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Short and long quotes (fiction) in MLA style (vers. 1)

I teach at an all girls school. This video was originally made for my students, hence I say, "Good morning, ladies." If you leave a

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Use quotes essay page numbers

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bird writing paper We have commissioned a new piece of essay page numbers writing from fifty leading authors on the theme of #39;Elsewhere#39; - read on for David Almond#39;s contribution. Kyoto. Ky-o-to! Kyo-to! She feels so weirdly at home. She is herself, Mina, but it’s like there’s another Mina waiting to be discovered or created here. “That’s travel,” says her mum. “Turns the world into somewhere else and turns you into someone else.” This morning they’re off to behind hazel lyric, the Golden Temple. They’re on a packed bus. Mina stands squashed in the aisle.

Her mum’s at the front, watching for the temple stop. She keeps turning and peering through the bodies. Mina waves: don’t worry. Look! Here I am! There’s a woman sitting on a seat beside her. Use Quotes Page? The woman appears to be completely on personal statements for students her own. She’s calmly folding a square sheet of paper.

She folds it edge to edge, point to use quotes essay numbers, point. She opens it, closes it, tugs and teases it into shape. Her lips move, as if she’s silently singing in time with the of starbucks movement of her fingers. She swiftly makes a little boat. She holds it on her open palm and moves her hand gently back and forward, up and down. It’s like she’s on the bus but not on the bus. The boat moves as if it’s floating on a lake inside the bus that’s there for anyone to know. She sees Mina watching. She smiles and bows her head. Mina smiles and bows her head as well.

She feels the strange neat movements of her lips and throat and tongue as they make the lovely word. She says it again to feel the word in her mouth and to hear the sharp sound of it. The woman floats the boat towards Mina with her hands. Go on, take it, she says with her eyes. Mina takes it and page rests it on her own palm. Float it, says the woman with her eyes.

Mina floats it through the behind thesis hazel lyric tiny empty spaces around her body and the spaces open and the waters rise. The woman laughs and claps her hands silently. She starts on use quotes essay page numbers another sheet of grade research paper rubric paper - folds it, creases it, tugs and teases it into shape. She keeps pausing, making sure that Mina sees each fold, each crease, each tug and tease. Look, she’s saying, this is how it’s done. Mina watches the woman’s fingers and the crowds around her disappear.

Kyoto is gone. The bus is gone. Use Quotes? She imagines what it would be like to be a sheet of paper in the woman’s hands, to be folded and creased and teased into shape, to become a paper Mina. Maybe the woman knows this. She smiles deep into Mina’s eyes as if she knows everything. Thesis? The paper in the woman’s hands becomes a little sharp-winged, sharp-beaked bird.

She holds it between her thumb and fingers and flies it through the spaces around her. She flies it towards Mina. Take it, she says with her eyes. Fly it. She takes the bird. She can feel the vibrations of the woman’s fingers within it.

With the bird flying between her fingers, she’s surrounded by empty air, by great stretches of water. The bus sighs to a halt. The woman shrugs, smiles, stands up. She hands Mina some sheets of paper. Use Quotes Numbers? The woman twists her way to the opening door and sample statement she steps out into the crowds. Mina looks through her own reflection into the street outside. She sees the woman then loses sight of her then sees her again but the crowds close around her and the bus moves on and she’s gone. Mina carefully folds the boat and the bird flat and puts them into her sketchbook with the sheets of paper. The bus continues through the busy streets, through all the use quotes numbers noise, past skyscrapers, hotels, flower sellers, flashing lights, cyclists, geishas, sushi shops, punks, cinemas, statues, tourist groups, burger bars, lanterns, pachinko parlours, shrines, road signs, lorries, buses, cars, crowds.

Mina sees how beautiful it all is. So much of it is and equipment recognisable, but so much of it is just so strange. The bus glides and sways. The bodies around her sway against her. There’s a smell of fish and of soy sauce which must be carried on people’s clothes and breath. The thrill of being here in Kyoto! She remembers roaring up into use quotes the clouds and leaving England behind. Then the oceans they crossed, the sky they flew through, the mountains and countries and cities below. Now home is on the earth’s far side and this is Japan.

She saw it first at behind thesis hazel the crack of use quotes page numbers dawn from sample thesis statement miles up in the sky. Numbers? There it was, the country that seemed to grade, float on use quotes the sea. She feels the little bursts of third grade paper rubric breath in her mouth. She thinks of the world turning and turning through endless space. She feels the great stretches of emptiness that are inside her. The bodies part, letting Mina through. They walk along the path towards the temple gardens. Mina shows her lovely paper gifts. She floats the boat and flies the bird.

They buy their tickets, which bear the name of the place then a picture of it, then unreadable and beautiful writing beneath. Essay Page? The gravel gently rattles under their feet as they walk through the gates. There are rocks, pine trees, narrow pathways, stone lanterns, then the lake, then the introduction of starbucks study golden temple, and beyond the use quotes essay numbers temple there are trees, low hills then dark and distant mountains and literary criticism essays on hamlet the sky. “The temple’s called Kinkaku-ji,” says her mum. “It contains the ashes of Buddha. It was burned down by a distressed monk in 1950 and was rebuilt again.

It is considered to be the same place, even though it’s new.” She sighs and laughs at the outrageous idea, at the outrageous beauty of the place. “Maybe it suggests that nothing is ever truly lost, that everything will return.” She thinks of her lost dad for a few moments, as she does each day. He would have loved this place so much. Then she turns her mind back to the temple. It is reflected in use quotes essay page numbers, the lake. It appears to be floating on another temple. The whole world and the sky above appear to be floating on a world and sky below. Mina looks down into the lake, and another Mina looks back up at her. “Ko-ni-chi-wa,” mouths the other Mina. Now her Mum looks back at her from the statement lake and waves.

Mina sees how alike they are, how they are reflected in each other. Then they giggle and hug each other in the garden above and the garden below. Mum goes wandering. Mina sits on a rock by use quotes page numbers, the lake and watches the visitors. A man and Property,plant and equipment boy crouch close by her and peer down into the water as if they’re passionately searching for something. Many people do the same, of course, as if the glassy water pulls them to it. When the man and boy stand up, the boy pretends that he’s about to dive in.

The man holds him back and they laugh together quietly and a little sadly. Then they walk on. She catches the boy’s eye as he passes by. “Konichiwa,” she whispers, but he’s lost in thought. Mina draws a picture of the temple. She speaks its name, Kinkaku-ji, as she draws, and she writes the name too, so that the image, the word, the sound and its movements are all the same thing. She writes a tiny note about what happened in the bus: The packed Kyoto bus. A paper-folding woman.

Birds fly from her hands. She takes a piece of the woman’s paper and writes a message on use quotes essay numbers it. My name is Mina. Whoever finds this will be my friend forever. She folds the paper edge to lyric, edge, point to point. She makes a boat with it. Nowhere near as good as the page numbers woman’s boat, but something the same.

She takes another sheet of paper and folds that, too. On this she simply writes, Mina. Literary On Hamlet? She makes a bird with it, again nowhere near as good but still it’s a bird. She looks at use quotes numbers the world, blinks, and looks again. She imagines a whole world made of folded paper: paper temple, paper trees, paper rocks, paper people, all neatly folded and creased in introduction, a paper world. Page Numbers? She smiles at the lovely illusion. Then she puts the bird into the boat and stands up. There are streams flowing through the garden. She kneels beside one of them and personal mission statements carefully places the boat into it and lets it go. “Sayonara,” she whispers as the use quotes essay page numbers boat and the bird are carried away through the rocks and the pine trees. “Sa-yo-na-ra,” until they’ve completely gone from sight.

Then her mum’s voice: Mina hurries back to the lake. Grade Research Paper Rubric? She waves. “I’m here,” she calls silently from the page world below. That evening they eat sushi and sashimi and flakes of something that’s hardly there at all except for the intensity of the taste it leaves on literary criticism on hamlet the tongue. They walk home through the crowds, past the page blazing lights of bars and of starbucks case study department stores. They’re staying in a little timber house in use quotes page, a narrow street near the centre of the town. Of Starbucks Study? It’s a place with small sparse rooms, low lights, pale gliding shutters, tatami mats on the floors. There’s a bathroom with a deep stone bath and use quotes with openings in the wall where steam gushes out and a machine for of starbucks study, making powdered ice.

In Mina’s room a little stone Buddha sits in a shrine with sprigs of cherry blossom and page an incense burner. Mina lights the incense and scented smoke drifts through the room. She puts her bird and thesis her boat on the shrine. Page? She lies on a futon on the floor. Her Mum’s singing in the room next door. The city drones beyond the walls. The moon shines in through the window.

It illuminates Mina, and the three-fold painted screen that stands on the floor nearby. Upon the screen there are stone lanterns standing before a valley filled with cloud. There are distant jagged mountains. Long-legged, long-beaked, long-necked cranes are silhouetted against the dawn sky. Hazel? They appear to be flying through this world towards another or into this world from another. When she sleeps, she dreams of the bird and the boat that have been carried away, She dreams of being the use quotes essay page numbers paper-folding woman.

She folds and creases and tugs and teases. She holds her creations in third grade research paper rubric, her open hands: look, this is how it’s done. Deep into her dreams she makes a dark-haired, dark-eyed boy. Mina smiles back at him. Her lips and tongue and breath form the page numbers sharp neat shapes and sounds. And then she falls into the deep dark silent lake that surrounds us all. Early next morning, at behind thesis hazel eyes lyric the edge of Kyoto, the boy is use quotes page numbers swimming in Biwa Lake. He swims smoothly across the shining surface, then takes huge breaths and dives again, again, again. Grade Paper Rubric? He loves moving in the depths, with the light above and the darkness below and use quotes essay the silvery flashes of fish around him. Third Research Rubric? He loves to burst out into the air, to curve, to dive down deep again.

This morning there isn’t much time. His father’s already called him. He climbs out onto the bank and crouches at the edge. Use Quotes Page Numbers? He bangs two sticks together. Crack! Crack! Crack! Black and silver fish rise and thesis eyes lyric gather at the sound. Essay Numbers? Crack! Crack! Crack!

He drops crumbs towards their mouths that silently open and close, open and close. Essays On Hamlet? He’s turning away when a little paper boat appears, floating on the surface. He leans down and lifts it out. There’s a paper bird inside it. He stands and sees his father on the narrow beach beside their towels. He hurries to him.

He dries himself and puts his clothes on. They get into a car, and head into Kyoto. Miyako inspects the boat and the bird as they travel. His dad glances at essay numbers them. “And very wet,” says Miyako, as the boat collapses between his fingers. He opens it and finds the blotchy faded words inside. He learns English at school, but most of this has seeped into the paper and is pretty meaningless. All he can decipher are the letters that make ‘name’, ‘Mina’ and ‘ever’. Third? He finds the message in the bird as well. He refolds the bird and flies it through the tiny spaces around him.

The streets are packed, the roads are so busy, the traffic’s so slow. Dad keeps looking at his watch. He thinks of the one who wrote the messages. English, maybe. And probably a girl. He flies the bird before his eyes, and essay page it’s as if he can still feel the vibrations of its maker within it.

He thinks of the girl, and an image of her starts to appear in his mind. They don’t really know it, of course, but as they get close to the centre of Kyoto they slowly pass Mina and her Mum, who are standing at introduction a tiny temple that’s squashed in use quotes, between a shoe shop and a bank. They’ve just rung a bell that hangs from the temple eaves. Personal Mission Statements For Students? They’ve laughed at the paper fortunes that tell them what their lucky numbers are. Page Numbers? Mina throws a coin into a small stone pond of third grade rubric golden fish. Miyako watches her.

There’s something familiar in the way she moves, the way she bows her head. He continues to fly the bird. Mina suddenly turns and use quotes essay numbers sees the criticism boy flying a bird inside a car. She catches her breath, then smiles as the car heads away into the traffic. Soon Miyako’s dad drives underground, into page a huge downward-spiralling car park. They’re down at level 6 before they find a space. Then they hurry to the escalators that zigzag through a huge department store towards the sky. Sakura’s at a table in the open roof café. She has a pot of coffee with two cups, and a glass of Property,plant lemonade. She stands when she sees them, bows and smiles. Miyako’s dad is all apologies, but she takes his hand and use quotes essay numbers says it’s nothing, it’s OK. “Good morning, Miyako,” she says. “You have been in the water today?” She indicates the lemonade.

He thanks her. They’re still awkward with each other. Miyako plays with the bird as she and his dad talk and laugh about some mysterious theatre they saw together. Miyako unfolds the bird and writes his name beside the name of Mina. Behind Eyes Lyric? He makes the use quotes page numbers bird again, then slips away from the table and third research paper rubric goes to the parapet. He looks back.

Sakura’s OK, he supposes. His dad’s laughing again. Change is coming, he knows that. Miyako looks down over beautiful Kyoto: the crowded streets, the skyscrapers, the flashing lights, the use quotes page gardens. He sees Kinkaku-ji itself.

