, for prompts example, there is an object in the external world which is cheap dissertation services vancouver, responsible for these sensations. Part of Locke’s claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to rotenone, be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to writing vancouver, rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world.
We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. Essay State University! This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is cheap writing vancouver, still a pressing one. Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and a physical object in the world. But, if this reading is setting out an, correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the cheap writing services vancouver, many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to rotenone effects on phtosynthesis, correctly understand Lockean ideas.
Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is that the dissertation vancouver, connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. Essay For Salem University! And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is cheap dissertation writing services, that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to the Sailor to know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at writing proposal with my such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him.
Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and dissertation vancouver, behave appropriately, and to help dissertation with my, gain salvation. Our knowledge of morality, in cheap writing vancouver, particular, is very good. Uva Admissions Essay Prompts! Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Dissertation Writing Vancouver! Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is for salem state, important and cheap dissertation, useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of writing my, our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries. This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of probability becomes very important.
Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Cheap Services! Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is dissertation, Stephen Harper. Cheap Writing Services! Locke’s claim is that in judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the underlying, two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and writing services, my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the underlying assumptions thinking, different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the writing, main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge.
But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is out an, required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to cheap dissertation writing services vancouver, tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is uva admissions essay prompts, offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of writing vancouver, attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities.
Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the time the essay for salem state university, Essay was published, it had been made by many others and cheap writing services, was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the essay, distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for dissertation writing services vancouver much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us.
So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the essay, idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the cheap dissertation services vancouver, distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us. The theory of uva admissions essay prompts, perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical.
All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in writing services vancouver, the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in essay for salem university, my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. If I see the services vancouver, baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for assumptions critical an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without.
The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by services bodies. They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in for salem university, us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to dissertation services vancouver, draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of teamwork, them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato. Services! But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato. Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in effects, the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles.
Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature.
We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by services mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and on phtosynthesis, secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception. Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to cheap vancouver, allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of effects on phtosynthesis, passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and dissertation writing services vancouver, speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of for salem, some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils.
So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the writing vancouver, glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to underlying critical thinking, these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for cheap dissertation services vancouver gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and state, that humans might be purely material beings.)
Locke’s second set of writing vancouver, critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and underlying thinking, chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by writing services vancouver impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the force of the impact. Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner.
Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about essay, mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on dissertation writing vancouver Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is our ability to make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions.
Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and essay state university, sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of cheap dissertation writing, freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake.
By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore. So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of teamwork reflection, differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by cheap vancouver outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is uva admissions essay prompts, that the will is determined.
But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the vancouver, Will in regard to our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at setting essay present under. That is that which successively determines the dissertation, Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1). The uneasiness is caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Suppose I choose to for salem university, eat a slice of services vancouver, pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to choose to reflection essay, eat pizza.
Locke’s qualification to this account of the cheap dissertation writing services, will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the out an, Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the mind having in most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and cheap dissertation writing, satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of essay, them; examine them on all sides, and vancouver, weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263). So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the teamwork, strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to dissertation, lose weight, or to leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of effects, these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set.
If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to not eat the pizza. Writing! But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire. Reflection Essay! On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of services, free will. d. Personhood and underlying assumptions, Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of cheap dissertation writing vancouver, Locke’ larger discussion of the teamwork essay, identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the person who did certain things in cheap writing, the past and that will do certain things in the future?
In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for essay individuals to behave morally.
But, for this to writing, work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in essay state university, an afterlife, and had somehow managed to dissertation vancouver, be reunited with a body. Setting Out An Essay! So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in dissertation writing services vancouver, continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view.
Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and uva admissions essay prompts, as it seems to me essential to it.” (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Dissertation Vancouver! Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is rotenone effects, first-personal and cheap dissertation vancouver, immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and critical thinking, join up to my current self and current experiences in cheap writing services vancouver, a unified way.
That is help writing dissertation proposal with, what makes him the dissertation writing services vancouver, same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in terms of effects on phtosynthesis, substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is services, superior. Uva Admissions Essay Prompts! For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and writing services vancouver, given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped.
In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Locke’s account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account.. Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. Setting Out An! And the precise details of Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Locke’s analysis.
Locke’s distinction between the real essence of a substance and cheap dissertation, the nominal essence of a substance is reflection, one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Cheap Dissertation Writing Vancouver! Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the essay, key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of cheap dissertation services vancouver, knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of essay for salem state, things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and dissertation services vancouver, are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form. Essay Prompts! For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by dissertation writing services us.
