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Compare and contrast paintings essay

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Apollonius Rhodius Rhodius, Apollonius - Essay. Apollonius Rhodius c. 300 B.C.-c. 220 B.C. Greek poet and compare and contrast essay historian. Apollonius is known chiefly for his Argonautica, an epic poem which recounts the story of Jason and his ship's crew on a voyage in quest of the golden fleece. In the third of the work's four books, Apol-lonius focuses on the romance of Medea and Jason; it is believed to be the earliest extant work which treats erotic love as its major theme. Apollonius is also remembered for his quarrel with his former master, Callimachus, over communication the purpose, length, and paintings style of epic literature.

Each poet attacked the other in sheppard his writings. George W. Mooney has referred to the feud as the most bitter in and contrast paintings essay the ancient world of letters. Callimachus took the popular stance that epic was a thing of the past, that a great book was a great evil, and sought to restrain the length of poetic works. Apollonius claimed that Callimachus disliked great books because he was incapable of producing one. An epigram probably written by Apollonius refers to Callimachus as trash, a cheap joke, and a blockhead.

The claim has been made that Apollonius wrote the Argonautica out of a sense of bravado, to demonstrate that an epic could still be written in his time. His treatment of heroism breakes with tradition, however, as Apollonius emphasized Jason's human frailties and Medea's psychological turmoil rather than their epic grandeur. Apollonius also served as librarian for the Library of Alexandria, where he was recognized as an important scholar, and was a tutor of human essay, royalty. Little is known for certain about and contrast, Apollonius's life, including the dates of his birth and death. Possible years of his birth range from 300 B.C. to 260 B.C. and possible years of his death range from 235 B.C. to 190 B.C. Many scholars have used c. 300 B.C. to c. 220 B.C. Popular Culture! as the most plausable dates for Apollonius. A manuscript of the Argonautica contains two brief Lives of the poet, believed to have originated in a now-lost common source. The Lives are incomplete and occasionally contradictory.

It is generally accepted, however, that the Lives are essentially accurate, and scholars have attempted to make sense of the differences in paintings essay the accounts. It is believed that Apollonius was Alexandrian by birth, the son of Silleus and Rhode. Apollonius was a student of Callimachus, the leading literary figure of the time. After composing the Argonautica while still a youth, Apollonius gave it a public reading. The reaction was extremely unfavorable on the part of both the public and about integration essay his fellow poets, who treated Apollonius with sneers and compare essay scorn.

Fleeing their abuse, he traveled to Rhodes, where he gained knowledge of ships and navigation, and reworked and polished his text. A public reading of the new Argonautica in Rhodes was hugely successful, bringing Apollonius citizenship, a teaching career, and high honors. Among his pupils was probably Ptolemy II. One account states that Apollonius eventually returned to Alexandria and gave a triumphant reading of the epic there as well. He was appointed head librarian for the Library of Alexandria and was buried next to Callimachus, in a place of honor reserved by the Ptolemies for people who had served in this important post. Most of Apollonius's works other than the Argonautica are no longer in essay existence. He is paintings, said by Antonius Liberalis to have written epigrams, but none survive with the about, exception of the one concerning Callimachus, the authorship of compare paintings, which is still disputed among scholars. It is known that Apollonius wrote of the origins, histories, and characteristics of cities in Foundation of Caunus, Foundation of Canopus, Foundation of Alexandria, Foundation of Naucratis, Foundation of culture, Cnidus, and Foundation of Rhodes, of which only one fragment survives.

He also composed a poem entitled Kanobos, of which only compare paintings essay, three verses survive. Among his scholarly prose works are monographs on Homer, Hesiod, and Archilochos. Numerous manuscripts of the Argonautica exist, the earliest dating from the tenth century. Comparisons to papyri fragments leave no doubt that the text of the between evaluation essay, Argonautica as it exists today is corrupt, having undergone many changes in and contrast paintings its various transcriptions over about essay time; only the extent of this corruption is a matter for argument. Books One and Two describe the preparation and voyage to Colchis, while Book Four charts the wild, geographically impossible, return home. The voyage was ordered by Pelias to find the golden fleece; in compare so doing Pelias expected that Jason would meet his death. The popular Book Three takes place on Colchis. Eros fills Medea with desire for Jason, who is contemplating action against Aeetes, the King and her father, to force him to surrender the fleece, which is in his possession. Popular Culture Essay! Aeetes declares that Jason must accomplish three labors, including the yoking of the fiery bulls, before he will grant his demand. With guidance from Medea, Jason offers a sacrifice to paintings essay Hecate and becomes the recipient of divine aid, proceeding to sow the dragon's teeth and about integration essay kill the Earth-born Men.

Book Three ends before Jason slays the dragon and gains the fleece. The Argonautica was a favorite of Roman writers. It was translated by Varro Atacinus and copied by Ovid and Virgil. In more modern times, however, particularly in the twentieth century, the Argonautica has been neglected, in exile from its proper place among the masterpieces of compare essay, ancient Greek literature, as Marshall M. Gillies has written. Apollonius has been unfavorably compared to Homer and to his own followers, most notably Virgil and human Valerius Flaccus. The general public has widely ignored Books One, Two, and Four, as have critics; Book Three has even been published by itself. Paintings! Some critics have come to the defense of the other volumes, pointing out and effect drinking, their importance, while admitting that the long catalogues contained therein do not make lively reading. Books One, Two, and Four have been criticized as lacking in narrative unity and being simply a series of unconnected episodes. Such critics as Lars Nyberg have taken issue with this judgment, stating that the unifying elements are to be found on paintings essay, the symbolic, thematic and emotional level, while granting that events are loosely arranged, seemingly without any organizing connection with each other. It is to the story of gordon wood radicalism american, Jason and Medea's love for each other that Apollonius owes his reputation. Gillies, writing on a particular scene in Book Three, comments that its subtle balance and symmetry are such as only the closest analysis can reduce to a formal pattern; and it is executed with a delicacy of feeling which it is almost an compare and contrast essay impertinence to praise.

Scholar Barbara Pavlock has written, Playful and ironic, the Argonautica reflects the popular culture, poet's self-consciousness about the vast distance between his own age and the heroic period represented in Homer's two great epics. Modern criticism has explored the and contrast essay, question of what genre best defines the popular culture essay, Argonautica. Some critics have even claimed that the Argonautica is actually an anti-epic. Charles Rowan Beye has noted that while the work is formally an epic, its emphasis on private narrative about private people makes it more like the romance or the novel. Access our Apollonius Rhodius Study Guide for Free.

Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica [translated by R. C. Seaton] 1912. The Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius [translated by G. W. Mooney] 1912. The Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius [translated by M. M. Gillies] 1928. Argonautica: Book III [translated by compare and contrast paintings essay, R. L. Hunter] 1989. Essay! The Argonautika [translated by Peter Green] 1997. SOURCE: An introduction to The Argonautica of Apol-lonius Rhodius, edited by compare paintings, George W. Mooney, Longmans, Green and Co., 1912, pp. 26-48. [ In the following excerpt, Mooney provides an cause and effect essay drinking overview of the and contrast paintings, Argonautica, describes some of its chief characteristics, including its unsurpassed use of similes, but (with the exception of Medea) criticizes its characterizations as vague. Roelof Sheppard! ] … Apollonius chose for his theme the legend of the Argonauts, the quest of the golden fleece. For the purposes of an epic poem such a theme was well adapted.

The voyage of the paintings essay, Argo, the cause and effect essay on college drinking, first vessel which ploughed the lonely deep, was placed. (The entire section is and contrast essay, 5779 words.) Get Free Access to this Apollonius Rhodius Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on gordon wood radicalism american, your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. Marshall M. Gillies (essay date 1928) SOURCE: An introduction to The Argonautica of Apol-lonius Rhodius: Book III, by Apollonius Rhodius, edited by Marshall M. Gillies, Ayer Company, Publishers, Inc., 1985, pp. xxix-xlv.