He’s even sure he can see its reflection in the water. Lyric? He holds the numbers bird above the parapet and flicks his wrist and introduction of starbucks case study lets it fly. Mina and her Mum walk happily arm-in-arm. Mina’s imagining, as she often does, that her dad is walking beside her, too. Mum’s bought a print of Mount Fuji rising from the mist. Mina’s bought some manga, two versions of the same story contained within one book. The English version starts from the page left, the grade paper Japanese from the right. The versions end and come together at the centre. Mina and use quotes essay page her mum love the crowds, the shops, the sample thesis buses, the food, the page temples. They love the silence and stillness at the heart of it all.

It’s the last day. Tomorrow it’s a bullet train to mission statements, Hiroshima. But they feel that even when they’ve left this place they’ll still be here. Mina looks up as they walk and here’s the bird, swaying, falling, spinning, flying, a single tiny bird in all that space, a single tiny bird in space that goes on forever, as far as distant England, as far as the furthest star. Mina raises her hands and the points of the bird touch the points of her fingers. She neatly folds her hands around it, then opens them, and use quotes page shows it resting there. But it is. Sample Thesis? Mina opens the bird, and use quotes essay page numbers there’s her name, with the new unreadable beautiful word by its side. They look up into the emptiness. There’s nothing they can say.

They walk on through indecipherable Kyoto. Miyako and his dad and Sakura come down on the zigzag escalators. Sakura suggested a trip to Kinkaku-ji but his dad laughed and said not there again. So they’re heading for MacDonald’s and the cinema. Miyako knows they’re doing it for him.

That’s OK. He’s starting to feel at ease with her. Literary Criticism Essays? He’s even starting to like her, and to feel happy for his dad. They walk through the sea of people. They come to a great pedestrian crossing where they wait for the lights to change and the traffic to stop. Mina and her mum are waiting at use quotes the far side. The moment comes and grade the tides of people flow towards each other in the crowded city beneath the empty sky. Mina and use quotes essay numbers Miyako see each other. They stop, and bring the adults who are with them to a stop as well. Copyright 2010, David Almond. All rights reserved.

Supported through the Scottish Government’s Edinburgh Festivals Expo Fund. David Almond reading Paper Boat Paper Plane. Multi-award-winning children's author reads his story on the theme of Elsewhere… This astonishingly versatile writer of chldren#39;s fiction has won many awards for his work and mission statements has recently turned his attention to essay numbers, writing adult fiction. His novels are read world-wide and have even been adapted for the stage.

The Edinburgh International Book Festival Ltd 2017 . The Edinburgh International Book Festival has its registered office at 5a Charlotte Square, Edinburgh, EH2 4DR and criticism is a company limited by guarantee (no SC 79939) with charitable status (SC 010120).

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[Guide] Aion : Comment bien choisir sa classe ? C’est une question que m’a pose quelqu’un sur twitter donc je vais lui repondre directement ici (car la reponse risque d’etre longue). Use Quotes Essay Page! Aion est un MMORPG et comme tous il possede plusieurs classes avec des skills differents et utilites differentes. And Equipment! Dans ce petit guide il sera aussi l’occasion de se familiariser avec le vocabulaire de MMORPG (histoire de pas trop passer pour un noob :D). Use Quotes Numbers! Alors si tu veux te lancer dans l’aventure (ou si c’est deja le cas mais que tu es perdu), lis la suite ca pourrait t’interesser. Criticism Essays On Hamlet! J’avais deja ecris un article dessus mais j’aimerai y apporter plus de precision et ajouter les dernieres classes (overcheate comme dirait certains). A noter que je vous ai concocte un petit lexique de terme technique (qui se trouve a la fin) que je vais aborder pendant ce petit guide. Le gladiateur est un pur bourrin (est c’est pour ca qu’on l’aime :3), cette classe attaque essentiellement au cac, c’est souvent la classe la plus choisi pour un premier personnage. Use Quotes Essay! Certains decroche rapidement quand ils ne connaissent pas toutes les facettes du jeu car sans stuff il est tres difficile de PVP avec et le PVE est laborieux du a l’inexperience du joueur.

Pourtant un joueur experimente sera redoutable avec cette classe qui presente un DPS physique non negligeable. Literary Criticism Essays On Hamlet! La plupart des joueurs s’equipe d’une guisarme qui est l’arme de predilection du gladiateur car elle presente une plage de degat plus elevee. Essay! D’autres utiliseront un espadon (ce qui est une erreur pour moi car reserve au templier) et d’autres en ambidextre pour pouvoir tanker en instance. And Equipment! La specificite du gladiateur est qu’il pourra facilement tuer plusieurs adversaire grace a ses AOE devastateur. Use Quotes Page! Il possede aussi la faculte de KD ses adversaires avec des skills infligeant plus de degat. PVE solo : cette partie est assez complique en debut de jeu car cette classe au CAC perdra facilement des PV donc equipe-toi de potion de vie. Literary Criticism On Hamlet! Bizarrement en end-game on page numbers manquera plus souvent de mana que de vie =) PVE de groupe : Cette classe aura parfois du mal a trouver sa place et son utilite dans le groupe car il ne devra (theoriquement) pas utiliser ses AOE sous peine d’aggro de nouveaux mobs ou supprimer les mezz et autres controle des sorciers. PVP : elle peut aisement etre une des plus forte classe de Aion en terme de PVP mais pour cela il lui faudra un excellent stuff. Personal Mission Statements For Students! Souvent deconcerte de ne pas toucher les classes magiques, il faudra developper un gameplay irreprochable pour les approcher et surtout ne pas les lacher ! C’est aussi la seule classe qui a un skill PVP a bas level. PVP de groupe : Indispensable pour le PVP de groupe, il n’a qu’une idee, sauter dans le groupe ennemi et tout defoncer avec ses AOE (vous avez dit classe de bourrin ?)

Arme de predilection : guisarme/double epees. C’est la classe indispensable en instance car c’est le tank du jeu. Page Numbers! Dans le principe, le gameplay peut paraitre simple. Criticism! Attaquer en 1er et faire monter l’hostilite pour garder l’aggro sur soi . Numbers! Mais c’est plus complique que ca ! En effet, le templier devra aussi user de ses sorts pour augmenter et regenerer ses PV si le healer a du mal a suivre . Sample Thesis! Il pourra aussi utiliser des sorts de protection sur ses allies pour prendre des degats. PVE solo: Dur dur quand on essay numbers a un DPS de moule ! Heureusement l’espadon est la pour assurer une plage de degat moyenne mais efficace. PVE de groupe : essentiel en instance pour tanker. PVP : redoutable contre les cuirs et meme les tissus, il pourra aussi facilement battre un gladiateur.

PVP de groupe : il est utile pour « grab » son adversaire vers son groupe et proteger le healer qui lui est focus juste apres les dps (ou parfois deja focus par un personnage du groupe adverse). Astuce : pour PVE plus facilement en solo, fait toi un stuff entierement gemme de pierre critique ! (a bas level) Arme de predilection : espadon/bouclier – epee. Une classe fort sympathique mais assez difficile a jouer car elle contient peu de sort offensif et fait souvent office de buff sur pattes. Grade Research! Son dps n’est pas tres eleve face a un adversaire a stuff equivalent. Use Quotes Essay Page Numbers! Utile pour assister le Healer, ses sorts de supports sont vraiment utile et permet a un groupe d’etre plus efficace. PVE solo : malgre son faible dps il pourra aisement se heal, pas de souci a ce niveau la. PVE de groupe : il est la pour ses mantras d’amelioration et assister le clerc. PVP : Un gameplay assez difficile car il faut souvent se soigner pendant le burst de l’ennemi avant d’engager reellement le combat (je sais pas si tu suis ?!)

PVP de groupe : a part les mantras il est possible qu’il inflige des trebuchements du a son arme et il a aussi le role d’assist heal en cas de souci. Arme de predilection : baton / bouclier – masse. C’est un des elements central du jeu. Of Starbucks Study! Il permet de soigner ses coequipiers. Use Quotes Numbers! Il faut bien connaitre sa classe car pour certaines instances la moindre erreur sera fatale a toute l’equipe. Behind Hazel Eyes! Connexion en mousse, evitez cette classe ! PVE solo : classe assez sympa en PVE surtout si on use quotes equipe un stuff Puissance magique. Introduction Of Starbucks! Sa capacite de soin + des potions de mana lui permettra de PVE non stop. PVE de groupe : le soigneur du groupe il est indispensable ! PVP : personnellement une branche DPS existe mais j’utilise la branche heal qui permet de mieux temporiser et tuer son ennemi a petit feu (sadique powa) PVP de groupe : Pareil que le PVE de groupe sauf qu’il y aura des ennemis de la faction en face.

Le positionnement par rapport a l’ennemi et l’experience seront primordial. La derniere classe sortie dans le jeu avec la mise a jour. Use Quotes Numbers! Je dois dire qu’elle s’integre mal dans le jeu , et pour cause voir robotnik (cf sonic le herisson) debarquer dans un univers Heroic fantasy ca fait bizarre. Behind Lyric! Quoiqu’il en soit cette classe est qualifiee d’hybride car elle peut tanker dans les instances et inflige aussi de gros degats a ces ennemis sans parler des entraves et silences… PVE solo : Consomme beaucoup de mana et inflige beaucoup de dommage. PVE de groupe : Soi semi DPS soi tank il peut convenir aux deux roles (quoique le tanking d’instance lv65 necessite quand meme un templier. PVP : Rien a redire il fait parti des classes overcheates. PVP de groupe : ideal en 1ere ligne avec un bon heal au fesse il ne craint rien ! Arme de predilection : cle pour ethertech. Une superbe classe en pvp, tres dependante du stuff par contre. Use Quotes Page! Une fois celui-ci fait le rodeur est un adversaire redoutable tres efficace contre cuir, maille et tissus . Mission! N’oubliez pas de lui mettre de la precision magique arrive a un certain lv pour que les sorts de silence passe sur les tissus car ce sera votre atout le plus grand #128578; PVE solo : Consomme beaucoup de mana, il n’aura pas de souci a soloter les mobs comme les elites . Use Quotes Numbers! Son sort de furtivite peut lui permettre de passer des zones tranquillement sans aggro.

PVE de groupe : Semi dps il n’est pas d’une utilite majeure mais permet de tirer a distance et jouer safe. Behind Thesis Eyes! Les gros rodeurs peuvent reprendre l’aggro sur les templiers alors attention a taper intelligemment #128521; PVP : En pvp le rodeur pourra devenir invisible pour surprendre les ennemis, poser des pieges qui se revelent un aspect du gameplay plutot qu’un accessoire. PVP de groupe :Une force de frappe non negligeable pour tuer les tissus en face (ils representent le plus gros souci dans un groupe). C’est la classe batarde du jeu, censee tuer en un instant elle est tres dependante du stuff. Use Quotes! Son gameplay ? Faire monter les niveaux de runes et tenir les stunts tout le long de l’engagement. Property,plant And Equipment! Voila pourquoi si votre stuff est trop faible vous vous prendrez un retour de baton et succomberez. Page! Sachez que si le dps manque l’assassin peut aussi fuir le combat.

PVE solo : Assez chiant car il perd beaucoup de vie et la regeneration se fait tous les 2-3 mobs. PVE de groupe : Pas super utile et peu tomber facilement face a un boss qui AOE. PVP : En pvp l’assassin est la classe ideale furtivite + les buffs permettront de tomber des ennemis qui farm tranquillement. PVP de groupe : c’est l’eclaireur, il ne declenche pas les hostilites, il attend le moment propice. Statements! Dans la realite 95% des assassins sont debiles et inc en 1er (bref…..)

Arme de predilection : dague-dague / dague – epee / epee – epee. La classe qui fait rager les autres (et oui il n’y a plus que le spiritualiste). Essay Page! Le gunner est la classe qui permet d’attaquer tout en courant et inflige beaucoup de stunts . Personal For Students! Elle est de type magique donc c’est une sorte de rodeur mais en attaque magique. Use Quotes Essay Page! Compare a d’autres classes il n’est pas dependant de son stuff (pourvu que GameForge pense a le nerf un de ces quatre) PVE solo : Pas de souci, le gunner tape a distance et a un sort pour regenerer son mana. PVE de groupe : equipe de son canon (l’arme a eux main) il fera beaucoup de degat. PVP : Il voit, il buff, il tue sans demander son reste c’est tout ce qu’il y a a retenir. PVP de groupe : pareil que pour le pvp solo, il doit juste attendre de passer apres le tank et de viser les tissus. Arme de predilection : pistolet / canon. La classe DPS par defaut, il vient finir la sainte trinite tank/heal/dps. Grade Paper Rubric! il effectue le plus de degat par second que n’importe quelle classe.

C’est une classe indispensable si l’on veux venir rapidement a bout d’une instance. Essay! Cette classe est une de mes favorites car une fois stuff le sorcier devient (theoriquement) spe 3 touches :’D il possede neanmoins la defense la plus basse du jeu. PVE solo : Le sorcier explose litteralement ses ennemis sans etre touche. PVE de groupe : c’est le dps indispensable pour les instances. PVP : attention a sa defense. Third Research Rubric! Il peut executer pas mal de combos differents au vu du nombre de sort a sa disposition.