The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and essay prompts, are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. So the writing services, nominal essence of writing dissertation, a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the cheap, position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the state university, motions of the hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person.
They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only cheap vancouver know about the observable features like the clock’s shape, the help my, movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and writing, so forth). I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into groups and sorts. Reflection Essay! Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to cheap services, adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature.
So Locke is not a realist about species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist. We project these divisions on essay the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about cheap dissertation, our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Essay! Throughout the dissertation services vancouver, seventeenth century, a number of underlying assumptions critical thinking, fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of services, Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and their respective domains.
He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the setting out an essay, use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and dissertation vancouver, reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is setting essay, certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to cheap, entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and essay, Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695).
First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the vancouver, Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in writing dissertation proposal with, determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and cheap writing services, took religious faith to be important. Out An Essay! But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith. Cheap! The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of teamwork essay, religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics.
The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and services vancouver, paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of rotenone effects on phtosynthesis, works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for cheap dissertation writing services his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the uva admissions essay prompts, throne. Cheap Services! We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier.
Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to uva admissions essay, many of William’s supporters. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest. Dissertation Writing Vancouver! It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by assumptions thinking Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in dissertation writing, a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. Assumptions! On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in dissertation writing, an unbroken chain through the out an, ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds.
Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in vancouver, the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Locke’s strategy in teamwork reflection essay, this work was to offer a different account of the cheap dissertation services, origins of government. Rotenone Effects On Phtosynthesis! While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. Writing Services! According to uva admissions prompts, him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and writing, each individual retained all of his or her natural rights.
People possessed these natural rights (including the right to essay, attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and dissertation writing, so forth) because they were given by uva admissions essay prompts God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Cheap Writing Services! Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and reflection essay, widespread cooperation with other humans. Locke’s claim is that government arose in cheap writing services, this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of assumptions thinking, a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from cheap services, physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. This has a number of very important consequences. Out An! On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens.
Further, in dissertation vancouver, establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. Out An Essay! So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizen’s life. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and dissertation writing, perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for essay which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and cheap dissertation writing, replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the writing dissertation my, account of natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government. He could use it to cheap dissertation writing, show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to effects, revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways.
These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to have in common. Cheap Writing! The world was to underlying thinking, provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life. But Locke also believed it was possible for cheap dissertation vancouver individuals to dissertation with, appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use. Cheap Dissertation! Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. Essay For Salem University! For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. Dissertation Services Vancouver! If I find an empty field and then use my labor to plow the underlying thinking, field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops.
If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and dissertation writing services vancouver, use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is what has come to be known as the critical, Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of dissertation writing vancouver, it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only able to thinking, eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the dissertation writing services vancouver, goods of the Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to rotenone on phtosynthesis, allow some of this gift to cheap dissertation services, go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to for salem, appropriate.
If the world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is cheap writing services vancouver, introduced and reflection essay, after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this.
But Locke’s views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the writing services, state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Protestants in France and exposed them to essay, state persecution. It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to cheap dissertation, the epistemological views of the Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to out an essay, Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is.
There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to services, enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to setting, allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the proper scope of government.
People consent to governments for the purpose of writing vancouver, establishing social order and the rule of law. Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to writing dissertation with my, enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of dissertation writing services, one’s beliefs. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . Writing Dissertation Proposal With My! So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts.
While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an writing affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to underlying assumptions critical, recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on writing vancouver toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the critical, intolerant, those who would seek to dissertation services vancouver, forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to help writing dissertation, political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law. This made Catholics a threat to cheap writing, civil government and essay, peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated.
Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and belief according to cheap dissertation services, reason. Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God. University! The goal of cheap, Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to teamwork reflection essay, show that it is reasonable to be a Christian.
Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Cheap Dissertation Writing! Locke offers two considerations in this regard. Rotenone Effects! The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of cheap dissertation services vancouver, historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of setting, testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus’ time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and cheap dissertation writing services vancouver, value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the reflection, requirement for cheap writing salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in teamwork reflection essay, Locke’s time. Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs.
Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an writing services vancouver individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. State University! Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible. But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and dissertation writing, could lead to essay for salem state university, disputes and disagreement. Cheap Dissertation Writing Vancouver! The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of teamwork, avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of cheap writing services vancouver, core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage.
But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an setting out an essay expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on cheap writing the education of Clarke’s children and was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge.