[ In the following excerpt from a work originally published in 1928, Gillies summarizes the Argonautica, considers its relation to other Alexandrine literature, and discusses Apollonius's unprecedented treatment of and contrast, romance in Book Three. ] ( a) The Narratives of the Voyage. … The Argonautica begins, not with the departure of Jason from lolcus, but like a modern serial story, with a rapid synopsis of preceding events. Hard on the conventional. Difference Evaluation Essay! (The entire section is 6470 words.) Get Free Access to this Apollonius Rhodius Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: The Quarrel between Callimachus and Apollonius, in Zeitschrift fur Papyrologie und Epigraphik, Rudolf Habelt Verlag GMBH, 1980, pp. 1-19. [ In the following essay, Lefkowitz examines the contradictory evidence concerning the famous quarrel between Apollonius and compare paintings Callimachus and explains the positions held by each of the two poets. ] Before I ever read a line of integration, Apollonius I learned from my First Year Greek text that he was the compare and contrast paintings essay, target of about, Callimachus' quip: a big book is a big evil (F 465). Every assessment of Apollonius' work takes account of his alleged differences with Callimachus, 1 although no. (The entire section is 7605 words.) SOURCE: An introduction to Apollonius of Rhodes: Argonautica, Book III, edited by R. L. Hunter, Cambridge University Press, 1989, pp.

9-12. Compare Essay! [ In the following excerpt, Hunter discusses what little information can be gleaned from existing fragments concerning Apollonius's writings other than the Argonautica.] Works other than Argonautica 39. … About A.'s [Apollonius's] considerable output in both poetry and prose we are very poorly informed, but even scraps of information can help to place Arg. in its literary and intellectual context. One late source 40 refers to cause on college A.'s epigrams, but none. (The entire section is paintings essay, 1404 words.) SOURCE: What Did the Argonauts Seek in and effect essay on college drinking Colchis?, in compare essay Hermathena, No. 150, Summer, 1991, pp. 31-41. [ Below, Doumas suggests that the purpose behind the voyage of the Argonauts was to obtain the secrets of metallurgy. Popular Culture! ] As an archaeologist seeking to interpret a myth, I too, like the Argonauts, am sailing in difficult and compare and contrast essay possibly dangerous waters, but like them I accept the challenge, I have my motives. For, like G. S. Kirk, I believe that myths 'retain elements from difference essay a period many generations earlier than their first recording' and that they offer 'a cause or explanation of something in the real world'. 1 Thus I see the tale of the Golden Fleece and the Voyage. (The entire section is 4695 words.) SOURCE: Love, Fate, and Deceit: Some Principal Themes in the Argonautica, in Unity and Coherence: Studies in Apollonius Rhodius's Argonautica and compare and contrast paintings the Alexandrian Epic Tradition, Lund University Press, 1992, pp. 1-21. [ In the excerpt below, Nyberg replies to the criticism that the Argonautica lacks narrative unity, arguing that the poem's unity is and effect on college drinking, found in its themes and imagery. ] 1 Unity and coherence. The general view on the Argonautica has long been negative or at least rather ambivalent. As Levin has observed, there has been a tendency. to approach the and contrast essay, Argonautica in. Human Essay! (The entire section is 7715 words.) Charles Rowan Beye (essay date 1993)

SOURCE: The Argonautica, in Ancient Epic Poetry: Homer, Apollonius, Vergil, Cornell University Press, 1993, pp. 187-218. [ In the compare and contrast paintings, following excerpt, Beye explores the literary background of the Argonautica, outlines the plot of the work, and argues that its difficult structure and unanswered questions create difficulties for and effect, readers. ] She would have taken out her soul from her. and compare paintings given it to him, so thrilled was she at difference between evaluation argumentative essay, his. Desire cast its sweet flame out from Jason's. It captured her gleaming eyes. Her wits. (The entire section is 13704 words.) SOURCE: Argonautica and Aeneid, in The Argonautica of Apollonius: Literary Studies, Cambridge University Press, 1993, pp.

170-89. [ In the following excerpt, Hunter examines how Virgil incorporated the Argonautica into his Aeneid as a source of motifs and as a model for compare paintings, poetic techniques. Roelof Thesis! ] The study of how the Argonautica is exploited in the Aeneid has a long, and occasionally distinguished, history. 1 That it has not advanced further than it has is compare paintings, due to a number of factors, most notably the relative paucity of serious literary critical work on Apollonius' epic; until we have learned to national essay appreciate the. (The entire section is 8791 words.) SOURCE: An introduction to The Best of the Argonauts: The Redefinition of the Epic Hero in Book I of Apollonius's Argonautica, University of California Press, 1993, pp. 1-13. [ In the following excerpt, Clauss discusses both the major literary allusions found in the Argonautica, particularly to Homer, and the work's symmetrical structure. And Contrast! ] Anyone who approaches the Argonautica for thesis, the first time, whether in the original or in translation, will find this epic unusual and challenging for and contrast essay, a variety of reasons. First, the reader must have a detailed knowledge of the about integration, earlier versions of the Argonautic tale; he or she must also be reasonably conversant with. (The entire section is paintings essay, 5358 words.) SOURCE: An introduction to The Renewal of Epic: Responses to Homer in the Argonautica of Apollonius, E. J. Brill, 1995, pp. 1-48. [ In the following excerpt, Knight explores Appolonius's extensive use of the Iliad and the Odyssey as literary models and as sources of allusions and difference argumentative similes. ] The Argonautica has now emerged from a long period of comparative neglect to be considered in its own right, rather than merely as a stepping stone between Homer and Virgil. Compare! It may seem surprising, then, that I shall throughout this work measure the difference essay, Argonautica against the Homeric epics, both in verbal detail and in more general themes. And Contrast Paintings Essay! This approach is. (The entire section is 19780 words.) SOURCE: An introduction to The Argonautika, by Apollonius Rhodius, translated by Peter Green, University of California Press, 1997, pp.

1-13. [ In the following excerpt, Green reviews the known facts about the life of Apollonius and places in context his quarrel with Callimachus concerning the epic. ] The author of the Argonautika is roelof sheppard thesis, a remarkably elusive character. We do not know exactly when he was born, or the and contrast essay, date of gordon radicalism of the american, his death. At least three cities—Alexandria, Naukratis, and, inevitably, Rhodes—were claimed in antiquity, and continue to be argued for paintings essay, today, as his birthplace. Our main sources for his life are not only late, but. (The entire section is 6152 words.) Albis, Robert V. Human! The Poet's Ecstasy, in Poet and Audience in the Argonautica of Apollonius, pp. 17-42.

Lanham, Maryland: Rowman Littlefield Publishers, 1996. Explores the importance of Apollo to the authority, content, and form of the Argonautica. Bacon, Janet Ruth. Some Interpretations, in The Voyage of the Argonauts, pp. 42-66. London: Methuen Co. 1925. Compare And Contrast Paintings Essay! Considers the many conjectures concerning the purpose of the voyage of the Argonauts and explains how each is lacking in credibility.

Beye, Charles Rowan. The Heroes, in Epic and Romance in the Argonautica, of Apollonius, pp. 77-99. Urbana.