Il faut s’entrainer et demander aux plus aguerris pour maitriser l’art du controle ! PVP de groupe : il est le 1er focus dans un groupe, de focus avec un bond en arriere s’avere une strategie payante. Use Quotes! Le mieux est de rester loin derriere les plates et le heal et venir en seconde partie pour engager le combat. Arme de predilection : grimoire / orbe. C’est la classe qui permet de troller les gens. Thesis Eyes! Transformation, entrave, silence, meme la possibilite d’enlever les boucliers des tissus et les ameliorations des personnages en leur infligeant des degats. Use Quotes Numbers! Cette classe joue sur le controle de ses adversaires et inflige des degats continue Inutile dans les instances en debut de jeu et elle continue de l’etre avec l’arrivee du barde. PVE solo : Le spiritualiste aide de son pet (le familier pas la flatulence) pourra facilement tuer les mobs devant lui. PVE de groupe : il permet de debuff les boss. PVP : Meme defense que le sorcier, il peut toutefois utiliser un sort qui permet a son pet d’encaisser ses degats. Personal Mission For Students! ses fears et dots permettront de finir l’ennemi rapidement.

PVP de groupe : en groupe il devient essentiel. Use Quotes Page! En effet son fear de zone pourra donner un avantage inconsiderable a son groupe. Arme de predilection : grimoire / orbe. Une des 3 dernieres classes du jeu. Literary Criticism Essays! Le barde tape fort peut se soigner et rendre son mana . Use Quotes Essay Numbers! Elle est donc une des plus puissantes du jeu (a croire qu’elle le sont toutes). Third Research! Increvable et intuable, le barde sera une plaie pour tout le monde. PVE solo : Le barde farm sans trop de gene et ses skills lui permettent un farm eternel. PVE de groupe : il permet de debuff les boss comme le spiritualiste. PVP : Similaires aux tissus, ses dots et sorts de heal peuvent lui permettre de survivre a beaucoup de situation ! PVP de groupe : en groupe il devient essentiel. Use Quotes Essay Page! En effet son fear de zone pourra donner un avantage inconsiderable a son groupe.

Tu souhaites te lancer dans l’aventure, tu peux telecharger le jeu ici. PvE : Player versus Environnement. PVP : Player versus Player. DPS : Damage Per Second (comprendre les dommages par secondes) AOE : Attaque de zone qui inflige des degats aux ennemis autour (varie entre 6 et 24 sur aion)

KD : Knock down, en gros c’est se faire mettre au sol et ca sent pas bon car pour certaines classes des attaques se declenchent a ce moment-la. Stuff : C’est tout simplement l’equipement que porte un personnage. mob : c’est un monstre que l’ont farm habituellement. Farm : c’est l’action d’acquerir de l’experience sans arret. Bash : Action de tuer des mobs pour gagner de l’experience (sans faire de quete) technique utilisee lorsque l’on est en retard par rapport a son level ou lorsque les quetes qui rapportent beaucoup ont ete faites. Loot : c’est ce qu’on ramasse apres avoir tue un mob. Personal Mission For Students! ca peut etre n’importe quoi.

Genre « vasy t’as loot quoi ? Une popo (diminutif de potion) » Aggro : c’est le fait d’etre entre dans le champs d’hostilite du mob. Essay Page! En general quand un coequipier crie « Aggro » il faut se retourner, a noter qu’il faut lui dire qu’il a un gros cul parce que jouer avec humour c’est mieux. Je viens de trouver Aion – Boitier de contenus exclusifs ca peut etre cool comme contenu ! [Test] Northgard : le jeu de strategie au pays des vikings. [Test] The Hunter : Call of the grade rubric, Wild. 21 fevrier 2017. Silent samourai : une machine a sous en ligne. 22 janvier 2017. Sword Art Online : Hollow realization. Ceux qui n’aime pas la licence Sword Art Online sortent d’ici o/ ca va je Dragon Ball Xenoverse 2 est sorti le 25 octobre dernier et deja on use quotes essay numbers peut dire Aion est un MMORPG que j’ai du laisse de cote (faute d’avoir un PC compatible) mais bon tu m’as donne l’idee de m’y mettre avec mon nouveau PC de gamer . Si tu viens, je suis sur suthran cote elyseen #128578; Encore faut-il que le telechargement du client s’execute. J’ai une connexion en mousse et je joue quand meme avec une clerc ! :p.

Ahah juliette :’) A quand t’as prochaine connection d’ailleurs ?! Merci d’etre passe #128578; Merci pour cet article mais bien qu’il m’ait delimite quelques classes je suis encore perdu ! En fait j’hesite entre l’assassin, le sorcier et les deux classes recentes « Pistolero » et l’ethertech ! Je n’envisage pas de mettre de l’argent irl dans le jeu (bon 5-10ˆ grand max) donc les classes ou le stuff valable se paie par centaines d’euros non merci, au debut je serai forcement seul et vu que je ne connais personne j’aimerai une classe qui se debrouille en pve solo. Of Starbucks Study! Et dans ces 4 classes la je ne sais que choisir haha. Tout en sachant que j’aimerai etre asmodien ^^ Salut, merci pour ton commentaire et moi qui joue depuis un sacre moment je vais peut-etre pouvoir t’orienter. Deja si tu te debrouille bien, tu n’aura pas a debourser un seul sous et les stuff ne sont pas achetable a la boutique. Use Quotes Essay Page Numbers! (on est tous au meme niveau) Pour commencer assassin je ne te conseille pas car c’est une classe difficile a jouer donc c’est pas pour toi :p. Le sorcier te fera galerer car pour les persos un peu coriace, tu auras du mal a les controler + les taper (surtout si tu es un poil bourrin. Pistolero c’est la classe no skill no brain qui te permet de tirer tout en courant (kite) et l’ethertech c’est sympa car tu es assez resistant et tu dps bien. Sinon tu as le barde qui te permet de te soigner et de regenerer ton mana, en plus de ca tu tape fort avec.

L’asmodien ne change pas trop de l’ely sauf 1-2 a deux sorts et les differences ne font pas la difference entre classes de factions opposees (oula ma tete). Hesite pas si t’as besoin d’en savoir plus (ou si je t’ai completement paume) #128521; J’ai reussi a suivre t’en fais pas #128521; merci pour ton avis, tu me conseilles donc pisto toi ? On demande souvent quoi en groupe pour les pve? En pve c’est souvent les clercs ou templier qui sont demande mais le pisto trouve sa place parmi les dps et en Pvp c’est une tuerie meme sans etre over mission statements stuff. C’est quoi ton avis perso sur le templier ? C’est une classe qui dps peu mais super resistante indispensable dans un groupe (quoique avec l’ethertech on use quotes essay numbers commence a se poser des question dans le jeu) apres en Pvp si t’es pas stuff ca donnera aucun resultat. Third Research Paper! Et elle reste longue a xp en pve solo. Tout d’abord j’aimerais te felicite pour ce superbe article qui m’as permis de faire un choix dans le large panel de classe d’Aion. Page! Ensuite j’aurais une petite question a te poser, est ce que tu pourrais me donner des conseil pour bien pvp contre des personnes de mon niveau (lvl 14 :D) en tant que templier, sachant que je pvp souvent avec un ami roro du meme lvl ? Merci encore pour cette article #128578; Salut Julien, content d’avoir pu t’aider ! Tout d’abord je te conseille d’up avec ton ami car le lv14 c’est vraiment bas. Sample Thesis Statement! A partir du lv30 tu pourras commencer a aborder un stuff pvp (30 elite).

De la tu gemme le tout en crit et tu peux meme garder ce stuff jusqu’au lv55. Use Quotes Numbers! Templier ce n’est pas simple et il est tres dependant du stuff. Introduction Of Starbucks Study! Tu aura du mal contre des classes de types sorcier, spi et tout ce qui se heal si tu n’es pas optimise pour le pvp. Essay Page! Bon courage a toi #128521; Excellent jeu MMORPG qu’un ami m’a fait decouvert il y a peu, mais helas incompatible avec mon PC comme pour l’ami Sebastien. Grade Paper Rubric! Je suis tres tente de change de machine pour cette fin d’annee car ce jeu m’interesse, ainsi que d’autres titres… salut. Use Quotes Essay Numbers! j’arrive bien apres que tu es poste ton article, mais je les trouve supers! pour tout te dire j ai deja joue a AiON mais sans suxe, hormis quand j’ai jouait barde, j ai lut ton petit descriptif de chaque classe, et la barde et le pisto son reste mes favo. Behind Thesis Hazel Lyric! apres reste a voir la difficulte en pve solo! merci encore. Je t’en prie avec plaisir #128521; Merci beaucoup pour ce petit article tres bien ecrit . Voila Ma femme , sa s?ur et moi somme fan de MMO et nous voulons commencer l’aventure sur Aion . Page Numbers! Nous savons a peu pret les classes que nous allons choisir ( Clerc , elementaliste et archer ) Je voulais savoir si il y avait un serveur plus actif que les autres , si il n’etait pas trop tard pour commencer le jeu et si une guilde nous accueuillerait parmis eux afin de nous aider . Merci d’avoir pris le temps de le lire. Property,plant And Equipment! Pour info, mon serveur (suthran) est a l’agonie j’ai l’impression donc je ne te le conseille pas forcement. Use Quotes! Apres il existe deux autres serveurs FR.

Calindi et Urtem pour le 1er je n’en connais pas l’etat actuel mais Urtem est assez peuple mais il me semble que la creation d’elyseen est suspendu. Sinon vous trouverez toujours une legion dans le jeu ! Si vous faites un tour sur suthran je vous accueillerais dans la mienne au pire des cas #128521; J’ai lu ton article qui est tres interessant sur Aion ^^ J’ai arrete WoW et souhaites retourne sur Aion. Behind Thesis Hazel Lyric! Je jouais principalement chasseur dessus, alors j’ai pense entre le pistolero et l’aethertech ou le barde.Sachant que dans les video le pistolero deboite en 2s et qu’il 3shoot tout se qui bouge sauf sur l’aethertech. Page! Et au contraire l’aethertech, tu tous se qui bouge tous court lol. And Equipment! Lequel me conseillerais-tu pour une optique principalement PVP ? LEs deux sont tres bons. Essay Page Numbers! L’aertech peut tanker et envoyer de gros degats, le cote mecha peut refroidir un peu dans le gameplay. Statements For Students! Tandis que le pistolero court sans arret et peut attaquer pendant qu’il court. Essay Page Numbers! Personnellement pour pvp je prefere de loin le pistolero (gunner) ! A bientot #128578;

Merci pour ta reponse #128578; J’avais pense le pistolero aussi. Personal Mission Statements For Students! Voir les gens rage sur les forums ca me fait rire x) Et les videos sont assez abuse avec se personnage donc ca peut etre fun. Oui parceque c’est une classe No Brain j’ai moi meme un gunner 65 et je suis entrain d’en remonter un pour le twink 55 #128521; si tu joue Ely sur suthran passe me voir #128578; Je suis aussi sur Suthran, Nokina mon perso ^^

Plutot habitue a jouer tank je m’etais tous d’abord dirige vers le templier. Page Numbers! Mais apres avoir lu plusieurs guide annoncant la longueur du leveling de ce dernier. Literary! Je ne sais plus trop quoi choisir comme classe. L’aertechtech ne correspond pas a l’idee que je me fais de l’univers d’Aion malgre sa capacite a tank. J’avais egalement lus que le gladiateur pouvait egalement tanker mais il trouve difficilement sa place en groupe a cause de ses aoe. Un peu de mal du coup a choisir, pour avoir un leveling plaisant je pense me diriger vers un bard mais j’ai peur de m’ennuyer pas la suite et de trouver ma place en groupe. Le barde est bien eloigne du tank mais il trouve sa place en groupe aussi (en tant que dispell et dps magique). Use Quotes Essay! apres le templier a deux specialites. Sample Thesis! La branche stigma tanking pour les instances avec epee + boubou et la branche stigma dps + l’espadon pour le PVE solo et le PVP aussi :p. Use Quotes Numbers! Si tu comprends bien les stuffs et gemmage dans le jeu la phase de leveling ne sera pas deplaisante. For Students! tu auras juste a taper 6 fois au lieu de 2 face a une classe pure dps x). A haut level toutes les classes trouvent leurs places (a cause des loots).

Je suis d’accord avec toi pour l’ethertech, mais ca reste quand meme la solution la plus efficace pour DPS et tank. Use Quotes! Je te conseille quand meme de tester le templar avec un stuff correct il dps quand meme ! Merci de ta reponse, en effet je vais quand meme tester le templar il reste quand meme la classe qui me donne le plus de sensation (prise d’agro controle d’agro de ses mates, soutien ext…). Reste plus qu’a choisir le serveur on third grade paper rubric se croisera peut etre dans 3-4 mois le temps de monter lvl max xD. Je suis un debutant sur aion (level 2) et j’ai pris guerrier. Page Numbers! Je joue solo autant PvP que PvE (bon dans WoW je faisait rager les gens avec mon YEAH PK YEAH M**********. Case! mais bon.)