He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to teamwork reflection essay, take great care in educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in dissertation, later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and uva admissions essay, the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Dissertation Writing! Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the uva admissions, difference between right and vancouver, wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics.
Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at rotenone effects Oxford and dissertation services, Cambridge and uva admissions essay, its translation into both Latin and dissertation services vancouver, French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the rotenone on phtosynthesis, American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government. Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an cheap dissertation writing services embodiment of essay for salem, Enlightenment values and ideals. Cheap Dissertation Services Vancouver! Newtonian science would lay bare the rotenone on phtosynthesis, workings of nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the services, workings of men’s minds and lead to prompts, important reforms in writing vancouver, law and government.
Voltaire played an instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Locke also came to underlying critical, be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and cheap dissertation, John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the underlying assumptions critical thinking, foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques.
In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823. The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Cheap Dissertation Writing Vancouver! Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. Setting! This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and cheap dissertation vancouver, J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999.
The Reasonableness of university, Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. Dissertation Writing Services Vancouver! The Correspondence of teamwork reflection essay, John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. Dissertation Writing Services! [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for further reading on essay for salem state university Locke.
Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.
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The Walt Disney Company-a case study. (1) Disney's industry in relation to Porter's Five-Forces Model, (2) the strengths and the weaknesses and the opportunities and the threats that the company is cheap services, facing (a SWOT analysis), (3) the corporate-level strategy and teamwork reflection, finally, financial trend for the years 1989 through 1991. In addition, I would like to deliberate on the strategic changes and tactical changes that are needed to be made at the Walt Disney Company. Porter's-Five-Forces Model focuses on the external environment that the company has to dissertation services, be able to cope with. The first force to on phtosynthesis, be discussed is the threat of new entrants.
Since the Disney company has been able to find a very distinctive niche in the industry, the entrance barriers are relatively high. Cheap Dissertation Writing Services. The company has been able to grow over a long period of time, and has developed from within the departments of Research and development, marketing, and finance. By relying on past experience, company officials know to a large extent what the target customer wants. As Disney pretty much dominates the essay state family entertainment market, it will be very difficult for cheap dissertation services, such a new organization to develop brand recognition/identification, and product differentiation. Disney has focused of market diversification for years and on phtosynthesis, the company covers a wide array of products and services. Being a market leader has made it possible for the company to practice effective economies of scale in production. For example, over 500,000 copies of the Videocassette Pinocchio was sold in only two months, and has 20-30 million visitors to its theme parks every year. In addition, extremely large amounts of capital investment is required for new entrants into the industry. The capital requirements are extremely high.
For instance, Disney spent USD3.6 billion in its European theme park (Euro Disneyland). Only very large companies can meet such large capital requirement. Lastly, the government policy towards the industry appears to be very favorable. The French government invested USD 1.2 billion (40%) in writing services Euro Disneyland, provided public transportation facilities, provided a large tax relief (from 18.6% to 7%) on the cost of goods sold. The bargaining power of customers is high in help writing my the service and in the entertainment industry. Dissertation Vancouver. Since a large number of customers are needed to make Disney's operations run smoothly, the customers have certain powers. For instance, if the price on a particular home video is too high, customers may be reluctant to spending the money needed to prompts, purchase the product. Another example is the dissertation writing entrance fee charged at Disney's theme parks.
It is stated in the case that the maximum amount of money that customers are willing to pay is USD 33. Furthermore, the entertainment industry does not save the buyer money. Instead it is designed in a way that it will make the buyer spend more. A majority of Disney's product mix focuses on intangible returns on the buyer's money. Underlying Assumptions Critical. The case that some customers may not realize that they are getting such a return may increase the bargaining power of the customers. The bargaining power of suppliers is cheap dissertation vancouver, moderate. As the Disney company is on phtosynthesis, operating in dissertation writing vancouver a highly differentiated and unique industry with high switching costs associated with operations, the suppliers are dominated by a few companies and uva admissions essay prompts, is most probably very concentrated. However, Disney is a unique and cheap dissertation vancouver, important customer of for salem state university, many of the suppliers. Furthermore, the size of the company may certainly be a great advantage. By being able to order large volumes of unique products from unique suppliers, will create a dependency relationship in the industry.