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Freud, Sigmund - Der Dichter und das Phantasieren - Ein Essay. Seminararbeit 1995 14 Seiten. 3 Der Dichter und das Phantasieren Wertvolle Bundesgenossen sind aber die Dichter, und ihr Zeugnis ist hoch anzuschlagen, denn sie pflegen eine Menge von Dingen zwischen Himmel und Erde zu wissen, von denen sich unsere Schulweisheit noch nichts traumen la?t. Compare And Contrast Paintings! Sigmund Freud, Der Wahn und die Traume in sheppard thesis, W. Compare! Jensens 'Gradiva', 1907. Eine Biographie uber Sigmund Freud beginnt mit den Worten: Trotz seiner literarischen Qualitat gehort das Werk von Freud doch nicht in of the, erster Linie zur Literatur; es visiert eine Wahrheit an. Compare And Contrast Essay! Die Kommentatoren eines solchen Werkes konnten zwischen verschiedenen Arten des Zugangs wahlen, je nach ihrer eigenen Auffassung vom Wahren. Gordon Radicalism Of The American! 1 Sind auch die diversen Essays Sigmund Freuds lediglich der Wahrheit verpflichtet, und entziehen sie sich einer literaturkritischen Betrachtung - wie es der Freud-Biograph Mannoni (1971, S. Compare Paintings! 96) fordert, der schreibt, Freuds Arbeiten auf dem Gebiet der psychoanalytischen Literaturbetrachtung durften weder vom Standpunkt der Asthetik noch von dem der Literaturkritik betrachtet werden? Diese Frage kann bezuglich des Freudschen Essays verneint werden. Communication! Schon Michel Eyquem, Seigneur de Montaigne (1533-1592), Schlo?herr und Burgermeister von Bordeaux, bezeichnete seine Essais als blo?e Versuche, die Wahrheit zu ergrunden.

Von Interesse fur die Philologie ist Freuds Essay Der Dichter und das Phantasieren (1907), steht doch in ihm eindeutig die Vorstellung im Vordergrund, Texte seien als Au?erungen des Seelenlebens ihrer Autoren aufzufassen - die Grundlage jeder Art von Interpretation. And Contrast Paintings! Man konnte es auch einfacher ausdrucken: Ist die Frage geklart, woher der Dichter seine Phantasien bezieht, gelingt die vollstandige Interpretation des Textes. About National Essay! Der Essay, sofern es sich um einen handelt, ermoglicht im Prinzip auch eine Anwendung seiner Inhalte auf den Autor wie auch den Verfasser dieser Hausarbeit. Den Namen Essay pragte zuerst der bereits erwahnte Montaigne (1580), spater dann in compare paintings, England 1597 Bacon, im 18. Gordon Wood Of The American! Jh. folgten die englischen Essayisten, Addison, Steele und andere. And Contrast Paintings Essay! Gemeinhin versteht man unter einem Essay, fur den in wood radicalism, Deutschland vor 1859 die Bezeichnung Versuch gelaufig war, eine kurzere, bewu?t subjektiv gehaltene Abhandlung uber einen wissenschaftlichen Gegenstand. Compare And Contrast Paintings Essay! Auf eine erschopfende, vollstandige Analyse desselben wird im Essay bewu?t verzichtet. In einem Bereich zwischen Wissen und Zweifel werden Zusammenhange unverbindlich aufgezeigt; uber das metaphorisch zu verstehende Herumwandern auf einem Weg gelangt der Autor des Essays zu einer gedanklichen Klarung. Um eine Antwort auf die Frage zu finden, ob es sich also bei dem hierzu naher betrachteten Text Der Dichter und das Phantasieren uberhaupt um einen Essay handelt, wird er nach einer Beschreibung seiner Entstehung auf diesbezugliche charakteristische Merkmale untersucht. Als weitere Essays Freuds gelten u. Evaluation Argumentative! a. Compare And Contrast Essay! Zur Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens (1901), Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie (1905), Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewu?ten (1905) 2 , Psychopathische Personen auf der Buhne (1905-06), Der Wahn und die Traume in W. Difference Argumentative Essay! Jensens 'Gradiva' (1907), Jenseits des Lustprinzips (1920) und Das Unbehagen in and contrast, der Kultur (1929).

Der im folgenden als Gradiva-Studie bezeichnete Essay, dessen Inhalt als bekannt vorausgesetzt wird, korrespondiert mit dem untersuchten Text uber den Dichter und das Phantasieren und findet deshalb besondere Berucksichtigung. Da Freuds Ansatze zur psychoanalytischen Literaturbetrachtung Fortfuhrungen erfahren haben, wird gegen Ende der Arbeit auch diesem Aspekt Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt. Auf eine prazise Erlauterung oder Definition der psychoanalytischen Fachbegriffe (Verleugnung, Verdrangung, Regression etc.) verzichte ich, da dies umfangreich erfolgen mu?te und eine vollstandige Darlegung wissenschaftlicher Hintergrunde auch nicht Sinn einer Hausarbeit zum Thema Essayismus sein kann. Freud fand viele, in and effect essay drinking, seiner psychoanalytischen Praxis gewonnenen Erkenntnisse in literarischen Texten bestatigt. Compare And Contrast Essay! Sich auf die Biographie Heinrich Heines beziehend, analysierte er beispielsweise ein Wortspiel in cause and effect essay on college drinking, einem Witz 3 . Compare Paintings! Psychische Phanomene belegte er mit Namen aus antiken Tragodien (Odipus-Komplex u. Roelof Thesis! a.), die haufig zu beobachtenden Parallelen motivierten ihn zu dem spateren, folgenrichtigen Schlu?, Dichter und Psychologe seien aufs engste miteinander verbunden; in and contrast paintings essay, der Gradiva-Studie (S. Thesis! 43) hei?t es: So kann der Dichter dem Psychiater, der Psychiater dem Dichter nicht ausweichen (. Compare Essay! ). Die literarische Phantasie zeichnet sich gegenuber der freien Assoziation durch den Zwang zur Darstellung, zur asthetischen Form aus.

Bewu?te und unbewu?te Erlebnisgehalte werden in about integration essay, der Dichtung wie auch in der Psychoanalyse mit und in compare paintings, Sprache verstehbar. Nachdem Freud in evaluation argumentative essay, der Traumdeutung 1900 ausgefuhrt hatte, da? Traumgedanken durch Verschiebung und Verdichtung von Erlebnismomenten zustande kamen und da? durch die Methode der freien Assoziation die Bedeutung der Traume entschlusselt werden konne, stellt er dann 1907 die Analogie zu den sog. Essay! Tagtraumen her. Sein Weg fuhrt ihn uber die Analyse der Novelle von Wilhelm Jensen (1837-1911), La Gradiva, im Untertitel auch als pompejanisches Phantasiestuck bezeichnet, in popular, der Freud Wahn und Traume der fiktiven Charaktere und deren bewu?te oder unbewu?te Schopfung durch den Autor untersucht. Compare Essay! Im zweiten Essay nahert sich Freud der Fragestellung (vgl. Thesis! Kap. Compare And Contrast Paintings Essay! 3) uber die Deutung des Phanomens der Tagtraume.

Im Jahr 1905 (unsicher, evtl. Radicalism American! 1906) widmet sich Freud in paintings, dem Essay Psychopathische Personen auf der Buhne ausfuhrlicher den Dramen , die er in religiose, soziale und CharakterDramen unterteilt. Cause Essay Drinking! In einem Falle handelten sie vom Kampf des Menschen gegen die gottliche Ordnung (antike Tragodie), im anderen gegen die menschliche (burgerliche Tragodie), im letzten Fall schlie?lich gehe es um den Kampf zwischen den Menschen selbst (Charaktertragodie). Paintings! Der Bedeutung des Helden wird besondere Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt, als Beispiele werden Ajax, Philoktet und Hamlet genannt. Roelof Sheppard! Auch in and contrast essay, diesem kurzen Essay wird das Interesse Freuds an essay, den Schopfern der Dramen, den Dichtern, spurbar. Compare And Contrast Paintings! Lust und Leid als Grundmotive sowie erotische Tagtraume werden thematisiert. Die Essays Psychopathische Personen auf der Buhne, Der Dichter und das Phantasieren und die zuvor verfa?te Gradiva-Studie fallen zeitlich eng zusammen. And Effect Drinking! Der an zweiter Stelle genannte ist kurzer und komprimierter angelegt, bedingt durch die Konzeption als Vortrag, den Freud am 6. Dezember des Jahres 1907 in den Raumlichkeiten des Wiener Verlagsbuchhandlers Hugo Heller, Mitglied der Psychoanalytischen Vereinigung, hielt und dessen Wortlaut recht genau am folgenden Tag in paintings, der Wiener Tageszeitung Die Zeit wiedergegeben wurde. Roelof! Fur den Abdruck in einer neugegrundeten Berliner Zeitschrift Anfang 1908 besorgte dann Freud den vollstandigen Text. Der Gradiva-Studie gingen einige Auseinandersetzungen Freuds mit Literatur voraus, z. B. die kurze Analyse der Novelle Die Richterin von C. Compare And Contrast Paintings! F. Meyer (Brief vom 20. Juni 1898 an of the american, Flie?) und die Betrachtungen zu Konig Odipus oder Hamlet in der Traumdeutung (1900) sowie die bereits angesprochenen Helden im Essay Psychopathische Personen auf der Buhne (1905/06?).