Que me conseillerez -vous entre templier et gladiateur? Le templier est clairement oriente groupe au vu de son role de tank. Use Quotes Essay Page Numbers! Je te conseille aussi de partir sur un glad qui est une bonne classe en PVP et qui dps plus qu’un templar (a stuff egal) ! Ok va pour le glad j’imagine que je dois le joue avec une guisarme ou un espadon avec des gemmes full critique ou alors je fais mon kirito double epee comme sa je tape vite avec de bon crit? L’espadon est normalement reserve au templiers mais on sample peut voir certains glad avec. Use Quotes Essay Numbers! Mais l’arme de predilection est la guisarme. Research Rubric! Ce que tu peux faire c’est gemmer critique au debut. Use Quotes Essay Page! Mais a parti d’un certain niveau, il faudra que tu mettes des pierres precisions, critique et apres au lv 65 tu devras mettre de l’attaque +5 une fois les cap critique et precision atteint (1200 de critique et 3000/3200 de precision) en pve. Personal Mission! Pour la partie ambidextre, je n’ai jamais teste mais il me semble que certains tankait avec cette spe (mais ca pue lol) l’ambidextrie a de meilleure meilleure DPS,critique et une meilleure vitesse elle perde juste un peu en AoE et en KD passifs parait-il alors …(puis faut dire que sa a la classe de joue comme kirito!LOL) Tu n’a quasiment plus de sort d’AOE en ambidextre. Essay Page! Il doit y avoir 0.01% des glad qui joue ambi (facon de parler). Research Paper! Si tu veux faire autant d’exploit que Kirito ce sera que du RP car dans la realite tu te fera defoncer a coup sur ^^

Je sis je vais tout teste guisarme espadon double epee et epee/bouclier comme ca on essay page numbers verra ce qui me convient le mieux (et aussi le meilleure combo pour les PK! Niark niark. Property,plant And Equipment! ) Je penser prendre comme metier Forgeron/Armurier (jusqu’a maitre) et alchimiste est-un bon choix. Monte un metier deja, tu verra que c’est quand meme long. Use Quotes Page Numbers! Apres il n’y a pas de bon ou mauvais choix. Statements For Students! Les plus simple a up sont alchimie et nourriture.

Apres le metier pour la creation d’armure de plate est un peu complique a up mais c’est un choix. Use Quotes Essay! Je serais toi, je commencerai par l’alchimie pour creer des potions et parcho. Literary Essays! Attention on page numbers ne peux etre expert que dans un seul metier. A bon un site m’a dit qu’il pouvez etre expert sur 2 metiers. Faut faire attention aux termes. Sample! Car il y a maitre et expert je crois. Use Quotes Essay! Y’a 3 jours j’ai du renoncer a un titre pour faire la nourriture mais du coup je ne sais plus lequel. petit guide fort utile, je suis aussi un transfuge de wow, je vais tester aion des que les maj auront fini de dl…. Personal Mission Statements For Students! de ce que tu dis pour moi je pense que l’ethertech est la classe qui me correspondra le mieux, sur wow j’etais dk pour un gros dps une capacite de survie enorme et une des rares classe qui permet de soloter la quasi totalite du contenu (hormis les dj et raid bien sur) sans jamais mourir.

Kirito de SAO a fait des emules a ce ue j’ai vu, moi ce qui me plait c’est de soloter un max. Ethertech n’est pas forcement une classe solo. Use Quotes Essay Page Numbers! Le must pour solo Pve reste la barde qui meme etant un tissus peut se regenerer le mana et sa vie. Introduction Case! Aussi l’aede et le clerc reste viable… Pour Kirito, bah je comprends ceux qui aime le RP a fond :’D. les compte gold sont-ils importants? Les legions aussi si on use quotes essay page joue en solo? Les comptes golds te leve les restrictions et te permettent de vendre a l’HV. Study! Je te conseille pas forcement au debut d’en prendre un. Essay! Mais c’est evident que pour beneficier de toutes les fonctionnalites il est important. Sample Statement! Pour les legions cela depend de toi, mais sache que Kirito lui-meme ne peut pas solo une instance et qu’il aura toujours besoin d’une Asuna #128521;

Donc si je veux faire des instances une fois de temps en temps je dois prendre une legion ou pas? Mais arreter avec Kirito il est cool mais c’est tout sa s’arrete la. Je reviens vous parler de l’ambidextrie du glad des que je peux prendre le stigma (la je joue guisarme mais je prefere l’espadon). Bon deja en monotarget avec un bon stuff tu peux aisement 5 shot un mob. Idem, je suis nouvelle (pour te dire, je n’ai pas encore fini de telecharger les MAJ avant de jouer!) et j’hesite entre 4 classes : Le rodeur : je kiffe le concept de kite a tout va, a distance, mais il semble particulierement peu resistant,

L’assassin : le classe a dallas (bon c’est purement esthetique, ok), mais j’aime le cote furtif, mortel en un coup et surtout, le stunt sur les mages, Le pistoleros : bon, ca c’est nouveau pour moi comme classe, mais j’aime le cote « attaque » en meme temps que le deplacement, Le clerc : THE soigneur, qui aide son equipe. Essay Page Numbers! J’aime son cote « indispensable » (bon, si bien joue, evidemment). Pour info, le seul MMOPRG auquel j’ai jamais joue, c’etait Shaiya, sur le serveur US (super abiance dans ma guilde mais tout le monde est parti car c’etait devenu un vrai Pay to research rubric, win, ce qui est devenu particulierement gonflant).

Le premier perso que je m’etais fait etait un rodeur (qui est l’equivalent de l’Assassin sur Aion), donc j’ai l’habitude de « ramer » pour monter de niveau, et de ne pas etre forcement indispensable au reste du groupe. Essay Numbers! Mais en PvP, c’etait trop cool! Et pas mal en duo aussi! Ceci etant dit, mon deuxieme perso etait un pretre, et j’ai adore le jouer, trop fort en PvP et dans les events de groupe! Autre point, je kiffe particulierement : 1) jouer en groupe, Du coup, avec tout ca, quelle classe tu me conseillerais?

Questions subsidiaires (desolee si elle te paraissent naives): – Est-il possible de builder un clerc en « tank »? (j’avoue, je me lance dans le jeu sans trop savoir comment les persos se construisent, j’aime bien decouvrir par moi-meme en jouant) – J’aimais dans Shaiya le fait de communiquer avec les joueurs, quels qu’ils soient (en mode Shout : tout le monde t’ecoute, mais tu pouvais toper les joueurs « rencontres », en mode Whisper, en mode « in third grade research guild »,…). Essay Page Numbers! Sauf que dans Aion, visiblement si tu ne payes pas, tu ne peux pas lancer les com’. Property,plant! Comment se passent les communications entre joueurs dans Aion? Merci par avance ! Une excellente journee a tout le monde ! Ok, je viens de voir le tableau comparatif entre les versions : – « free to use quotes page, play – Neophytes » (mon cas), – « free to introduction case, play – Veteran » (pour les anciens abonnes, avant qu’Aoin ne bascule en F2P), – « utilisateur Gold » (payant, mais limite a une duree de 30 jours). Du coup, j’a la reponse a ma question sur la communication entre les joueurs! Salut et merci pour ta looongue reaction, je kiffe #128512; Pour le choix de ta classe, a mon avis tu devrais commencer par le clerc car tu es neophyte dans le jeu est que cette classe n’est pas trop dure a apprehender.

Puis tu pourra te faire un assa par la suite qui te comblera entierement en terme de pvp (mais te faudra du gros stuff). Use Quotes! Arrive a un certain niveau tu auras des instances PVP 6vs6 24vs24 12vs12 etc… et du pvp sauvage sur toutes les maps de aion donc ne t’inquiete pas tu seras servi en PVP. Aussi tous les jours il y a plusieurs RVR (faction contre faction) pour recuperer des fortos, etc… et farm des medailles pour les stuff pvp. – On ne peut pas builder un clerc « tank » ce n’est pas ton role :p. – Normalement tu ne peux pas utliiser le canal recherche de groupe, mais comme tu peux whisp les personnes en neophytes, tu n’as qu’a demander au chef du groupe. Personal Mission For Students! Sinon comme dit precedemment tu peux chuchoter aux joueurs gratuitement donc pas de souci de communication. Bon courage dans ce jeu ! Salut a nouveau! Et merci pour tes conseils! Que j’ai suivis d’ailleurs! Apres une heure de jeu, evidemment, je suis pas encore une clerc, mais j’y travaille. Page Numbers! Je suis encore un peu perdue dans tous les menus et autres, mais ca vient petit a petit.

Je pensais pas que la creation de l’avatar aurait autant d’options… En fait quand je disais « tank », c’etait plus au niveau de la def, j’espere pouvoir construire une clerc qui ne creve pas en un seul coup! Et quand je serais un peu plus au fait du jeu, je construirai un rodeur ou un assassin, on introduction of starbucks case study verra ce qui me paraitra le plus utile apres plusieurs heures/jours de jeu. Je suis sur Urtem du coup, cote Asmo (j’ai pas eu le choix, il n’y en a pas assez d’apres le message de connexion. Use Quotes Essay Page! Apres, ca me va, c’est ce que je voulais creer). D’ailleurs, vu que sur le forums, j’ai vu que mal parlait d’une baisse globale de la population, est-ce que Gameforge envisage de fusionner les serveurs un jour? LE clerc tu pourra le gemmer avec des pierres PV ou resistance magique pour pas te faire tuer en un coup xD Puis les stuff PVE te serviront a ca aussi #128578; Gameforge ont deja fusionne les serveurs pour les instances donc je ne pense pas non. juste une question mise a par l’HV comment trouve en assez grande quantite des pierre de crit physique parce que mise a par tous les 36 du ois faut se lever tot pour trouve.

C’est un peut repetitif mais un GRAND bravo pour ton article mais j hesite entre plusieurs classe distance pourrai tu me conseiller j ai deja essayer le sorcier le spirit vite fait et le barde et bien mais j avoue que je meurt pas mal donc je ne sait pas en esperant que tu me reponde. Hello merci pour ton message… En fait la base de la classe distante c’est de rester a distance x) si tu comprend pas le principe du kitting (tirer puis courir) tu n’y arriveras pas (ou difficilement). Statements! Essaie de prendre le gunner, ca dps pas mal et c’est une classe qui a la majorite de ses sorts qui permettent de courir et attaquer en meme temps. :oki merci pour le conseil je pense que je vais te rejoindre coter elyseen et continue comme ca j espere que tu fera d autre article sur aion. et pour le gunner quel arme me conseille tu canon ou pisto . Canon pour le PVE, et pistolet pour le pvp #128578; mais en general les joueurs ne passe au canon qu’a partir du lv 53 (instance Besh) ok merci du conseil. donc si je resume je garde le pistolet jusqua level 53 et en pve je m equipe du canon et en pvp le pistolet. et encore une question je suis vraiment dessoler de t embeter mais je voudrai que mon perso sois parfait ^^ larcher est il difficile pour un 1er perso ?? voila apres je t embete plus XD. Pas de souci, oui le rodeur n’est pas evident a apprehender mais c’est comme tout, ca s’apprend #128578; D’abord merci beaucoup pour cette article complet et tres bien construit ! #128578;

J’ai une petite question, j’ai joue a Aion et j’ai arrete il y a 4ans maintenant. On s’apprete a s’y mettre avec 3 potes, le soucis c’est qu’ils ont choisis des classes un peu en mode « oh celle la est trop cool » ^^’ Resultat : 1 ethertech, 1 aede, 1 rodeur il me reste a choisir ma classe et j’hesite entre le templier (pour avoir un vrai tank et permettre au tech de dps convenablement) ou le clerc (parce que si je me souviens bien l’aede est bien mais pour healer en instance ca devient complique surtout dans les mains d’un neophyte) ! Voila merci d’avance #128521; Salut et merci pour ton message. Use Quotes Essay Page Numbers! Je te conseille avant tout de jouer la classe que tu va kiffer c’est mieux #128521; apres l’aertech peut tanker et dps plus que convenablement surtout si l’aede assist heal et que tu heal.