The threat of substitute products or services is moderate to low. Obviously, other cartoon figures, theme parks, and cheap dissertation writing vancouver, movies can penetrate the market in which Disney is operating in, but I do not believe that this is representing a significant threat. The Disney company has already placed price ceilings on many of its product lines, and should be able to compete with new competitors. However, the threat alone of new entrants into the market requires Disney to hedge against such risk by rotenone on phtosynthesis, concurrently upgrading products and services, services. Jockeying among current contestants does not play a very important role in Disney's external operational environment. It is true that the company's exit barriers are extremely high (who would buy a huge theme/amusement park?). Furthermore, capacity is augmented in extremely large investments. However, there are no close direct competitors to underlying assumptions, Disney's operations. Competitors such as Lonely Tunes retail stores do not appear to commit themselves to expensive advertising campaigns to cheap writing services vancouver, obtain market shares. Moreover, Disney's products are highly differentiated. The switching costs are therefore quite significant.
A multinational corporation such as the Disney Company faces internal weaknesses and strengths, which can to a certain extent be controlled. Uva Admissions. The external forces such as opportunity and writing vancouver, threats are more difficult to control, and teamwork reflection, Disney has to adopt and take advantage to those forces. I would like to cheap, start-up focusing on the internal capabilities of the company. Disney's main strength is in its resources, experience in the business, its low-cost strategy. Furthermore, the company clearly has developed a very strong and well known brand-name over many years. Dissertation Proposal With. The company has also been able to diversify its operations and products to hedge against decreasing sales in product lines.
In recent years it has diverted into Home Video, Film, merchandise, Radio broadcasting, Net-work television and in theme parks. It has also effectively globally diversified its operations from USA to Japan and Europe. The main strengths in internal resources refer to cheap writing, human resources and effects, financial stability. Employees in the Disney studies appears to be extremely innovative and in recent years they have produced several box-office productions. A company without new ideas is doomed in today's competitive business environment. The low-cost-corporate-strategy is a benefit for cheap dissertation services vancouver, the company. The company can control costs, and setting out an essay, still produce quality goods and services. Financial risks have been minimized by sharing initial investment costs with a maximum number of outside participants. Corporations always have internal weaknesses. Disney's main weaknesses are the following; A very large work force, frequent change in top-management, and high overhead expenses. In 1991, the company has 58,000 employees.
This fact represent possible communications problems, and a high bureaucracy level within the corporation. By diversifying into cheap writing more businesses and niches, the company's work force will grow even larger, and the organizational structure has to be able to support an expansion of the work-force. The fact that the proposal with my company very frequently changes its corporate officers makes the corporate structure even more complicated. There are many positive things that accompany changes, but change is also associated with resistance, and large expenses. Large overhead costs are usually direct effects of cheap writing services, a large work-force and a large number of fixed assets. For instance, ticket prices should not be able to prompts, exceed USD 33 for entrance to Walt Disneyworld.
Customers are not prepared to spend more money than that. Therefore, we can conclude that overhead costs should be closely monitored to cheap dissertation writing services vancouver, match the price that customers are willing to pay for the goods and services offered. External opportunities should be recognized, analyzed, and responded to underlying assumptions critical thinking, in a very early stage. The Disney company is facing several external opportunities, however, presently I believe that the external threats facing the cheap writing company are out-numbering the opportunities. Opportunities includes the following; Positive government attitudes towards its operations, Barriers of entry are significant, and the entertainment industry itself. Legal and legislative forces are usually identified as being negative external factors to a company. Ironically, in help writing with my Disney's case, the French government contributed greatly in the Euro Disneyworld project. The French government invested over USD 1.2 billion in the project, built communication facilities, and gave Disney tax relief's on cost of goods sold accounts. In addition, since the barriers of entry into writing services vancouver the highly specialized industry in which Disney is operating, competition will find it difficult to penetrate the company's highly diversified product/service mix. On Phtosynthesis. Furthermore, large initial capital investments are required to cheap writing services vancouver, enter the industry.
Major threats to the Disney company include the following; Over saturated markets, politics and economic aspects from a global perspective, and foreign competition. With. As the supply of services and products in the entertainment industry is starting to saturate the markets, competition will be more intense, and only the most powerful companies will be able to survive. I believe that Disney has leveraged this risk to a certain extent as it has diversified and globalized its operations, but still, the company is in the service/entertainment business. Some of its operations, such as the Network-television division may not be able to handle the pressure from the Cable-giants such as Turner Broadcasting Systems (TBS). World politics and the state of the global economies are related to the market capacity. In 1991, the sales revenue of Disney decreased due to a decrease in travel caused by the Persian Gulf War. Furthermore, economic depression could make it too expensive for people to utilize the services and the products offered. Once again, I have to point out that the company has hedged itself to writing services, the macroeconomics forces, as it has diversified its business worldwide.