Bevor sich C. Compare And Contrast Paintings! G. Jung und Freud personlich kennenlernten, machte jener diesen auf Wilhelm Jensens Buch La Gradiva aufmerksam. Freud schrieb seinen Essay vor allem Jung zuliebe, und man kann sagen, da? der Zeitpunkt des Entstehens der Freundschaft beider Manner, die einige Jahre dauerte, mit dem Erscheinen der Gradiva-Studie (Mai 1907) zusammenfallt. Culture! Im ubrigen eine der fruhen psychoanalytischen Arbeiten Freuds, wird diese auch als Vorbote ihrer Freundschaft bezeichnet (Freud 1907, S. Compare Paintings Essay! 11). Communication Essay! Mannoni (1971, S. Compare Paintings Essay! 98) weist darauf hin, da? es der wachsenden Freundschaft beider Manner zuzuschreiben sei, da? Freud die Analyse mit viel Eleganz verfa?te. Gordon Wood Radicalism Of The! Die Naivitat des Werkes erleichtere dessen Interpretation. Essay! Der Roman selbst (richtiger: die Novelle, Anm.) verdanke es ausschlie?lich Freud, da? er nicht langst vergessen sei. In seiner Selbstdarstellung (1925) spricht Freud zwar etwas abschatzig von einer an difference evaluation argumentative essay, sich nicht besonders wertvollen Novelle, er schickte jedoch ein Exemplar seiner Analyse an paintings essay, Jensen, der sich offenbar geschmeichelt fuhlte und mit Freud eine Zeitlang korrespondierte. Es ist interessant, da? Jensen die Interpretationen Freuds zu billigen schien.

Im Nachtrag zur zweiten Auflage (1912) gibt Freud an, weitere Werke Jensens untersucht zu haben, und zwar die Novellen Der rote Schirm und Im gotischen Hause. Human Communication Essay! Es sei leicht zu ersehen, da? alle drei Erzahlungen das gleiche Thema behandelten, die Entwicklung einer Liebe (. Compare Essay! ) aus der Nachwirkung einer intimen, geschwisterahnlichen Gemeinschaft der Kinderjahre. Difference Argumentative Essay! Auch Jensens letzter Roman, der viel von dessen eigener Jugend enthalte, schildere das Schicksal eines Mannes, der in compare and contrast paintings, der Geliebten eine Schwester erkennt. National Integration Essay! 4. Oft wird darauf hingewiesen, da? Freud in and contrast essay, der Archaologie eine Analogie zu seinen eigenen psychoanalytischen Forschungen (Verschuttung als Verdrangung, Analyse als Ausgrabung) gesehen hat, auf die ihn auch Jensen in beider Korrespondenz aufmerksam machte. Essay! Neben der spater entstandenen Geschichte des Rattenmannes (1909) findet sich bereits in compare paintings essay, der Gradiva- Studie das Beispiel der im Jahre 79 verschutteten romischen Stadt Pompeji als Gleichnis fur die Verdrangung: Es gibt wirklich keine bessere Analogie fur die Verdrangung, die etwas seelisches zugleich unzuganglich macht und konserviert, als die Verschuttung, wie sie Pompeji zum Schicksal geworden ist und aus der die Stadt durch die Arbeit des Spatens wieder erstehen konnte. Popular Culture Essay! 5.

Freud war von Kindheit an and contrast paintings, von archaologischen Vorhaben und Fundstucken fasziniert gewesen; neben Italien interessierte ihn vor allem das alte Agypten. Seine eigene Antikensammlung umfa?te zuletzt rund 3000 Objekte. Wood Of The! Er unterhielt beispielsweise Kontakte zu dem Sammler, Archaologen und Kunsthandler Pollack, zu dem Antiquar Lustig sowie zu dem Wiener Archaologen Loewy, mit dem ihn eine Freundschaft verband. 3 Der Dichter und das Phantasieren Ein Autor uberlegt sich stets, auf welche Art und Weise er durch seinen Text den Leser oder Zuhorer am besten erreichen kann - und dies kann ganz im psychoanalytischen Sinne bewu?t oder unbewu?t geschehen. And Contrast Paintings! Er bezieht dabei die au?eren Umstande der Prasentation (Vortrag oder Druck) mit in seine Uberlegungen ein. Essay Drinking! In dem vorliegenden Falle eines Essays uber den Dichter und seine Phantasien mussen wir davon ausgehen, da? der Text als Redetext konzipiert war. Compare And Contrast Essay! Dem Leser der gedruckten Fassung eroffnen sich aber an manchen Stellen Moglichkeiten tieferer Interpretation, die hier nicht unberucksichtigt bleiben sollen. Schon der erste Satz, mit dem Freud seinen Vortrag eroffnet, ist charakteristisch fur seine gesamte Ausfuhrung: Uns Laien hat es immer machtig gereizt zu wissen, woher diese merkwurdige Personlichkeit, der Dichter, seine Stoffe nimmt (. National Integration Essay! ) 6. Vom Publikum in den Raumen des Verlagsbuchhandlers Heller sicher nur kurz zur Kenntnis genommen, kommt der Au?erung doch tiefere Bedeutung zu:

Freud nimmt in and contrast, diesem ersten Satz einige Implikationen vor, er bezeichnet sich und seine. Zuhorer als Laien auf dem Gebiete der Dichtkunst, eine feinsinnige Ironie, denn erstens ist belegt, da? er selbst gerne schriftstellerisch tatig war und sich durchaus ein gewisses Talent zugestand, und zweitens wird gerade am Gegenstand seiner Ausfuhrungen wenig spater klar, da? der Vortragende sich keineswegs als Laien zu betrachten hat, denn die Dichter selbst versichern uns so haufig, da? in and effect on college, jedem Menschen ein Dichter stecke und da? der letzte Dichter erst mit dem letzten Menschen sterben werde. Freud reflektierte fruh seine literarischen Qualitaten, dies wird bereits in compare and contrast paintings, dem altesten erhaltenen Brief an Emil Flu?, einen Kindheitsfreund, deutlich: Mein Professor sagte mir zugleich - und er ist der erste Mensch, der sich untersteht, mir das zu sagen -, da? ich hatte, was Herder so schon einen idiotischen Stil nennt, das ist einen Stil, der zugleich korrekt und charakteristisch ist. Roelof Sheppard! 7. Weiterhin behauptet der Redner im ersten Satz, der Dichter sei eine merkwurdige Personlichkeit. Bedenkt man, da? es sich bei dem Vortragenden immerhin um dem Begrunder der Psychoanalyse handelt, wiegt die Au?erung schwerer, als wenn sie etwa von einem anderen Literaturkritiker getan worden ware, denn der Begriff Personlichkeit ist somit nicht im landlaufigen Sinne zu verstehen, sondern als wissenschaftlicher Terminus, dem aber - ganz essayistisch - das betont unwissenschaftliche Attribut merkwurdig mit anheimgegeben wird, wodurch ein spannungsreicher Kontrast von Objektivitat und Subjektivitat erzeugt wird, der auf diese Weise die Neugier des Publikums zu wecken geeignet ist.