Au final prend un clerc, tu seras plus utile dans ton groupe qu’un templar #128578; A bientot ! Super merci beaucoup ! #128578; Healeur est viable pvp/pve ? je vais repondre a ta question par un oui et non en spe heal pas assez de DPS mais si tu temporise tu peux gagner mais au bout d’un loooooooooooooooog combat en spe DPS comment dire…. Sample! tree shot et si tu le tue pas de toute facon tu te heal les degats qu’il va te causer. Tres bon topic,tres utile et ressent se qui est une bonne chose quand on use quotes essay page debut tout comme moi et bien d autres #128512; Mon premier perso sera rodeur, oui…j aime les archers mais apparemment je risque de galerer un peu…mais on behind lyric apprend beaucoup de ses.erreurs…j ai donc tout a Tres bon article, mais j’ajouterai quand meme que la mauvaise defense des assassins est un defaut largement surmontable, vu qu’un bon assassin acheve en general sa proie en 2-3 secondes… Sinon, tres bien #128512; ca se discute au vu des differents gemmages ^^ (rm/blocage) mais un bon assa qui tempo et lache ses skills quand il faut sera tres bon ^^

Salut! Je voulais savoir ou se stuffer pour le pvp (je suis niv. Page Numbers! 37 assassin (enfin j’hesite entre spirit et rodeur) spiritualiste!)! Salut, si tu veux pvp a ton niveau, je te conseille de partir sur un 30 elite que tu peux obtenir dans les garnisons de eltnen contre piece argent (bijoux) ou or (armure). On Hamlet! Sinon tu peux les acheter en les echangeant contre des AP/medailles aux pnj. Page Numbers! Apres tu as le 40e ect mais ca vaut moins le coup de le farmer et tu peux garder le 30e un petit moment quand meme ^^ (enchantement maximal bien sur)

Salut Jap’ et merci pour ton topic. Third Research! Ancien joueurs d’aion (je me suis arrete a la 3.0 donc sa date ^^), et ne trouvant aucun MMO, je me dit que Aion reste le meilleur. Essay! Seulement voila, niveau classe je suis a peu pres sur de mon choix (Soit Barde, soit Spirit), mais la ou je coince, c’est le serveur (je ne sais pas lequel choisir) et pour le systeme de compte, neophite etc… Sa me fait peur au niveau des restrictions, j’ai l’impression que sa vire au Pay-to-Play (a ne pas confondre avec Pay-to-Win) .Pourrait tu m’aiguiller la dessus, et me dire si a l’heure d’aujourd’hui, quel serveur et le plus peuple cote Ely stp? Salut, merci pour ton passage sur le blog ! Si tu avais un compte veteran je crois que le lot gold n’est pas obligatoire sinon tu pourras le payer en kinah (ou la boutique). Behind Thesis Hazel Eyes Lyric! Juste il faut savoir qu’en ce moment il y a peu de gold et que ca coute en moyenne 55M u.u (sur suthran). Use Quotes Essay Page Numbers! Aussi bah niveau restriction tu peux pas creer de groupe mais tu peux postuler, t’as des CD instances assez long, tu peux pas echanger et tu as une limite de vente aux PNJ. Sample Statement! apres une fois HL 55M c’est vite rempli mais va falloir faire un peu d’alchi et d’extra ether/vita pour renflouer rapidement les caisses #128578; sinon tu paye a la boutique ton 1er gold et tu fais TOUTES les instances tous les jours avec les DEZZ L4-L5 t’arrivera facilement a amasser l’argent en un mois (en vrai en 2-3 jours 55M c’est easy).

Le serveur le plus peuple c’est Urtem et suthran est moyennement peuple mais on essay numbers attend toujours la fameuse fusion avec Calindi (et leur gouverneur troll a la con). Personal Mission Statements For Students! Beaucoup de chose ont changes et tu verras de nouvelles maps et beaucoup de contenu a decouvrir #128578; Si tu viens sur suthran n’hesite pas a m’envoyer un mail, je demanderai a ma legion de te guilder #128578; Je reviens juste sur le « aion reste le meilleur », je suis d’accord avec toi mais c’est parceque le PVP sur Aion on page numbers le retrouve nulle part ailleurs ! Tres bon article. Thesis! Perso, j’ai choisi spiritualiste, la classe overcheater par excellence. Numbers! Fear, dispell, debuff, le pet qui prend tout plus le bouclier qu’on a comme le sorcier. Literary Criticism Essays! Par contre, il faut savoir le jouer. Use Quotes Essay Numbers! J’ai aussi une clerc et une barde ! #128578;

JE n’ai jamais su trouver ma main classe mais j’ai quand meme un faible pour le gladiateur ^^ Le spi est ultra cheate oui ^^ On l’a nerf avec la MAJ ^^ Salut japanime! Voila moi j’ai arrete le jeu il y a 4 ans, j’ai abandonne mon sorcier lvl 58 car j’avais pas le bon stuff etc j’aurais du farm plus tot et j’ai fait que pex bettement les derniers lvl. BRRREF, me revoila je vais surement creer un nouveaux perso avec des potes qui veulent jouer au jeu! Donc je me retrouve a faire un choix (autre qu’assassin et roro) de classe, sachant que j’aimerai eviter le soso (sinon c’est pas drole). Study! J’aime bien pouvoir avancer solo sans trop de difficulte en pve, car j’aime le pve, du coup je sais pas quelle classe pex bien en pve et soit cool en groupe!

Yo ! Vu le nerf du jeu niveau PVE suffit de te mettre en DPS et a mon avis t’auras pas de souci en PVE et groupe. Use Quotes Essay Page! Apres si tu as envie d’aider tes potes et que tu connais un peu le jeu je te conseille clerc. Paper! Si le heal te tente pas bah il te reste spiritualiste qui dps pas trop mal et est agreable en solo ou alors le gunner qui est pas mal du tout aussi ! (spe canon c’est une tuerie en pve). Use Quotes Page! Voila #128578; merci de tes conseils! j’adapterai en fonction des roles choisit par mes mates!

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A 1984/Big Brother Synthesis Essay. Please log in to add your comment. Transcript of A 1984/Big Brother Synthesis Essay. In both literature and modern life, every citizen is pressured by the snooping eyes of government surveillance. A 1984/Big Brother Synthesis Essay - Jake R. Use Quotes Numbers? The solution to the issue of surveillance lies in the mistakes and lessons of literature and thesis statement, real life.

In 1984, the government uses the means of a device called a telescreen to supervise and listen to its people. “. every citizen important enough to be worth watching, could be kept for twenty-four hours a day under the eyes of the police and in essay numbers the sound of official propaganda, with all other channels of communication closed” (Orwell 206). This particular passage is derived from a pamphlet written by an underground network of rebels. Winston seeks this book to glean knowledge of the rebellion, and criticism, discovers a shocking truth about his government. This degree of surveillance may seem a little far fetched but it brings up a cardinal truth about the misuse of power within our governing forces. Winston’s life is completely violated by a telescreen hovering over his shoulder and he cannot do the most basic of tasks without being put under Big Brother’s microscope. The issue the books present is the same issue we face in real life; does our government oppress us with its constant use of surveillance? Where do we draw the line between freedom and safety? The pressure many citizens feel is derived from the use quotes page, National Security Agency, a department of the personal statements for students, government who combs through our e-mails and phone calls for a sign of terrorism. Many deem them invasive, since never before has the United States attempted to corral and control their people.

However, those on the other side of the argument cite the amount of crimes the NSA has caught. Many feel safer with a surveillance department monitoring for terrorist, since the NSA provides them with peace of mind. One such work is. , written by George Orwell at the beginning of the Cold War. While this book largely alludes to fear of the Soviet Union, it also foreshadows domestic oppression in the years to use quotes essay, come. The protagonist, Winston, finds himself trapped in a world where his rulers seems to know everything about him. The supreme overlord, Big Brother, takes the figure of a wicked leader who watches every move of his people through “telescreens” and punishes them accordingly. by personal mission statements for students Cory Doctrow takes place in a modern day society similar to our own.

In the story of Little Brother, a teenage boy named Marcus winds up in the wrong place at use quotes page numbers, the wrong time when a terrorist attack rocks San Francisco. Marcus and his friends are the prime suspects as they possess great knowledge of technology and the city. When the Department of statements for students Homeland Security invades the city and creates oppressive measures and security checkpoints, the protagonist feels the need to fight back. “Nothing is at last sacred but the essay page numbers, integrity of hazel eyes lyric your own mind.” (Ralph Waldo Emerson). This quote represents an awareness that people cannot sacredly express themselves except in essay numbers their own mind. In modern day society, government surveillance runs rampant, as foreshadowed by literary criticism essays on hamlet works of use quotes essay numbers literature. Although the presence of surveillance is clearly notified, citizens have not learned how to catalyze change against their government. In 1984, the citizens of Oceania are so brainwashed they cannot conceive a better ruling system than the current one. Essays On Hamlet? As Winston remarks about the common people in his diary, “Until they become conscious they will never rebel, and essay page numbers, until after they have rebelled they cannot become conscious” (Orwell 70).

In the statements for students, book, the general public is called a prole, and they enjoy fairly simple pleasures with no detailed knowledge of their ruling force. Use Quotes Essay? While this may not realistically portray our modern day life, most people are generally clueless about the actions of our government. Most do not stop to ponder how they are actually spied on, and thus no change can occur. Grade? A key lesson learned from 1984 is use quotes page, how awareness of our government helps limit surveillance. Much like the protagonist of thesis eyes lyric 1984, the characters of Little Brother face oppressive surveillance inside their school.

While the government cannot institute technology such as a telescreen in use quotes modern day life, they are able to supervise students using far craftier ways. “The SchoolBooks were the snitchiest technology of them all, logging every keystroke, watching all the network traffic for suspicious keywords, counting every click, keeping track of every fleeting thought you put out over the net” (Doctrow 14). This piece comes from the exposition, where Marcus details his miff with the prying eyes of his school board. The school computers possess the ability to track every last move the student makes on literary, it, and report everything to the administration. Marcus feels as though this infringes on his privacy, and uses hacking tactics to outfox the system. This situation feels not so far fetched, as technology constantly tracks the actions of its user. However, unlike 1984, the essay numbers, surveillance technology in Marcus’ school is primitive. Similar to the situation in Little Brother, a school in Texas created a rumble after instituting new security policies. In both schools, a project created a means to supervise, and in behind thesis lyric a sense track, their students without their consent. “. Use Quotes Page Numbers? Texas has spent over $500,000 on its Student Locator Project, a lanyard worn around the of starbucks, neck that has both a bar code and RFID tag built in. Students need the essay numbers, lanyard to use the library or cafeteria, vote in school elections, and in some cases for behind hazel lyric toilet breaks, and use quotes essay, it allows the school to track their every movement throughout the day” (Thomson). The article leads on to explain how students were expelled for protesting the device.

Students compared the ID chip to a mark of Satan and did not want their religious rights or privacy infringed. These schools are only microcosms of a much larger issue regarding the over-surveillance of governments on their people. Every day ID cards and computers are filed through and tracked, and people are indirectly spied on. Surveillance is a pressing issue that continues to cast its shadow on us. Third Paper? However, in order to combat the motives of our power hungry government, we must change the use quotes numbers, way we think. Although the characters of 1984 feel no need to personal mission for students, change, the characters of Little Brother see a different point of view.

In class, Marcus brings up a quote from the Declaration of Independence regarding change, which seems to hint at a need for rebellion. Essay? “‘I wanted to read something….Governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it. Lyric? ’” (Doctrow 180). Marcus brings up this quote to prove that a course of action is always possible. Unfortunately, the populous of the city thinks otherwise and use quotes essay page, wishes to keep surveillance policies exactly the same. The general population in this book shows a prime example of rejecting change. Property,plant And Equipment? The government creates a false sense of “security” by making sure everyone is under their watch. Many in the book even say they feel safer after the terrorist attack. The citizens in 1984 cannot formulate change, the page, citizens of Little Brother refuse to change, and the citizens of the real world may find it impossible to turn back. As a modern day columnist from CNN states, it might be too late for sample change. “And even more frightening is the fact that we have gone so far down the road, there is probably no turning back.

Unless you spend your life in a wilderness cabin, totally off the grid, there is simply no way the essay page numbers, government won#39;t have information about you stored away somewhere” (Beale). Behind Thesis Hazel Eyes Lyric? Improvements in technology have proved this point. In the rest of the article, the author continues to explain the different aspects of 1984 we see today. He compares the prying telescreens to a social media site and compares the endless war in the book to use quotes, America’s war on terror. This quote teaches us that while turning back is nearly impossible, much of our fate rests in our own hands. The masses might struggle with conjuring any large improvements to our government, but for literary criticism essays on hamlet now we can demonstrate the negative effects of overwhelming surveillance.

Change may be difficult, so we must look to our texts alongside real life examples of the destructiveness of surveillance in order to understand its magnitude. , and current events present warnings about government surveillance, but society has failed to catalyze change; however, society must innovate to solve these problems. Use Quotes Essay? These texts allude to the ever-present pressure of government surveillance, and provide warnings as to and equipment, how spying can negatively affect society. Also, people may understand the influence of surveillance but feel unmotivated to catalyze change. The solution lies in a more creative form of thinking; we must look to whistleblowers as inspiration and discourage burdensome government practices. Although the numbers, most sacred form of expression lies inside the mind, there is no place in the world for literary criticism on hamlet surveillance in a society of use quotes essay page human beings. Will Big Brother dominate us, or will the death of ignorance bring us strength? Much like the telescreens of 1984, unmanned drones are becoming increasingly common and present privacy issues. In an statement article from Business Insider, many people share their concerns with these drones, which normally carry mounted cameras. Use Quotes Page? “There are drones flying over the air randomly that are recording everything that’s happening on what we consider our private property.

That type of technology has to stimulate us to think about what is it that we cherish in privacy and how far we want to protect it and literary criticism essays on hamlet, from whom” (Sterbenz). Use Quotes Essay? One can easily assume the presence of a drone looking through the window is an unsettling sight. Although regulations are in place to prevent drones from flying too high, nothing constitutes where they cannot fly. This modern day problem presses on as drones become cheaper and carry higher quality cameras. One solution to the overarching question of surveillance is to Property,plant, enact strict laws on said drones, making them available for military purpose only. Most people’s information not only winds up on a drone camera, but in a database as well. The National Security Agency’s new database in use quotes page Utah holds emails, phone calls, and countless other unwarranted bits of information. As stated on Property,plant, the official site of the NSA, the new database carries a frightening capacity: “The Utah Data Center, code-named Bumblehive, is the first Intelligence Community Comprehensive National Cyber-security Initiative (IC CNCI) data center designed to support the Intelligence Community#39;s efforts to use quotes, monitor, strengthen and protect the nation.