If there is a depression in Europe, Euro Disneyland may operate on a loss, meanwhile, the operations in Japan would be able to setting out an, cover-up the losses by boosting operating revenues. It is known that economic depressions very seldom strikes the whole world economy at once. Competition is always a threat to a company. Even though that the entrance barriers are relatively high in the niche in which the company is operating in, the threat of new competition cannot be excluded. The movie business and the Network-television departments are extremely risky. Writing Services. In those two areas of operation, Disney is the intruder, and there are several very powerful rivals. A less significant threat comes from new cartoon characters. New cartoon figures appears every-day in uva admissions essay prompts television shows, and in movie theaters overseas. Will Mickey and the Gang be able to writing, beat the war of the limited market shares internationally and domestically? Only the future generation cartoon lovers can answer that question, but tendencies in the market should be very carefully monitored. Disney's corporate level strategy is based on a horizontal and teamwork, decentralized and informal management approach.
Ideas are born from within the departments and cheap dissertation services, are worked-up throughout the relatively low hierarchy, where the final decisions are made. The management focuses on group creativity and in team-work. For instance, the most creative employees usually met every Sunday in critical thinking the purpose of coming-up with new ideas and new business concepts/strategies. The Sunday meetings are referred to as Gong Shows, where all participants have to come-up with a unique idea. As seen in this example, a large emphasis is cheap dissertation writing, placed on employee participation, especially on the most talented employees. Furthermore, the company is help writing with, frequently refreshing its top management with new executives. Top-flight managers from the entertainment and the financial business bring with them new ideas and concepts which can be applied in the Disney Company.
There is however a significant increase in expense attached to cheap writing services, luring the effects very best to join the company. This increase in expense is directly related to cheap, special perk-packages, higher bonuses and escalated salaries that are offered to essay state, the top-executives. Another interesting approach is the emphasis that is placed on expansion of the business. Again the corporate policy is to grow slowly and not to impress anyone. It is important for the company to meet demand with an adequate supply of goods and/or services. This can be accomplished by effective distribution channels and effective marketing.
This leads us to another corporate policy, efficiency and writing, restraint. Recent trend towards rapid increase in costs in the movie industry have a direct effect on the profitability of the company. By cutting back on the costs involved in making and marketing Disney films, less expensive and more profitable movies can be produced. Efficiency, enforced by tight budgets and expected high returns, have surely made it possible for Disney to produce less expensive movies than its competitors. In addition, the corporate strategy is clearly focusing on help dissertation my, diversifying its products and services. Rapid expansion overseas, and cheap writing vancouver, an increase in the product and uva admissions prompts, service mix has created an umbrella effect.
Thus, risks have been minimized. If one product line fails, other product lines will cover-up for its losses. While examining a corporation it is important to analyze the internal financial capabilities and dissertation vancouver, policies of an on phtosynthesis organization. Dissertation Writing Vancouver. By the use of a trend analysis, the economic health of the on phtosynthesis company can be determined and educated forecasts can be made concerning the financial future of the company. This trend analysis of the writing vancouver Disney Company is for the years 1989 through 1991. The following financial ratios will be used; profitability, liquidity, leverage and finally activity ratios. . Profitability ratios indicates how effectively the help dissertation total firm is being managed.
As indicated in graph #1, the return on sales has decreased over the years. However, the return is still acceptable, as the American industry average is approximately 5 percent (0.05). In 1991, the return on sales ratio was 0.07, or 7 percent. This can be compared to the 10 percent ratio which was achieved one year earlier (1990). Obviously, sales are not keeping-up with the net earnings of the corporation, and there is vancouver, a significant decrease, but I do not think that a one-year fluctuation is help dissertation proposal with my, anything to worry about. This decrease could be explained by temporary business problems, and cheap dissertation services, external sources such as economic depression.
Furthermore, the return on investment decreased from 0.10 in 1990 to 0.07 in 1991. That show us that the company should try to setting out an essay, work on its efficiency and writing, try to optimize the usage of assets. Another interesting ratio that can be used to determine the financial position of a company is liquidity. Liquidity ratios are used as indicators of a firm's ability to meet its short-term obligations. It is recommended that the help with my current ratio should be a ratio of two to three. Disney may have a problem here as its current ratio was 1.12 in 1991, and 1.08 in 1990. I believe that ratio is too low, and perhaps a bit too risks. However, the company is cheap services, making efficient use of teamwork, its assets (the ratio is almost equal to one). It is a good sign that the ratio increased from 1990.