Ferner wird beim genaueren Betrachten deutlich, da? bereits im ersten Satz eine erschopfene Analyse und eine Beantwortung der Frage, woher denn der Dichter nun seine Phantasien nehme, nicht in compare and contrast paintings, Aussicht gestellt wird. Popular! Handelte es sich um einen voll und ganz wissenschaftlich konzipierten Vortrag, hie?e es vermutlich: Sie haben sich sicher schon immer gefragt, woher der Dichter seine Phantasien nimmt (Implikation: Ich, der Redner, habe die Antwort fur Sie). Der erste Satz kann so - unter Berucksichtigung der Kurze des Gesamttextes (gut neun Seiten) - als Mikro-Exposition bezeichnet werden. Weiterhin fuhrt Freud aus, der Dichter wisse selbst nicht genau, woher er seine Stoffe nehme, und wenn auf der anderen Seite der Redner und seine Zuhorerschaft Einsicht in compare, das Wesen poetischer Gestaltungskunst nahmen, so machte sie dies noch lange nicht selbst zu Dichtern. Roelof Sheppard! Wie bereits erwahnt, wird dann aber scheinbar widerspruchlich hinzugefugt, in compare and contrast paintings essay, jedem Menschen stecke ein Dichter. Aus diesem paradox anmutenden erneuten Verwirrspiel des Vortragenden entsteht auf seiten des Zuhorers mit Sicherheit eine zusatzliche Spannung, der Freud direkt im Anschlu? dann eine zwar oberflachliche, aber doch wissenschaftlich erscheinende Gedankenfuhrung folgen la?t. National! Die Kindheit musse - wie meistens - zu Rate gezogen werden, um tiefere Einblicke in and contrast paintings, den Gegenstand der Untersuchung zu gewinnen.

Das Kind ersetze sich die Wirklichkeit im Spiel durch eine Phantasie, in essay, der es seine eigene Welt erschaffe. Paintings Essay! Beim erwachsenen. Menschen wie beim Dichter ersetze das Spiel gleichfalls die Wirklichkeit, Ziel sei in popular, allen Fallen ein Lustgewinn, was sich auch in compare and contrast essay, der Sprache widerspiegele, die Lust-, Trauer- und Schauspiel unterscheide. Popular! Beim Erwachsenen finde eine Ersatzbildung statt, denn Phantasieren sei letzlich Spielersatz, im Unterschied zum Kinde sei das Spielen nun gesellschaftlich nicht mehr erlaubt. Phantasie sei also Wunscherfullung, beim Kranken (Nervosen) wie beim Gesunden - oder genauer: beim Unbefriedigten wie beim Befriedigten.

An dieser Stelle wird offensichtlich kein Anspruch auf Vollstandigkeit erhoben, die Unterscheidung erscheint durftig - ein essayistisches Merkmal. Von den Phantasien wird nun ein Bogen geschlagen zu den sogenannten Tagtraumen. Solche schmiegten sich den Lebenseindrucken an, von Bedeutung sei eine Zeitmarke, fur die Freud ein Beispiel anfuhrt, das er selbst als das banalste relativiert und so abermals seine Subjektivitat betont: Nehmen Sie den Fall eines armen und verwaisten Junglings an, welchem Sie die Adresse eines Arbeitgebers genannt haben, bei dem er vielleicht eine Anstellung finden kann. Paintings Essay! Auf dem Wege dorthin mag er sich in between, einem Tagtraum ergehen, wie er angemessen aus seiner Situation entspringt. Paintings! Der Inhalt dieser Phantasie wird etwa sein, da? er dort angenommen wird, seinem neuen Chef gefallt, sich im Geschafte unentbehrlich macht, in die Familie des Herrn gezogen wird, das reizende Tochterchen des Hauses heiratet und dann selbst als Mitbesitzer wie spater als Nachfolger das Geschaft leitet. About National Integration! Und dabei hat sich der Traumer ersetzt, was er in compare and contrast paintings essay, der glucklichen Kindheit besessen: das schutzende Haus, die liebenden Eltern und die ersten Objekte seiner zartlichen Neigung. Cause And Effect Essay On College! Sie sehen an compare and contrast, solchem Beispiele, wie der Wunsch einen Anla? der Gegenwart benutzt, um sich nach dem Muster der Vergangenheit ein Zukunftsbild zu entwerfen. Culture Essay! 8.

Mit Traumen verhalte es sich ebenso, in paintings essay, beiden Fallen spielten vor allem verdrangte Wunsche eine Rolle. Gordon Wood Radicalism Of The! Hierbei nennt Freud im Prinzip ein alltaglicheres Beispiel, das seiner Zuhorerschaft naher steht, als die zuvor in compare paintings essay, der Gradiva-Studie analysierten Traume des Protagonisten Norbert Hanold. Sheppard Thesis! Gleichwohl hatte er einen beliebigen Traum aus der Novelle Jensens wahlen konnen, um seine Ausfuhrungen zu verdeutlichen. And Contrast Paintings! Ein Gro?teil der Studie handelt von nichts anderem als vom Nachweis verdrangter Wunsche, die sich in gordon radicalism american, Hanolds Traumen manifestieren, es geht in compare, dem Vortrag nicht um die Phantasien oder Tagtraume einer fiktiven Person, sondern um die des Dichters. Als sei der Vortragende an between argumentative essay, dieser Stelle trotzdem an den Autor Jensen erinnert worden, nimmt er nun eine Unterscheidung der Dichter vor: Man musse die Dichter, die fertige Stoffe ubernehmen wie die alten Epiker und Tragiker, sondern von jenen, die ihre Stoffe frei zu schaffen scheinen. Compare And Contrast Essay! Halten wir uns an national essay, die letzteren und suchen wir fur unsere Vergleichung nicht gerade jene Dichter aus, die von der Kritik am hochsten geschatzt werden, sondern die anspruchsloseren Erzahler von Romanen, Novellen und Geschichten, die dafur die zahlreichsten und eifrigsten Leser und Leserinnen finden. 9. Es ist bereits an compare essay, anderer Stelle (vgl.

Kap. 2) darauf verwiesen worden, da? Freud Jensens Novelle keinen hohen literarischen Stellenwert einraumte, auch wenn er in communication essay, der Studie die Erzahlung als nicht uninteressant (S. Compare Paintings! 78) bezeichnet. Thesis! Es drangt sich also die Deutung auf, Freud habe mit dieser Unterscheidung mehr bezweckt, als eine wissenschaftliche Aufarbeitung zweier Kategorien von Dichterphantasien, vermutlich liegt es nahe, anzunehmen, da? der Redner meint, seine Erkenntnisse aus dem eigenen Erfahrungsschatz einer ausfuhrlicheren Untersuchung - der Gradiva-Studie namlich - genauer artikulieren zu konnen. Die Ausklammerung einer gro?en Gruppe von Dichtern, die doch eigentlich Gegenstand des Vortrages sind, bedeutet auf jeden Fall einen noch deutlicheren Verzicht auf umfassende und erschopfende Darstellung als an compare and contrast paintings, anderen Stellen bisher erkennbar war. Unter gleichzeitiger Bezugnahme auf das anfangs untersuchte Spiel des Kindes, formuliert Freud ferner: Der psychologische Roman verdankt im ganzen wohl seine Besonderheit der Neigung des modernen Dichters, sein Ich durch Selbstbeobachtung in culture essay, Partial-Ichs zu zerspalten und demzufolge die Konfliktstromungen seines Seelenlebens in paintings, mehreren Helden zu personifizieren. Cause On College! [. ] Ein starkes aktuelles Erlebnis weckt im Dichter die Erinnerung an compare, ein fruhes, meist der Kindheit angehoriges Erlebnis auf, von welchem nun der Wunsch ausgeht, der sich in der Dichtung seine Erfullung schafft; die Dichtung selbst la?t sowohl Elemente des frischen Anlasses als auch der alten Erinnerung erkennen. Between Essay! [. ] [Die] Dichtung wie der Tagtraum [sind] Fortsetzung und Ersatz des einstigen kindlichen Spieles [. ] 10 An dieser Stelle scheint sich nun der Kreis logisch geschlossen zu haben: Das kindliche Spiel werde beim Erwachsenen zum Lusterhalt durch Phantasien bzw. And Contrast Paintings Essay! Tagtraume ersetzt, denen also ein Muster der Vergangenheit zugrunde liege, nach dem sie sich durch einen aktuellen Anla? entwickelten, und genauso sei es auch beim Dichter: Die Dichtung sei folglich Kindheitserinnerung, gepaart mit einem frischen Anla?.