Our Utah mission data repository is designed to cope with the Property,plant, vast increases in digital data that have accompanied the rise of the global network” (NSA). Any visitor enlightened on surveillance would surely cringe at the thought of an uber-database housing private information. Essay Page Numbers? Diagrams gathered from the website and criticism essays on hamlet, even a quote on use quotes essay numbers, the front door (“If you have nothing to hide, you have nothing to third research, fear”) deliver a feeling similar to that of 1984. This modern day group preaches safety in order to collect every last bit of information about any citizen on the globe. Personal data is private and should not be tapped into without a need or a warrant, and safety is the one thing missing in this twisted facility. The solution demands to shut this gargantuan temple to Big Brother-ism. Possibly the closest one to finding the solution is a name associated with both treason and use quotes essay, heroism. Edward Snowden, a widely known figure for his whistleblowing of the actions of the NSA and inspiring freedom, shares insight on the dangers of surveillance. Introduction? After an open questioning session on Reddit, Snowden explained how NSA forces , “Gemalto is use quotes numbers, one of the leading makers of SIM cards used in literary on hamlet billions of mobile phones around the essay page, world to rubric, secure the communications of telecom customers of ATT, T-Mobile, Verizon, Sprint and more than 400 other wireless carriers in 85 countries.

Stealing the crypto keys essentially allows the spy agencies to wiretap and decipher encrypted phone communications at will without the assistance of telecom carriers or the oversight of a court or government. The keys also allow the agencies to decrypt previously intercepted messages they hadn’t been able to crack” (Zetter). From this knowledge, it is now hilariously simple for a surveillance agency to track every action done on a cell phone. Snowden sheds these agencies in a negative light, considering their streamlined access to the minds of everyone, everywhere. Essay Page Numbers? The issue of a hacked SIM card is literary criticism essays on hamlet, probably the most urgent, since billions of use quotes numbers people tote a cell phone and their data can be accessed within nanoseconds. The solution to a hacked phone seems largely impossible, but the government must be called to attention on their totalitarianistic actions with these cell phones. Whether drones, a massive database, or hacked phone chips seem the third grade, most frightening, the solution is simple; our modern day Big Brother must be brought down. 1984 Book Cover.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. Numbers? Beale, Lewis. We#39;re Living #39;1984#39; Today - CNN. Cable News Network, 3 Aug. 2013. Web. 11 Feb.

2015. Doctorow, Cory. Little Brother. New York: Tom Doherty Associates, 2008. Print. Personal For Students? How IPhone and Android Smartphones Spy on You and How to Stop Them | Guardian Animations. Page? YouTube. YouTube, n.d.

Web. 03 Mar. 2015. Little Brother Book Cover. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. NSA Tracks 5 Billion Cell Phone Locations a Day. YouTube. N.p., n.d. Of Starbucks Study? Web.

NSA Utah Data Center - Serving Our Nation#39;s Intelligence Community. NSA Utah Data Center - Serving Our Nation#39;s Intelligence Community. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2015. Orwell, George. 1984. Boston: Signet Classics, 1949. Use Quotes Essay? Print.

Ralph Waldo Emerson. Wikiquote - Ralph Waldo Emerson. Wikipedia, n.d. Web. Grade Research Paper Rubric? 20 Feb. Page Numbers? 2015. Sterbenz, Christina. Should We Freak Out About Drones Looking In Our Windows? Business Insider.

Business Insider, Inc, 24 Sept. 2014. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.

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Combined effects of precipitation and nitrogen deposition on native and essay numbers invasive winter annual production in sample, California deserts. Primary production in deserts is limited by soil moisture and N availability, and thus is likely to be influenced by both anthropogenic N deposition and essay page precipitation regimes altered as a consequence of climate change. Property,plant And Equipment! Invasive annual grasses are particularly responsive to increases in use quotes essay page, N and water availabilities, which may result in competition with native forb communities. Additionally, conditions favoring increased invasive grass production in arid and third grade research paper rubric semi-arid regions can increase fire risk, negatively impacting woody vegetation that is not adapted to fire. Essay Numbers! We conducted a seeded garden experiment and statements a 5-year field fertilization experiment to investigate how winter annual production is altered by increasing N supply under a range of water availabilities. The greatest production of invasive grasses and native forbs in use quotes essay numbers, the garden experiment occurred under the highest soil N (inorganic N after fertilization = 2.99 g m ?2 ) and introduction of starbucks case study highest watering regime, indicating these species are limited by use quotes essay numbers, both water and N. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis on the multi-year field fertilization study showed that winter annual biomass was primarily limited by November–December precipitation. Biomass exceeded the Property,plant threshold capable of carrying fire when inorganic soil N availability was at use quotes essay page numbers least 3.2 g m ?2 in pinon-juniper woodland. Introduction Case! Due to water limitation in creosote bush scrub, biomass exceeded the fire threshold only under very wet conditions regardless of soil N status. The CART analyses also revealed that percent cover of invasive grasses and native forbs is primarily dependent on the timing and amount of use quotes essay page numbers, precipitation and secondarily dependent on soil N and site-specific characteristics. In total, our results indicate that areas of high N deposition will be susceptible to grass invasion, particularly in wet years, potentially reducing native species cover and increasing the risk of fire.

Communicated by Louis Pitelka. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00442-009-1516-5 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Climate change models indicate that many regions will experience an increase in the severity of extreme climatic events such as droughts, heat waves, and floods (Solomon et al. Grade Research! 2007 ). These climate changes will cause vegetation distributions to shift, such as in essay, California where the and equipment extent of arid grasslands is predicted to increase due in part to increased fire size and use quotes essay page numbers frequency (Lenihan et al. 2003 ). Many studies from arid and semi-arid regions have shown a linkage between climate and fire (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and of starbucks study Swetnam 2000 ; Harris et al. Use Quotes Numbers! 2008 ; Drury and Veblen 2008 ; Miller et al. 2009 ). Paper! Fire may also be promoted by invasions of essay page numbers, non-native species (D’Antonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ), which themselves are associated with increased disturbance, including climate change, land use change, and personal mission N deposition (Dukes and Mooney 1999 ). In western North America, invasion by non-native grasses has resulted in use quotes, increased fire frequency and thesis hazel eyes intensity (Zouhar et al.

2008 ). Use Quotes Essay Numbers! This so called “grass-fire cycle” occurs because the invasive grasses create a persistent and continuous fine fuel load that allows fire to carry between widely spaced shrubs (D’Antonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ). The invasive grasses recover more quickly than shrubs, increasing fire frequency until the shrubs are lost from the landscape. This type-conversion has occurred in several ecosystems including sagebrush, coastal sage scrub, and creosote bush scrub (Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Menakis et al. Literary Criticism! 2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ; Zouhar et al. Use Quotes! 2008 ). An increase in fire size and frequency has been observed in behind hazel lyric, the Sonoran and numbers Mojave Deserts resulting in reduced shrub density and introduction study diversity (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Berry 2006 ; Hereford et al.

2006 ). Fires in these deserts often occur in use quotes essay numbers, years with below-average precipitation but that are preceded by 1–2 years of above-average rainfall (Swetnam and thesis eyes Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Lenihan et al. 2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ). The years of high rainfall result in high production by native and invasive annuals thereby increasing the fine fuel load (Brown and Minnich 1986 ). Page! Arid land winter annuals have also been found to be sensitive to within-season precipitation timing, which differentially affects germination of invasive grasses and native forb species (Beatley 1974 ; Brooks 1999 ; Lundholm and Larson 2004 ; Sher et al. 2004 ). While several large native annuals produce persistent fuel beds (Minnich 2008 ), the fuel components of greatest concern are invasive annual grasses red brome ( Bromus madritensis ), cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum ), and Mediterranean split grass ( Schismus barbatus and Schismus arabicus ) that may increase in productivity in years of high rainfall (Brooks 1999 ; Brooks 2003 ; Salo 2004 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). No threshold of fine fuels has been determined for sample thesis statement, desert biomass, although thresholds for fine fuels needed in essay page numbers, grass-dominated systems are estimated to Property,plant, be 70–150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ). In the desert this range is essay page numbers, more likely to be reached under high invasive grass abundance because grass litter does not disarticulate as rapidly as native forb litter (Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Additionally, invasive grasses are responsive to both increased precipitation and increased N availability (Monaco et al. 2003 ; Fenn et al. Literary On Hamlet! 2003a ; Salo et al. 2005 ). After precipitation, N is considered most limiting to plant production in arid and semi-arid regions (Hooper and Johnson 1999 ). In arid regions downwind of major urban or agricultural centers, dry N deposition is increasing and is likely influencing plant communities through fertilization effects (Brooks 2003 ; Fenn et al.

2003b ; Allen et al. Use Quotes Essay Numbers! 2009 ; Rao et al. 2009 ). The co-limitation of production by N and water suggests that the build-up of fine fuels sufficient to carry wildfires would most likely occur when both N deposition and third grade research rubric above-average precipitation are present. Thus, the essay numbers hypothesis addressed by grade research paper, this study is: N and use quotes essay page numbers precipitation interact such that the biomass produced by annual vegetation exceeds the fire threshold more frequently under N deposition. Introduction Of Starbucks Case! We tested the hypothesis using a seeded garden experiment and page numbers a multi-year (2004–2008) field fertilization of behind thesis eyes, natural vegetation to evaluate the interactions between N fertilization and water availability on biomass production. By using classification and regression tree analysis (CART) on the long-term fertilization experiment results, we were able to examine the data for thresholds of soil N and consider the implications of uncertainty regarding fine fuel thresholds. Additionally, we examined the response of total annual production, native forb cover, and use quotes essay numbers invasive forb cover to changes in precipitation timing to better determine the effects of research paper rubric, within-season precipitation variability on production and winter annual community composition. General soil characteristics for the garden and field fertilization of natural vegetation experiments.

Rock and gravel (%) Total soil N (g m ?2 ) Extractable P (ppm) a. Bulk density (g cm ?3 ) N deposition (kg ha ?1 ) b. Joshua Tree National Park. Means presented with SEs in parentheses where available. PJ Pinon-juniper woodland, CB creosote bush. NA not applicable. a Olsen-P extraction method. b Total wet + dry N deposition measured in 2005 using throughfall and interspace bulk resin collectors (M. Fenn, personal communication) c Gravel only, rocks 2 cm excluded during sample collection.

There were five replicates of use quotes page numbers, each water treatment, for a total of and equipment, fifteen 1.7 ? 2.5-m plots that were subdivided into use quotes essay page six 0.65 ? 0.6-m subplots with a 20-cm buffer around each subplot. Three subplots were planted with A. tessellata and three subplots with B. madritensis in a randomized manner, with each species fertilized with either 0.5, 3.0 g N m ?2 , or left unfertilized as a control. Fertilizer additions were chosen to be comparable to the JTNP field fertilization experiment. We took one 8-cm-deep soil core from each subplot prior to fertilization for behind thesis, extraction with 1 M KCl and colorimetric determination of NO 3 ? and NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments, Tarrytown, NY). After the first rain and before seed planting, N fertilizer was added as granular NH 4 NO 3 . We collected seeds from multiple areas within JTNP where both species were abundant. Within 1 week of the first rain seeds were planted to achieve a density of 150 plants m ?2 . After establishment, average densities were 110 and 29 plants m ?2 for B. madritensis and use quotes essay A. tessellata respectively, which were within observed field densities (Hunter 1991 ). All plants that germinated naturally from the seed bank (primarily Pectocarya sp., Schismus sp., and Erodium cicutarium ) were removed by hand-weeding. Our three water treatments included low (or drought), intermediate (or average precipitation), and high rain. The drought precipitation regime was achieved by installing rainout shelters that were modeled after the design by Yahdjian and Sala ( 2002 ) and constructed to intercept 80% of incident precipitation. Shelter roofs were constructed from strips of clear corrugated plastic and were removable in order to reduce shading of treated and nearby plots. We installed 25-cm-deep plastic lined trenches around the plot perimeter to prevent movement of thesis hazel lyric, water into essay numbers the plot. A gutter collected rainwater and channeled the grade water to a 38-l storage unit.

Collected rainwater was applied to essay, the high-rainfall plots, which were also trenched and lined to prevent movement of water out of the plot. All plots contained ECH 2 O volumetric soil water sensors (Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA) that were field calibrated by relating actual volumetric water content to sensor millivolt readings. Rainout shelter roofs were not installed on the shelters until the seedlings established, and the threat of a storm was imminent. Thesis Lyric! Only one storm occurred after establishment and numbers so the rainout shelter roofs were used for a total of introduction case study, 1 week. Because of a lack of page, rain during the third grade research paper late winter and early spring, water was added to the intermediate and high-rainfall plots.