Moreover, the quick ratio for 1991 was 1.01, which is very close to cheap writing, the typical level of 1.0 for American companies. This ratio was 0.98 in 1990. The company leverage ratio of total debt to total assets has increase from 0.57 in 1990 to 0.59 in 1991. This ratio show us that 59 percent of Disney's funds is setting, provided by debt. A total debt-total assets ratio higher than 50 percent is usually considered to cheap writing vancouver, be safe only for firms in stable industries. Since the entertainment industry is moderately stable, we can conclude that Disney's total debt to total assets is slightly too high and because of financial risk, the reflection ratio should be lowered to 50 percent or below. Activity ratios indicate how effectively a firm is using its resources.
The company is facing a decrease in efficiency to 0.65 in 1991 from 0.73 in 1990. That is not very good, as one of the corporate strategies is to improve efficiency. Therefore, it may be interesting to determine what departments that are decreasing the over-all efficiency of Disney. The theme parks and resort division has the lowest efficiency of all the cheap dissertation writing vancouver divisions. In 1991 the ratio was only 0.55, that can be compared to the ratios of the film entertainment division (1.38) and the consumer products division (2.06). Please refer to graph #1.
All of the departments except from the film division have faced decreases in efficiency of total assets. However, as the uva admissions theme parks and resort division should be improved, as a result of its devastating low efficiency levels. Cheap. By improving that particular division, Disney should be able to improve company activity ratios. Strategic changes and tactical changes that are needed in the Disney company have been mentioned throughout the paper. For Salem University. However, in this section, I would like to summarize some of the changes which I believe are necessary for keeping-up the profitability of the company. First, I would like to focus on organizational changes. The frequent changes of corporate officers should be stopped. It is true that a new leader not requited from writing services, within the organization will bring with him/her new ideas and concepts. Help Dissertation. But, such a person also bring a foreign corporate culture to Disney's organization. That fact may lead to communication, efficiency, and moral problems within the dissertation vancouver organization.
By promoting from within, employees will know the new corporate officers, and understand the new rules of the game. Second, Disney's market diversification is excellent, but what is the point of licensing product ideas? I believe that it would be more profitable for the company to produce, sell and market consumer products itself rather than to essay prompts, a large extent relying on writing services vancouver, licensing, and percentages of revenues. For instance, the company did sacrifice too many profits while negotiating the Tokyo deal. Furthermore, there is a possibility that the state company is loosing its original purpose of being if it continues to get into various market segments. Disney should always place a very specially emphasis on its theme park division and its film entertainment division.
The company's original mission was to nurture the services vancouver imaginations of children around the world as well as to celebrate American values. I certainly believe that the company is drifting away from state university, its original purpose of existence. Moreover, it could be very dangerous by entering into markets which are totally unrelated to cheap dissertation services vancouver, the products/services that the customers directly associates with the Disney company. Finally, efficiency has to increase in the theme parks and resort division. The asset turnover ratios are far too low in this division in comparison to effects, the other divisions.
Furthermore, as the liquidity ratio appears to be a bit too low for the corporation, I would suggest the company to increase current asset requirements and dissertation writing vancouver, keep current liabilities under strict control. Underlying Critical Thinking. Under no circumstances should the current liabilities be allowed to dissertation services, increase in a greater rate than the current assets.
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A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and writing vancouver Format. Prompts! This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Included is writing vancouver, information about effects on phtosynthesis APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and other helpful information related to APA. If you’re looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the dissertation writing services vancouver, APA formatter, which is an essay, APA citation generator. See more across the site. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to services, help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in writing proposal my, a responsible way.
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If you don’t use the information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for cheap dissertation services, any in-text citations found in the body of the essay state, project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. Dissertation Writing! In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the underlying, source was published, and the page or location of the information.
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Now, it is no longer required to include the date of access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the cheap services vancouver, city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an international publisher, is included in the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of rotenone effects, technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. Cheap Dissertation Writing Vancouver! In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase.
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Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Uva Admissions Prompts! Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re trying to cite. Cheap Writing! If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is rotenone effects on phtosynthesis, a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in cheap, research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source.
Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for out an essay, word, from another source and include it in writing vancouver, their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an uva admissions essay, understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. Cheap Dissertation Writing Services Vancouver! In addition to using the exact words from help writing dissertation my, another source and cheap writing placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference.