Und noch ein weiterer Kreis schlie?t sich, bedenken wir die Aussagen Freuds im Nachwort zur 2. And Effect Essay! Auflage der Gradiva- Studie, in dem er auf weitere Novellen Jensens Bezug nimmt und andeutet, da? sich das Grundmotiv stark ahnele: Geschwisterahnliche Liebe in essay, der Kindheit werde im Erwachsenenalter wiedererweckt. Diese Stelle ist nun eigentlich sehr gut geeignet, um eine Theorie uber die Phantasien des Autors Jensen zu formulieren, die aber unterbleibt. Roelof! Da die 2. Compare Essay! Auflage erst 1912 entstand, hatte Freud bei seinem Vortrag moglicherweise noch keine Kenntnisse der weiteren Novellen, doch da auch in der Gradiva Kindheitsspiel und Erwachsenenphantasie sich am Schlu? beim Protagonisten Hanold zur Klarung verdichten, ist anzunehmen, da? Freud an roelof sheppard thesis, die Gradiva- Studie denken mu?te. Der Schlu? seines Vortrages erfolgt dann beinahe abrupt nach einer sehr knapp gehaltenen Deutung der Volksmythen als Wunschphantasien ganzer Nationen. Es scheint, als habe der Redner hier einen Aspekt nur kurz tangieren wollen, dann aber den Gegenstand seiner Uberlegungen doch als insoweit abgehandelt betrachtet, als da? eine hinreichende Klarung erfolgt sei, die es nun gebiete, neue, interessante und verwickelte Untersuchungen zu beginnen oder die Erorterung abzuschlie?en.

Wie der Anfang erscheint auch der Schlu? des Textes essayistisch. And Contrast Paintings Essay! Auf eine vollstandige Klarung des Sachverhaltes wird bewu?t verzichtet: Wie der Dichter das zustande bringt, das ist sein eigenstes Geheimnis, und so soll es offenbar auch bleiben. Popular Essay! Die Subjektivitat der Ausfuhrungen wird mehrfach betont: Ich konnte Ihnen nur Anregungen und Aufforderungen bringen. , Ich fuge nun hinzu. , Ich bin der Meinung. Eine gewisse Faszination der eigentlichen Fragestellung Freuds, woher denn der Dichter seine Phantasien beziehe, entsteht durch die Ubertragbarkeit auf alle Situationen, in paintings essay, denen ein Autor einen Leser findet, beispielweise als Jung und Freud die Gradiva von Jensen lasen, als ich die Gradiva-Studie Freuds las, aber auch in essay on college drinking, dem Moment, in and contrast paintings essay, dem diese Hausarbeit gelesen wird. Deren Fragestellung lautete nun, inwieweit es sich bei dem Vortrag uber den Dichter und das Phantasieren um einen Essay handele. Gordon Wood American! Nach eingehender Betrachtung erscheint es plausibel, sowohl den als Vortrag konzipierten Text als auch die Abhandlung uber den Wahn und die Traume in compare and contrast paintings essay, W. Cause And Effect Essay On College Drinking! Jensens 'Gradiva' als Essay zu bezeichnen. Compare Essay! In beiden Werken - besonders im Vortrag - wird der Verzicht auf umfassende Klarung des Sachverhaltes deutlich.

Ein immer wieder vorgenommenes Herausstellen der Subjektivitat der Untersuchung und eine Anlehnung an integration essay, den metaphorisch beschrittenen Weg auch in and contrast paintings, der Gradiva-Studie (Wie kam es denn, da? wir uns [. About National! ] fortrei?en lie?en?; Unser Vorgehen [erscheint] 11 Ich will nun zum Traum zuruckkehren 12 ; [Es] wurde uns viel zu weit weg [. Paintings Essay! ] fuhren 13 ) unterstreichen eindeutig den essayistischen Charakter der Texte. Abschlie?end sei noch kurz auf die weitergehenden Untersuchungen von Literatur aus psychoanalytischem Blickwinkel verwiesen. Popular Essay! Neben beispielsweise Peter von Matt (1972, 1994), der einen Uberblick uber das Verhaltnis von Literatur und Psychoanalyse liefert und das Schicksal der Phantasie erforscht, erscheinen auch bis heute in essay, gro?er Zahl Zeitschriftenartikel, die sich mit dem Thema auseinandersetzen, von denen hier exemplarisch einige angefuhrt werden sollen: - In seinem Artikel Der Wahn und die Traume in difference essay, 'Der Tod in compare essay, Venedig'. Human Communication! Thomas Manns folgenreiche Freud-Lekture im Jahr 1911 untersucht Manfred Dierks (1990) den Einflu? der Psychoanalyse auf den genannten Roman sowie den Zauberberg und weist nach, da? Thomas Mann insbesondere von Freuds Arbeit Der Wahn und die Traume in compare, W. Gordon Of The! Jensens 'Gradiva' stark beeinflu?t war, wie ja bereits der Titel des Artikels nahelegt. - In der Zeitschrift fur psychoanalytische Theorie und Praxis wird von Falk Berger (1994) am Beispiel Rainer Maria Rilkes die psychoanalytische Deutung von literarischen Werken erortert. Einleitend wird darauf hingewiesen, da? Kunstwerke fur die Identitat von Individuen oder gro?en Gruppen unterschiedliche Bedeutung haben konnten und da? die widerspruchliche Rezeption der Dichtung Rilkes auf deren vielschichtigen Charakter verweise.

Sie sei einerseits Beispiel fur differenzierte und individuelle Wahrnehmungsmoglichkeit, andererseits lose sie eine asthetische Regression aus, in der an and contrast paintings essay, Stelle der Wahrnehmung der Realitat der Genu? einer perversen Phantasie trete. Popular Culture! Hieran werde die von Freud beschriebene Funktion der Kunst als Ersatzbefriedigung besonders deutlich. Man findet in psychoanalytischen Literaturkritiken auch ubertrieben anmutende Analysen, von denen exemplarisch eine erwahnt werden soll, da sie sich mit der Gradiva unter Berucksichtigung der Studie Freuds beschaftigt: In ihrem Artikel Verleugnung in compare and contrast essay, Wilhelm Jensens 'Gradiva' versucht Margret Fischer (1993), Freuds Untersuchungen um einige Aspekte zu erweitern. Human! Das Geheimnis des schonen Ganges, ein wesentliches Kennzeichen der Gradiva sei als Verleugnung und heimliche Verspottung korperlicher Einstellungen durch Mi?bildung oder Schwangerschaft zu entschlusseln. Compare And Contrast! Die Abscheu als authentisches Gefuhl angesichts korperlicher Behinderung werde duch das idealisierte Gegenteil (schwarmerische Hingabe) ersetzt. Culture Essay! Sprach- und naturwissenschaftliche Exkurse sowie die Einbeziehung des gesellschaftlichen Umfeldes Jensens sollen die Beweisfuhrung stutzen. An dieser Stelle kann die Arbeit - ganz essayistisch - mit einem Zitat Freuds beendet werden: Jeder soll mit seinen Ansichten uber die Entwicklung des Helden recht behalten, ich freue mich schon, wie die sich irren werden.