Yucca Valley tap water was used to water the plots and contained 3.5 mg NO 3 ? l ?1 with non-detectable amounts of NH 4 + . Intermediate rain plots received three applications of water equivalent to 0.25 cm of precipitation per application and high-rainfall plots received six applications of page, 0.84 cm of water. In total, the plots received 16, 11, and 9 cm of natural + artificial precipitation in mission statements for students, the high-, intermediate-, and low-water treatment plots, compared to the 70 year mean ± SD of 10 ± 8 cm of winter precipitation as determined from a nearby weather station. We harvested eight individual B. madritensis plants from each subplot 4 times throughout the spring (Online resource 1). Because of the small number of A. Essay Page Numbers! tessellata that germinated, an allometric relationship between plant width and height and plant weight was developed for each harvest period using a total of 15 individuals. The harvest-period specific allometric equations were used to calculate the grade research paper weight of use quotes essay, eight individuals from behind thesis each treatment for use quotes essay, which height and Property,plant width were measured. At the final sampling eight individual A. tessellata plants were harvested from each subplot. All plants were oven dried at 60°C to page numbers, constant mass and mission for students weighed.

Flowers or seed heads from red brome were counted and weighed separately from the shoots. Essay Page Numbers! The average shoot biomass from the eight individuals harvested from each subplot was used as one data point in subsequent analyses. Field fertilization of natural vegetation. We established fertilization plots at four sites within JNTP. Two sites were in creosote bush (CB) scrub located in thesis hazel eyes lyric, the lower elevation Sonoran Desert (33°49?52.2?N, 115°45?26.6?W; 33°56?36.5?N, 116°23?44.3?W). The other two sites were pinon-juniper woodland (PJ) in the higher elevation Mojave Desert (34°2?13?N, 116°4?29.6?W; 34°0?48.7?N, 116°18?39.9?W). Page Numbers! In each vegetation type one site was located on grade research paper rubric the western edge of the park, which was subjected to high levels of N deposition (high N), and one site was located in the interior of the park where there were low levels of N deposition (low N; Allen et al. 2009 ). Selected site characteristics are listed in Table 1 and numbers site-specific vegetation data are in Allen et al. Thesis! ( 2009 ), with general descriptions in page numbers, Keeler-Wolfe ( 2007 ) and Schoenherr and third grade rubric Burk ( 2007 ). The dominant shrub at the CB sites was Larrea tridentata with an understory of native forbs and invasive annual grasses, S. arabicus and numbers S. barbatus (hereafter Schismus spp.). Total live shrub cover was 9.5 ± 2.7 and 18.1 ± 3.8% for CB-low N and and equipment CB-high N, respectively. The dominant trees/shrubs at the PJ sites were Juniperus californica and Pinus monophylla with an understory of shrubs, native forbs and invasive annual grasses, B. madritensis , B. tectorum , and Schismus spp.

Live tree + shrub cover was 20.8 ± 0.9 and 22.7 ± 1.4% at PJ-low N and PJ-high N, respectively. Page! Annual invasive forbs, primarily Erodium cicutarium , were not a major component of the cover at any of the sites (Allen et al. 2009 ). Cumulative winter precipitation (mm) for the years in essays, which vegetation was sampled at the four Joshua Tree National Park sites: creosote bush (CB)-low N ( a ), CB-high N ( b ), pinon-juniper woodland (PJ)-low N ( c ), and numbers PJ-high N ( d ). The 70-year average winter precipitation for each site is indicated by third research paper, the dashed line. Shading indicates years that did not receive sufficient precipitation to elicit germination and thus were excluded from the statistical analyses.

We centered each plot on an individual tree or shrub, with the plot size determined by the shrub or tree size (6 ? 6 m for creosote bush, 8 ? 8 m for juniper, and 10 ? 10 m for pine). Two levels of fertilizer were used, 0.5 and 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 , plus unfertilized controls. In the winter 2005, a lower fertilization treatment (0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 ) was added because the 0.5 g N m ?2 year ?1 treatment had significant effects on essay numbers biomass in the spring 2005 and thesis statement we were interested in determining if a lower N threshold existed. The fertilization levels bracket the observed range of N deposition found in this region (Sullivan et al. 2001 ; Tonnesen et al. 2007 ). In addition, the page high level of fertilization was chosen to be comparable to other desert fertilization studies where 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 has induced responses by personal mission for students, the invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ). Ten replicates of essay numbers, each shrub or tree species were fertilized and selected across the landscape in a randomized block design, with the exception of PJ-low N where the limited availability of behind hazel, trees and shrubs resulted in nine blocks. At the PJ sites, both pine and junipers were fertilized with 0, 0.5, and 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 in each block, but only juniper 0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 plots were added to each block in essay, 2005 due to limited numbers of pines at these sites. Plots were fertilized with granular NH 4 NO 3 each December beginning in 2002.

We sampled vegetation each spring (March–May) at the peak of behind thesis hazel eyes, production, which varied by site and year depending on use quotes temperature and precipitation. Percent cover of thesis statement, invasive grasses and native forbs was determined in a 1.0 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat placed outside the drip line of each shrub (i.e., just outside the edge of the use quotes essay page numbers shrub canopy) on the north- and south-facing sides. Biomass was calculated from the percentage cover data using equations developed for one CB site and one PJ site relating percent cover to introduction case, biomass using 0.25 ? 0.5-m clipped plots. Biomass relationships were determined in 2005 and 2008 for fertilized and unfertilized plots, with the 2008 data applied to all years except 2005 due to the very high amounts of precipitation received during the 2004–2005 growing season. Percent cover was generally a good predictor of biomass with R 2 -values ranging from 0.77 to 0.97 (2005 regressions n = 11, 2008 regressions n = 21).

A relationship between percent cover at the drip line and essay page the percent cover in the interspaces (i.e., the spaces outside the thesis hazel influence of the shrubs) was developed using 2008 cover data from PJ-high N. Because interspace vegetation carries fire through the desert by creating a continuous fine fuel source between shrubs and is the basis for the fire thresholds, it was necessary to convert all drip line percent cover values to interspace cover estimates. Percent cover, measured in 1 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat in use quotes page, the interspaces of a subset of PJ plots was found to be 0.76 of the percent cover on the south side of the statement shrub. This conversion was applied to all sites and use quotes page numbers treatments in rubric, all years and biomass calculated from the interspace cover estimates. Prior to fertilization, we took soil cores to a depth of 5 cm from interspace areas in all plots for extractable soil N analysis. Soils collected in 2003 and 2004 were extracted with 1 M KCl and analyzed colorimetrically for NO 3 ? and NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments). Use Quotes Numbers! Beginning in 2005, soils were sent to the DANR Analytical Laboratory for NO 3 ? and NH 4 + determination based on published protocols ( ). Extractable soil N was converted to an aerial basis using average site rock content and bulk density measurements and summing the measured soil N with the personal N fertilizer added. In the cases of outliers or missing data, the mean value from all plots in a treatment was used in the statistical analyses. The shoot weight from the garden experiment was analyzed using a residual maximum likelihood ANOVA to account for the split-plot design. The ANOVA was run for each species and sampling period to determine the effect of N, water availability, and the N ? water interaction on biomass using JMP version 7 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Significant effects were determined with post-hoc Tukey’s honest significant difference test using an ? = 0.05.

All data were transformed as necessary to meet requirements for equal variance and use quotes normal distribution of mission for students, error. For the field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment, CART was conducted using JMP version 8 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). We chose to use regression tree analysis due to its ability to handle non-linear combinations of predictor variables and identify thresholds (De’Ath and page numbers Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). In CART, decision trees are generated through recursive partitioning of the data set into subsets that are more homogeneous in of starbucks case, terms of the response variable (Breiman et al. 1984 ). Regression trees can be advantageous over traditional linear techniques because they allow for interactions and non-linearity when numerous predictors are present (Prasad et al.

2006 ). In addition, CART is use quotes essay page, robust with respect to outliers and essays on hamlet does not require that the data be normally distributed (De’Ath and Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). Variable descriptions used in regression tree analysis. For vegetation type analyses only; identifies the site location in use quotes numbers, each vegetation type (low N or high N) For PJ only; identifies the sample thesis statement species of tree or shrub about which the plot was located. Amount of precipitation that fell during September and October. Amount of precipitation that fell during November and December. Amount of precipitation that fell during January and February. Amount of precipitation that fell during March and April.

Amount of soil N measured prior to fertilization each winter + the amount of fertilizer added, converted to g m ?2. Total interspace biomass calculated from % cover of invasive grasses and native forbs measured outside the shrub dripline and multiplied by a reduction factor. Average percent cover of invasive (exotic) grasses measured outside the dripline of the use quotes north and south sides of personal statements for students, shrubs. Average percent cover of native forbs measured outside the dripline of the north and south sides of shrubs. The 2007–2008 winter rain season in essay, the Yucca Valley region was characterized by four precipitation events; one each in Property,plant and equipment, December and January, and two in February (Online resource 1). After the water treatments were applied, the low-water plots showed a decrease in volumetric water content (VWC), approaching zero in early April. The decrease in VWC in the control plots was more gradual due to three applications of water and approached zero in use quotes page, mid-April. Personal Mission Statements! In the numbers high-water plots the VWC was above that of the two lower water treatments until the literary criticism on hamlet water applications were stopped in mid-April and VWC decreased to zero by the final harvest. Average individual plant biomass (g per plant ± SE) for each harvest of Amsinckia tessellata ( a ) and Bromus madritensis ( b ) across the water and soil N treatments.

At the end of the growing season the largest individuals were found in use quotes essay, the high water, high-N ( black bars ) treatments. Paper! Asterisks indicate the most significant response. ANOVAs on biomass of B. madritensis at each harvest also showed a significant effect of N throughout (in all sampling periods P 0.0001). In all cases the 2.99 g soil N m ?2 plots had larger plants, with no difference in plant size between 0.95 and 1.54 g N m ?2 . The only harvests with a significant water effect were the last two, where the plants in the high-water treatment were larger than those in the intermediate and low-water treatments (1st, P = 0.54; 2nd, P = 0.46; 3rd, P = 0.0002; 4th, P 0.0001). In all N treatments the plants reached the maximum size by use quotes essay page, second harvest in the low- and intermediate-water plots; in the high-water plots individuals continued to grow until the final harvest (Fig. 2 b). No N ? water interactions were observed at any harvest for thesis, either species.

Field fertilization of natural vegetation. Summary of use quotes, regression tree results. Total SS explained by each variable a (%) NDP = 76.8, SOP = 16.9, SoilN = 1.8. JFP = 88.8, NDP = 7.0, SoilN = 2.7, SOP = 1.5. NDP = 78.5, SOP = 19.2, SoilN = 1.4. SOP = 88.5, SoilN = 6.5, MAP = 5.1.

SOP = 94.6, SoilN = 5.4. NDP = 95.4, SOP = 4.6. NDP = 87.1, SOP = 8.8, SoilN = 4.0. NDP = 69.1, SoilN = 15.6, JFP = 9.9, MAP = 3.3, SOP = 2.1. Site = 79.1, SOP = 15.1, NDP = 4.2, SoilN = 2.1. NDP = 58.3, SoilN = 23.1, Site = 10.6, SOP = 7.9. JFP = 85.3, SOP = 10.3, SoilN = 4.4. SOP = 82.8, SoilN = 12.2, MAP = 4.9.

SOP = 76.9, SoilN = 23.1. SoilN = 56.9, NDP = 39.4, Species = 3.7. n-Cal Number of plots in calibration dataset. n-Val number of plots in validation dataset. NV number of explanatory variables in final model. NTN number of terminal nodes in final model.

a Percentage of total SS explained by each variable in the representative final tree, See Tables 1 and 2 for other abbreviations and third grade research paper rubric variable definitions. Regression tree results on total biomass for each vegetation type. Predictor variables (see Table 2 ) in ovals , threshold value and use quotes essay page percentage of Property,plant and equipment, model variance explained by that variable under the oval. Page! Mean value of the response variable in rectangles , number of observations falling within that class shown under the mean. Biomass above the fire-carrying threshold indicated by shading. Asterisks indicate when multiple variables explained equal SS. Individual regression trees for native forb and invasive grass cover at the low- and high-N-deposition CB sites had fewer terminal nodes than those for statement, the combined sites (Table 3 ). For both invasive grass and native forb cover at CB-low N, precipitation explained the majority of the model variance. In both cases there were several precipitation periods that explained equal variance (as indicated by use quotes page, asterisks in Fig. Property,plant! 3 and Online resources 2 and 3); the page most frequently occurring variable from the cross-validations is thesis, presented in the figures. Page! At CB-low N, soil N was a significant explanatory variable for both invasive grasses and personal mission statements native forbs, but at CB-high N, only precipitation was found to page, be significant in explaining invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover was primarily explained by thesis lyric, precipitation, with soil N explaining 4% of model variance and resulting in greatest cover when soil N 3.8 g m ?2 (Online resource 2). The combined and individual site regression trees for use quotes page numbers, PJ generally explained less variance than the CB regression trees (Table 3 ). The regression tree on joint-site total biomass indicated that precipitation was the primary explanatory variable, with NDP and criticism JFP precipitation having equal explanatory power for use quotes numbers, the first split.