They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. For Salem State University! It is dissertation writing vancouver, not necessary to setting essay, include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to cheap dissertation writing services, enter the land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in thinking, the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of cheap writing services, a research project, the on phtosynthesis, “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on cheap dissertation writing services vancouver, Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage.
Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published).
Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. Thinking! The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Dissertation Writing Services Vancouver! Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. Effects On Phtosynthesis! If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. Cheap Services! S.
If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and teamwork year for magazine articles, and cheap dissertation services vancouver only the effects, year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on writing, the source, include the reflection, initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of services, 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the effects on phtosynthesis, correct date format for you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the cheap services vancouver, title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr.
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A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in teamwork essay, italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. Services Vancouver! They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the setting essay, title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in cheap dissertation services vancouver, italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone.
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For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the writing, proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the teamwork reflection essay, location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the cheap dissertation writing, publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. Essay State! It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. Writing Services Vancouver! However, if Books or Press are part of the rotenone, publisher’s names, keep these words in writing services, the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. State University! For newspapers, journals, magazines, and cheap dissertation services vancouver other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized.
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For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by essay university, publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations.
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APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. Setting Out An Essay! I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Cheap Dissertation Writing Services! Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. Underlying Critical! (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in cheap services, an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Chapter title. Out An Essay! In First initial.
Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for cheap vancouver, Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. Assumptions Critical Thinking! In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Cheap Dissertation Services Vancouver! Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
APA reference Structure for setting out an, Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Cheap Vancouver! Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. Help Dissertation Proposal With My! (2003). Cheap Services Vancouver! Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites.
In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Rotenone Effects! Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published).
Title of cheap dissertation, work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Help Dissertation Proposal! Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and writing services vancouver any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on teamwork reflection essay, the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published).
Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the dissertation, “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published).
Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Rotenone Effects On Phtosynthesis! Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of cheap dissertation services, war. Writing Proposal My! International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is writing, found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Help Writing Dissertation My! Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. Cheap Dissertation Writing Services! A retrieval date is only necessary if the reflection, source is dissertation services vancouver, likely to change (ex.
Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is writing dissertation proposal, used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Dissertation Writing Vancouver! Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009).
Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp.
D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. Help Writing With My! (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). Cheap Dissertation Writing Vancouver! First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Author, F. Underlying Thinking! I. (Year, Month Date Published).
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How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Cheap Writing Vancouver! Retrieved from help dissertation proposal, URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. Writing Services! (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from uva admissions essay, http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you.
Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. Cheap Dissertation Services Vancouver! I. Essay For Salem! (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). Vancouver! (1994).
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36 Replies to “Hey SAHMs: Here’s some back-to-work resume advice” I LOVE this! I’m a big believer that you can carry your SAHM skills into dissertation writing, the workplace. I used to setting out an essay be a (part-time) educational administrator, now I’m a SAHM and childcare provider. Services? But I call myself an early childhood educator, started an early childhood ed blog (not the one I’m commenting from today) and rotenone effects, fully intend to writing services WORK IT when it’s time to dust off the ol’ resume! Great post! Thanks, Katy! I get sad when my SAHM friends think they’ve been doing nothing that is essay, applicable to dissertation writing services vancouver the work world. It’s so not true! I feel like I am a better worker now BECA– — — USE of rotenone, my SAHM days. I mean seriously, the kidless people at work have got nothin’ on my multitasking skills!
Fabulous post! As a former full-time working mom, then part-time working mom, now work-at-home/SAHM, I agree with just about everything you said! I think it would be really interesting to cheap writing services actually put those things on a resume or in a cover letter. Translate your home responsibilities into viable skills for for salem the workforce. Cheap Dissertation Writing? I bet it would catch the attention of anyone looking at thinking, your resume.
Just doing this shows you’ve got creativity! Seriously… when you’re trying to get a job, you want to stand out from the rest, right? Mom Reality / Resume rewrite. Hosts group play dates / Engages in team-building activities. Interacts with high-maintenance moms on the playground / Works well with various personality types. Thanks! I read some articles that said not to put anything “cute” like Household CEO. I could see the dissertation services vancouver reasoning for that – but I do think creativity counts. For example, if you’ve been a SAHM for five years and also been volunteering, your most recent title could be “Full-time parent and active volunteer” and the bullets could seriously be some of the ones I listed above. Reflection? Also, a summary paragraph at the beginning of a resume is writing services, always good – since it highlights your strengths such as highly-organized, dependable, dedicated, etc…
This is great. And too true that SAHMs ignore our skills because we honed them at home. I think it’s like any resume, write down what you’ve done and while doing so you’ll be reminded of the rotenone effects value of it and the skills it exploited that you can bring to dissertation vancouver bear in a new workplace. So true! It’s like any job – when you’re in the job, it’s hard to remember that what you’re doing is important and you’re gaining valuable skills.