14. Berger, F. Paintings Essay! (1994): Eine lachende Wasserkunst. Cause Essay Drinking! Asthetisches Regression und psychoanalytische Deutung am Beispiel Rainer Maria Rilkes. Compare And Contrast Paintings! Zeitschrift fur psychoanalytische Theorie und Praxis, 9 (1), S. 25-42. Bondy , F., et al. Essay! (Hrsg., 1989): Harenbergs Lexikon der Weltliteratur. Band 2. Compare And Contrast Essay! Dortmund. Roelof Sheppard! S. Compare And Contrast Essay! 1010 f. Dierks, M. (1990): Der Wahn und die Traume in popular culture essay, Der Tod in Venedig. Thomas Manns folgenreiche Freud-Lekture im Jahr 1911.

Psyche, 44 (3), S. 240-268. Fischer, M. Compare And Contrast Paintings Essay! (1993): Verleugnung in human communication essay, Wilhelm Jensens Gradiva. And Contrast Paintings Essay! System ubw, 11 (1), S. And Effect Essay On College Drinking! 86- 97. Freud, S. Compare And Contrast! (1907): Der Wahn und die Traume in about integration, W. And Contrast Paintings! Jensens Gradiva. Popular Culture Essay! In: Freud, S.: Studienausgabe. Compare! Band 10 (Bildende Kunst und Literatur). S. Sheppard Thesis! 9-85. Freud, S. (1908): Der Dichter und das Phantasieren.

In: Freud, S.: Studienausgabe. Compare! Band 10 (Bildende Kunst und Literatur). Of The American! S. Compare And Contrast Paintings! 169-180. Freud, S. Cause Essay Drinking! (1940): Gesammelte Werke. Essay! Hrsg. Wood Radicalism Of The! von Anna Freud. Compare And Contrast! Frankfurt a. M. Popular! 1940-1968. And Contrast Essay! Freud, S. Popular Culture Essay! (1942): Psychopathische Personen auf der Buhne.

In: Freud, S.: Studienausgabe. Band 10 (Bildende Kunst und Literatur). Compare And Contrast! S. Thesis! 161-168. Freud, S. (1956): Totem und Tabu. And Contrast Essay! Frankfurt a. Sheppard Thesis! M. Freud, S. (1958): Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewu?ten. Frankfurt a. M. Freud, S. Compare And Contrast Paintings Essay! (1969): Studienausgabe. Between! Band 10 (Bildende Kunst und Literatur). Hrsg. von Mitscherlich, A., Richards, A., und Strachey, J. Compare Paintings! Frankfurt a. M.

Mannoni, O. (1971): Sigmund Freud. Difference Evaluation! Reinbek. von Matt, P. Compare Paintings! (1972): Literaturwissenschaft und Psychoanalyse. Wood Of The! Munchen. von Matt, P. Compare! (1994): Das Schicksal der Phantasie. Studien zur deutschen Lietratur. National! Munchen.

1 Mannoni (1971), S. Compare And Contrast! 7. 2 Freud hatte die Manuskripte der beiden letzteren Texte offen auf zwei Tischen vor sich liegen. Human! Er arbeitete abwechselnd an paintings essay, ihnen und fand offensichtlich Entspannung darin (vgl. Between Argumentative Essay! Mannoni 1971, S. And Contrast Essay! 91). 3 Freud, Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewu?ten, S. Essay On College Drinking! 106.

4 Freud (1969), S. Essay! 85. 5 Freud (1907), S. Cause And Effect Essay Drinking! 40. 6 Freud (1908), S. And Contrast Essay! 171. 7 Freud, S.: Zur Psychologie des Gymnasiasten. Gesammelte Werke, Band 10 (204-207), S. Essay! 205. 8 Freud (1908), S. And Contrast Essay! 175. 9 Freud (1908), S. About Essay! 176.

10 Freud (1908), S. 177 f. In Totem und Tabu findet sich zu diesem Thema eine Anmerkung: Den Projektionsschopfungen der Primitiven stunden die Personifikationen nahe, durch welche der Dichter die in compare paintings essay, ihm ringenden etgegengesetzten Triebregungen als gesonderte Individuen aus sich herausstellt. (Freud 1956, S. Human Essay! 71, Anm. Compare And Contrast Paintings! 1.). 11 Freud (1907), S. 41. 14 Freud, S.: Brautbriefe. Roelof! Briefe an compare and contrast paintings essay, Martha Bernays aus den Jahren 1882-1886. Culture! Hrsg. Compare And Contrast Paintings! von Ernst L. Roelof! Freud. Compare And Contrast Paintings Essay! Neuausg.

Frankfurt a. And Effect Essay On College Drinking! M. 1988. Compare Paintings Essay! Zit. Of The American! in: Mannoni (1971), S. Compare And Contrast Essay! 9.

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A bar chart – organising your answer. Much of the difficulty in compare and contrast paintings essay, academic IELTS part 1 is essay on college drinking knowing how to organise your answer. This post shows you one way to do this when the diagram is a bar chart. I talk about paragraphs, but what you really need to paintings, understand is that this is a visual task. You need to be write so that someone else can #8220;see#8221; the diagram. This post shows you one to organise your task 1 with a step-by-step guide and has the added bonus of an difference argumentative essay, interactive quiz on comparison language.

The key skill is to make sure that you write in compare essay, organised paragraphs just as you would in an essay. This is so important because it will not just improve your coherence and cohesion band scores, but it will also make the report easier to write. To do this, we need to identify key features that will make the topics of the paragraphs. Cause And Effect? When we have done that, we can look for the details that explain those features. Normally, they are obvious. Never ignore the obvious. Look at compare paintings essay, the bar chart below and what do you see?

What you should see is this: 2 sets of lines (one red and one blue) some lines are longer than others. Those are your key features that you must highlight in your report as paragraph topics. Popular Essay? Everything else is detail. Tip: Think visually . Look for compare paintings the obvious and ignore any writing when you first look at a chart. Close your eyes . What do you remember?

It#8217;s easy to be confused by roelof sheppard, detail. What are supporting details? Let#8217;s now look at the complete chart. We now see what the compare paintings essay, 2 key features that need to be reported are. Remember these will be the topics of our 2 content paragraphs : the distinction between men and women (the blue lines and culture the red lines) how certain purposes of travel are more common than others (how long the lines are) Looking at the blue and red lines this is what I see and essay needs to be included: little or no difference in popular culture, #8220;walking#8221; #8220;holidays#8221; and #8220;personal business#8221; more men in #8220;education#8221;, #8220;entertainment#8221; and #8220;commuting#8221; more women in #8220;school run#8221;, #8220;visiting friends#8221; and #8220;shopping#8221; many more women in #8220;school run#8221; (5% difference) many more men in essay, #8220;commuting#8221; (8% difference) This is fairly straightforward as all you need to do is radicalism of the arrange the different categories into an order showing the compare, most common and least common purposes. Essay? commuting and compare shopping much the most common (around 20% average) visiting friends and school run both around 15% average personal business just under 10% average sport/entertainment around 7% average just more than education at 6% least common is walking and holidays at around 3% each. Note the % figures here are averages of the male/female numbers. Tip: when you have many different categories, it is a good idea to group them together under a few headings. Popular? There are, of course, many possible answers to this task. Here is one solution. This bar chart shows the different reasons for making journeys in the UK in 2006 and how males and females differed in this.

It is immediately apparent that the paintings, most common purposes for travelling were commuting and shopping, both being around 20 per cent of trips. The next most common reasons were visiting friends and doing the school run at 15%, closely followed by personal business at around 10%. Travelling for sport and entertainment (7%) was only just more common than journeys for educational purposes (6%). Finally, the fewest number of trips were travelling for holidays and walking, both of culture which accounted for around 3 per cent of all journeys. Typically, there were few major differences between males and compare females.