Soil N explained 15.6% of the model variance, and when late fall-early winter precipitation was high and soil N 4.2 g m ?2 , biomass exceeded the fire threshold. Except for two other cases, average biomass was less than the fire threshold (Fig. 3 ). The first split of the joint-site regression tree for invasive grasses was on the site variable, while native forb cover was primarily influenced by thesis lyric, winter precipitation (NDP and JFP with equal variance explained for the first split) and was maximized when soil N was between 0.37 and 0.67 g m ?2 . The site-specific PJ regression trees revealed that the greatest cover of invasive grasses occurred with JFP 15 mm at PJ-low N and high fall rains (SOP 50 mm) and soil N (between 1.4 and 3.5 g m ?2 ) at PJ-high N (Online resource 3). Overall, these models explained relatively little of the total variance in invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover at PJ-low N was more responsive to soil N than invasive grasses; the greatest cover of forbs occurred with between 3.4 and 4.0 g m ?2 or greater than 0.5 g m ?2 of soil N depending on the timing and use quotes essay page amount of early and introduction case study late season precipitation (Online resource 2). Native forb cover at PJ-high N was greatest under the influence of pine trees when soil N between 0.37 and 0.42 g m ?2 . The CART results indicate that the primary limiting factor for production at use quotes essay numbers these arid sites is water, with the first split occurring on precipitation and explaining 77 and 69% of model variance in CB and PJ, respectively.

The greater explanatory power of precipitation at sample thesis CB is likely because CB occurs in areas with less mean annual precipitation (Rowlands 1995 ); at our sites the mean winter precipitation in essay, PJ was 17 mm greater than in CB over the study period. Third Grade Rubric! Studies in arid systems have shown that water availability is most limiting for annual production (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Beatley 1974 ; Patten 1978 ; Gutierrez et al. 1992 ; Brooks 2002 ). However, while some researchers have found that annual production exhibits secondary limitation by N (Whitford and use quotes numbers Gutierrez 1989 ; Gutierrez et al. 1992 ; Hooper and Johnson 1999 ), the results are not always straightforward. Often the response to increased soil N is species or site specific, depending on behind hazel lyric antecedent soil N conditions (Gutierrez and Whitford 1987 ; Ludwig et al. 1989 ; Brooks 2003 ). In our CART models, soil N is a significant explanatory variable for use quotes essay page, both CB and PJ biomass, but only personal mission for students, weakly so in CB (2%) compared to PJ (16%). Again, this is likely because CB is more water limited than PJ. However, we have a limited dataset (2004–2008) and do not include the severe drought year of essay page, 2007.

Given the importance of introduction case study, precipitation timing on production and population dynamics (Went 1948 ; Bowers 1987 ; Brown 2002 ; Levine et al. 2008 ), additional years of data would be needed to fully understand the use quotes essay page numbers interacting effects of soil N and statement precipitation on essay page production. An additional factor that may confound our results is that the four sites are spread throughout JTNP in literary criticism essays on hamlet, areas with different soil textures, amounts of rock cover, and long-term patterns of precipitation and essay page numbers N deposition. Property,plant! These site characteristics are known to impact community composition (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Wood et al. 2005 ; Kelly and Goulden 2008 ), the effect of which is observed through the PJ CART analyses where Site is a significant explanatory variable of both exotic grass and native forb cover.

In spite of differences between the sites, there are consistent results regarding the response of native forb cover to soil N. Essay Page Numbers! Native forb cover is greatest at all sites except PJ-high N when soil N is less than 3.8–4.0 g N m ?2 (Online resource 2), suggesting that above this soil N level native forbs are either directly harmed or outcompeted by nitrophilous species such as invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). At PJ-high N, the introduction study greatest percent cover of native forbs occurs under low-N conditions (0.4 g m ?2 ) and in the influence of pine trees. The second highest cover of native forbs at this site is use quotes page numbers, under intermediate soil N levels, 1.5 g m ?2 N 3.8 g m ?2 , which is consistent with the threshold identified at the other three sites. The garden experiment also indicates that native forbs benefit from inputs of N between 1.5 and 3 g m ?2 , supporting the findings from hazel eyes other studies showing that native forbs in arid environments are N limited (Romney et al. 1978 ; Mun and Whitford 1989 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). Exotic grass cover is more influenced by page numbers, precipitation than native forb cover (Online resource 3), particularly at introduction of starbucks PJ-low N and CB-high N where there is inherently low grass cover. When grass cover is high, soil N concentrations as low as 0.9 g m ?2 promote increased grass cover but no threshold of soil N emerged as with the native forbs.

It is page, unclear whether the lack of a soil N threshold is due to an inherent property of the exotic grasses or because soil sampling occurred at individual points, resulting in third research paper, high within-treatment variability and obscuring threshold identification. Page! Understanding the factors promoting grass invasion is particularly important given that exotic grasses are associated with increased fire frequency in the deserts due to their persistent standing litter on eyes lyric the landscape through the essay numbers dry season when fire threat is greatest (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Our CART analysis is also useful for investigating the factors influencing biomass production and fire thresholds in third paper rubric, the desert. There is currently a great deal of uncertainty regarding the numbers amount of fine fuel needed to carry fire through arid landscapes. Studies of fire thresholds in grass-dominated systems have shown that the amount of fine fuel needed to carry fire is sample thesis, between 70 and 150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ). As a first approximation, we set the fire threshold for essay page numbers, both ecosystem types at 100 g m ?2 and found that the behind thesis hazel eyes conditions leading to biomass production above this threshold are high amounts of rain in CB, and high amounts of rain combined with high amounts of soil N in use quotes essay numbers, PJ (Fig. 3 ). Although years with greater fine fuel buildup increase the fire risk in both vegetation types (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Rogers and Vint 1987 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ), PJ is more prone to burning than CB due to greater amounts of woody fuels (Brooks and Matchett 2006 ; Brooks and behind thesis lyric Minnich 2006 ). Thus, it is likely that the fine fuel threshold is closer to the low range (70 g m ?2 ) in PJ and the high range (150 g m ?2 ) in use quotes essay, CB. When we re-evaluate the CART results with these adjusted fire thresholds, we find that the only case when the fire threshold is thesis statement, exceeded at CB is when SOP is greater than 1 mm and NDP is greater than 93 mm. The precipitation record from the past 75 years indicates that this precipitation pattern occurred 17 times, primarily in the late 1930s–1940s and use quotes essay page numbers the late 1960s to early 1980s.

This is consistent with the findings of Brown and Minnich ( 1986 ) who determined that fires in CB increased during the late 1970s, which they attributed to thesis lyric, increased rainfall and exotic grass invasion in that period. Brooks and Matchett ( 2006 ) examined factors influencing fire spread in use quotes, the Mojave Desert and introduction case study showed that the use quotes essay page numbers high-elevation woodlands and desert montane zones show little change in the size distribution of fire in response to rainfall amounts because of the amount of statements, woody biomass in these zones. In the use quotes essay page numbers middle elevation zone they found that native fuels are generally just below the threshold allowing fire spread and thus are influenced by increased precipitation. Our PJ sites are in between the high-elevation woodlands and mid-elevation zone examined by Brooks and behind thesis hazel eyes Matchett ( 2006 ) indicating that there is likely a fine fuel threshold for our sites that may be as low as 70 g m ?2 . There are four cases when biomass exceeds this threshold; three are when NDP is greater than 73 mm and use quotes essay numbers one is when precipitation is intermediate but soil N is high, greater than 3.2 g m ?2 . In the paper garden experiment invasive grass biomass was greater in all water treatments when soil N was 3 g m ?2 , although the greatest biomass was observed under the highest precipitation and N. Similarly, a field fertilization experiment in the Mojave by Brooks ( 2003 ) showed that invasive grass biomass was largest when 3.2 g N m ?2 was added in the year with 300% above-average December precipitation, whereas no effect was observed when that amount of essay page numbers, N was added in a year with average December precipitation. Together these results indicate that, in average years, soil N must be greater than 3 g m ?2 for the fire threshold to be reached.

Studies of literary, fire in other arid and semi-arid regions have linked fire frequency with wet years that were followed by periods of below-average precipitation (Swetnam and use quotes essay page numbers Betancourt 1998 ; Grassino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000; Harris et al. 2008 ). Thus, with the exception of areas under very high N deposition loads, PJ in transitional mid- to sample thesis, high-elevation zones may be unlikely to burn in the absence of a period of use quotes essay, wet years. One purpose of the CART analysis was to understand the influence of precipitation timing on invasive grass and native forb cover. Climate change models indicate that precipitation variability is likely to increase across the southwestern United States and literary criticism that the timing of precipitation may also shift (Lenihan et al. 2003 ; Bell et al. 2004 ; Bell and Sloan 2006 ). Essay Page! Such changes in statement, the precipitation regime may favor either invasive grasses or native forbs if there are differences in essay, the responses to precipitation timing by these two groups. Grade Rubric! Germination studies have shown that the common invasive grasses at our sites tend to germinate rapidly with small inputs of rain and without strict temperature requirements (Beatley 1974 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Salo 2004 ). In contrast, native winter forbs have strict germination requirements, generally needing at least 25 mm of use quotes essay page, precipitation and cold nighttime temperatures (Juhren et al. Property,plant And Equipment! 1956 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Levine et al. Page! 2008 ). The exception is a small group of literary criticism, summer-germinating plants that flower during the numbers following spring (Went 1948 ). In years of sample, late-August early-September rains, individuals from this species group can grow very large and make up a significant portion of the numbers biomass (Went 1948 ). The CART model for CB native forb biomass indicates that NDP 28 mm provides conditions favorable for native forb cover, with the greatest cover observed in combination with SOP 56 mm. These results lend support to the findings that fall precipitation of at least 25 mm allows desert native plants to germinate, and that under conditions of early fall precipitation summer-germinating spring-flowering annuals can greatly increase native cover.

For CB invasive grasses, JFP and criticism on hamlet MAP have equal explanatory power for use quotes, the first split, indicating that invasive grasses are favored not only by a wet winter, but an literary criticism on hamlet, extended rainy season. Use Quotes Page! Our garden experiment resulted in an extended growing season in behind hazel eyes, the high-water plots since natural precipitation ended in late February. Use Quotes Essay! The results from and equipment this controlled experiment show that by prolonging the numbers growing season, the individual biomass of B. madritensis continues to increase, which translates to increased cover in the field. Unlike in CB, PJ native forb cover is more influenced by late fall (NDP) and early winter (JFP) rain, while invasive grasses are influenced by SOP in the high-N site and NDP/JFP at the low-N site. The reason for the virtual flip in the seasonality effects on invasive grass and native forb cover between CB and PJ may be due to the influence of third research paper rubric, temperature. Use Quotes Essay Numbers! The high-elevation PJ sites are much colder than the low-elevation CB sites, and as such exhibit later season maturation of native forbs in the spring.

Temperatures are rarely cold enough to literary on hamlet, result in decreased survival of numbers, native forb seedlings once they have germinated (Juhren et al. 1956 ), but having sufficient moisture in the late winter months appears to allow the rosettes to personal statements, grow, resulting in larger individuals and total cover at peak. The invasive grass cover in use quotes, our PJ sites is primarily governed by site effects, making it difficult to draw generalizations based on our data. Literary On Hamlet! Additional plot-scale measurements on soil and landscape characteristics might be useful in further understanding the factors controlling invasive grass cover in this region. We combined a garden experiment, where the invasive grass B. madritensis and the native forb A. tessellata were grown in monoculture, with a multi-year field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment to use quotes page, examine the interaction between soil N and water availability on production of desert winter annuals.

We found that while native forbs and invasive grasses are limited by water availability, the response to increased soil N is dependent on factors such as the degree of water limitation, site characteristics (e.g., soil texture, soil C), and degree of grass invasion. Introduction Case! However, our results also show that in some cases added soil N increases production above the fire threshold, thereby increasing the risk of fire in some polluted areas. In addition to use quotes essay page, increasing fire risk, increased soil N promoted invasive grasses and decreased native forb cover at some sites. Introduction Of Starbucks! These results provide further evidence that native forb and shrub communities, and the associated wildflower displays, may be threatened by non-native grass invasions particularly in areas such as JTNP that are subjected to increased N deposition. This research was funded by the National Park Service PMIS no. 72123, National Science Foundation DEB 04-21530, the Community Foundation of essay, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, and a grant from the University of personal statements, California, Riverside Graduate Division. Use Quotes Essay Numbers! The manuscript was substantially improved by comments provided by C. Barrows and behind hazel eyes lyric L. Use Quotes Essay Page! Santiago, as well as three anonymous reviewers. Thanks also to M. Fenn for providing N deposition values, the Foote family for allowing L. E. Behind Thesis Hazel Eyes Lyric! R. to essay page, use their property in Yucca Valley for the garden experiment, and to the members of the E. Allen laboratory, especially Chris True and Robert Steers, for eyes, field and lab support.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the essay page numbers original author(s) and source are credited. Leela E. And Equipment! Rao 1 3 Email author Edith B. Allen 1 2 1. Center for Conservation Biology University of California Riverside USA 2. Department of Botany and essay numbers Plant Sciences University of California Riverside USA 3. Literary Essays! Air Resources Board Emission Research Section El Monte USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips.

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