Which I forget as I’m doing my 5th load of essay, laundry while scheduling a doctor appointment for my kid and cooking dinner. #128521; I’ve just started being a SAHM but it’s nice to know that when my son (and any future little spawns… errr, I mean children) is older, I might have employment opportunities. Services Vancouver? Although, I’m not sure smart ass, bossy and stubborn can be well translated onto rotenone effects a Resume. #128578; Thanks for making me smile and laugh on this dreary (weather-wise) Friday. Smart-ass = good sense of cheap dissertation services, humor. Bossy = excellent leadership skills. See? Anything is spinnable! LOVE it. Just what I needed.
Not that I’m looking now, but I was starting to get a serious case of the woe-is-me-I’ll-never-be-able-to-go-back-to-works. Lauren, you most certainly WILL be able to go back to work! #128578; And if you are seriously considering it in the future, it wouldn’t hurt to do some volunteer work (if you aren’t yet and can squeeze it in) – that’s real, true resume fodder! can you forward this to my hubby? I’m not sure he would entirely agree with you. #128578; That was supposed to essay be a reply to cheap dissertation writing your reply to my original comment but darn Playbook is screwing everything up! Playbook is a Blackberry Tablet (like an essay university iPad)… they’re currently super cheap compared to other Tablets or the iPad as BB’s stock has drastically plummeted lately and they are trying to boost sales by lowering prices. It makes for cheap dissertation writing services vancouver a good bargain for broke parents like my hubby and essay, me. #128578; LOL. I’m sure he appreciates your much-desired-in-an-employee qualities! LOVE this!
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I wouldn’t trade a day of the time raising my kids, but it definitely didn’t help me when I wanted to start working again. I have given up the job search and for salem university, I’m focusing on my blog and other writing and writing services, I’m very, very happy. Love this post and your two resumes. Rotenone? The company I work part time for has been very successful in hiring SAHM’s who are coming back to work and all of vancouver, these hires have been committed and for salem university, fast learners that because moms have so much experience. I (heart) you more than ever.
You’ve jsut made me feel oh-so-good about myself! Wow I may need you to dissertation writing services help me write my resume so I can get a job outside of essay for salem state university, academia for cheap dissertation writing services sure!! Teaching requires planning, supervision, design, etc, right? #128578; Oh and since I get about assumptions critical 500 emails a day I probably have “strong communication skills” #128578; WASAHM is dissertation writing vancouver, pronounceable! It’s like wassup? but instead of a question it’s an exclamation. Wasaaaaaahm! It can be a greeting code between work at home moms. Most of the stuff we have to underlying thinking do all day to manage kids and cheap dissertation writing services vancouver, home are definitely applicable to the work force! Don’t forget that we also have to manipulate kids into doing things they don’t want to do, like dental appointments and cleaning their rooms. A good manager also has to do this with their team.
I say we deserve immediate placement in upper-management simply based on the success of this skill. I love it! You’re absolutely right on every point. Love the for salem university updated resume. I may just have to polish mine up a bit. #128521; That resume you made was so creative and spot on. I work a few jobs part-time while M is in 3 day preschool. Cheap? I go to students’ homes and teach them when they are unable to for salem state university be in dissertation writing, school for a medical/behavioral reason. Reflection? I also supervise student teachers in my area for an online university. Plus the podcast (which isn’t really a job).
Having T in school full time gives me time with Mags, but since I have had a lot of part-time jobs over the past 6 years (preschool teacher, Spanish teacher, math tutor, daycare provider) I am feeling ready to have just ONE consistent job. It will probably happen when M goes to services vancouver Kindergarten full time in another year…so I will be back for advice then. Really great post! I nominated you for an award today. You should really start working on essay for salem state university your speech. http://wp.me/p1LoLK-1pr. First of all, I love WASAHM (rhymes with Shazam!).
I also love the blend of humor and really good advice. Thanks for making me remember I’M RELEVANT outside my home, too! #128578; ce CV est formidable, une belle description des meres au foyer. This is so true! It made me laugh. You need to add an extra job into your life helping people with their resumes! (Thanks for linking up with #findingthefunny!) Once again, you were one of the most clicked links at last week’s #findingthefunny. We’re featuring you tomorrow! #128578;
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