In holidays, personal business and walking both sexes took approximately the same amount of journeys, while slightly more men travelled for educational purposes and more women visited friends. Popular Culture Essay? Notably, almost twice as many men as women travelled for compare paintings entertainment reasons and, likewise, around 7% more men commuted to work. The two areas in which women travelled significantly more than men were shopping and the school run. Test your comparison vocabulary/grammar. In this form of communication essay writing comparisons are crucial. Indeed, they are perhaps the compare and contrast, most important grammar item in between argumentative, academic task 1. So why not test yourself with this exercise? See if you can re-use the comparison language from my example. Paintings? Tip: try to vary the language you use to make comparisons.

One way to do this is use adverbs such as #8220;significantly#8221; Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of gordon of the american my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the and contrast, updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 22 Responses to A bar chart – organising your answer. i found the task really greatly done, however, i have a querie. For what i have been reading, you always say that we should not try to put all the data in our writing and argumentative here, you actualy did that#8230;.. Compare? So in this model of answer there is no such a thing as a conclusion? Hi, just a question.

I enrolled in a review center here in the Philippines, and they told us that we cannot use the word #8220;how#8221;in our introduction Because I noticed that you commonly used the popular culture, word in your introduction. Compare Paintings? By the way, an outstanding site for IELTS, I must say! And I regret that I only learned about this site just today #128577; I am always suspicious of advice that says you should never do something but all teachers have their own preferences. About Essay? The question you need to answer is #8220;Does it work?#8221; i#8217;m really greatfull i found this site, even 2 weeks before my examination. Is there sth about flow charts? I think it has completely different demands. I#8217;m so worried about compare and contrast paintings essay time management in culture essay, writing. I#8217;ll definitely try your tips. I have a question maybe It seems stupid, :S. how I can know that % figures are percentages or averages ? Thank u teacher, your lessons are helpful ! % is and contrast paintings simply the symbol for percentage. The general rule is you need to read the roelof, title for the chart/graph to understand what the figures relate to.

If the title reads the #8220;The average number of people who bought a television#8221;, then you know that the figures relate to averages. I hope that this does not confuse you but it is essay possible that the numbers you see are percentages, but those percentages are average figures. Sheppard Thesis? Thank you teacher It#8217;s became clear to compare and contrast paintings essay, me now #128512; I have another question , can we use the word #8221; proportion #8221; instead of difference evaluation argumentative #8221; percentage #8221; in compare and contrast, this type to avoid repeating the word “percentage”.? I hope I do not annoy with my questions, Indeed yes. Difference? #8220;Proportion#8221; is a key task 1 word. Keep on asking questions. I got the acceptance score #128512; thank you teacher , really your website help me alot #128512; Thanks for your help I finally reached 7, it would not have been possible without your site. Thank you for the wonderful website! The test at and contrast, all isn#8217;t too bad for me, but I just can#8217;t seem to get this part right. No matter how many times I#8217;ve tried to write a good essay on a graph/chart, I just couldn#8217;t do it. I get stuck from the flow of information, I can see trends, but too many! If I try to start with one of them, then I find myself missing the roelof sheppard thesis, others.

Eventually, I#8217;m left with a poor written piece of nothing #128577; The first essay is really holding me back on compare essay, my study to the test. What can I do to improve? How can I be knocked out of the #8220;information shock#8221; I#8217;m getting everytime I face the graphs/charts essay assignment? It#8217;s not easy.

I#8217;m hoping to publish more on this soon. Hope that helps. sir you have simplyfied so much that every body is human communication essay able to compare essay, understand.thanks. Gordon Radicalism Of The American? Sir, I really appreciate what you have done, this website is just fantastic for and contrast paintings learning IELTS. it#8217;s a pleasure to get a guidance frm you#8230;..this site is simply the best#8230; the main thing is wen v study we neva feel of endurance#8230;..great work . not comments at all only compliments. The site is very helpfull!!But i can not view the pictures.Is there a temporary technical problem ? Yes, it was i apologise. I think I have everything sorted out now, Please let me know if you have any further problems. I find this website exceptional great.

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Compare and Contrast: Preparing for an Art History Essay Exam

corruption essay But it’s not just individuals in public office that are corrupt. Leaders of large companies can misuse power to compare and contrast paintings, influence or achieve a possible goal for the company they are in charge of. Corruption can take on many forms including but not limited to: rent seeking behavior, bribery, and regulations or trade restrictions. Wood Radicalism American. Economic Rent The term rent or rent seeking is not what we pay to the landlord of our apartment or house.

According to Mauro (1997), rent (which is and contrast paintings short for economic rent) contribute greatly to acts of corruption especially so where the gregariously revered are the corrupt ones. This presupposes that in an environment where an essay individual visually perceive others around him/her benefiting from corruption, they may well opt to indulge additionally. Nepotism, that is, availing others because they are proximately cognate to you can furthermore be compared in psychological term. Moreover, monopoly of potency can additionally be a cause of corruption. This could often apply. Bureaucratic corruption has been described as a function of the size of the rewards and penalties under an official’s control, the discretion of the official in and contrast essay their allocation and, the accountability of officials for decisions and actions taken. As discretion increases and difference between evaluation argumentative, accountability declines, the potential for corruption grows. Further, where the compare and contrast essay, wages of public servants are low or there exists a large disparity between public and private sector wages, public servants may be more tempted to. Leadership and Corruption in popular Nigeria Essay. practices by her leaders” (Anazodo Rosemary 1).

Not only Nigeria, in the whole of Africa; its bad leadership and corruption that hinders our development. “. . . Compare Essay. Corruption in Africa siphons off 20 to 30 percent of funding from basic service provision” (Oluwole Owoye). As a matter of fact, before we gained independence, everything was going just good. Nigeria had no problem of corruption; our currency was one of the strongest as of that time, we were economically diversified and essay, there was peace. Now. Police corruption can be a very bad and crucial situation which causes a lot of problem and costs. Corruption Imposes high costs on the police, the criminal just system and society. A corrupt act by a police officer is a criminal act. Criminal activity by compare paintings, a police officer undermines the basic integrity of any law enforcement agency. Corruption protects other criminal activity.

Corruption protected gambling syndicates which were the cause on college drinking, major source of income for organized crime. Police corruption undermines. hosting promotional campaigns. Carrefour aims to rid itself of corruption | | | www.chinaview.cn 2006-07-18 10:58:33 | | BEIJING, July 18 -- Carrefour China is undergoing an anti-corruption drive in its 75 supermarkets across the country in a bid to improve management. Rapid expansion in China by the France-based retail giant has generated huge profits but also caused problems such as bribes and corruption in stores. The company's Shanghai headquarters yesterday sent. In both Hong Kong and Singapore, the top political leadership was committed to fighting corruption. In many developing countries, this commitment cannot be taken for granted (Svensson, 2005). This commitment by leadership and strength given to enforcement agencies, Svensson says, is crucial. This is in line with Paul Romer’s assessment of Hong Kong.

Initial attempts at compare essay reform in Hong Kong were met with mixed results. For example, Andvig and difference between evaluation, Fjeldstad note that the legalization of the compare and contrast essay, Hong. Politial Corruption in China Essay. financial benefits from guanxixue, reinforced the about national, prevalence and importance of the networks in Chinese society (Yang, 172). Given the ideological nature of socialism, it is not surprising that the CPC has a negative view of guanxixue and modern-day corruption. Furthermore, the ability of citizens to use social networks to accomplish official tasks and receive favors undermines the credibility of the state. As Guthrie notes, in the 1980s the CPC began to address the problem by creating state regulations. Corruption in Mexico Essay example. administration, which is so committed to cleansing Mexico of this endemic corruption, accomplish this goal? The sad fact is, it can't.

Mexico is compare essay up against roughly 500 years of between evaluation essay, history ingrained into his people. Compare. It also has two other major things working against it: the economy and an organized crime crisis. **If the average Mexican citizen could make a fair living by living fairly, then corruption wouldn't be seen as necessary. While corruption exists in the United States (and every country, for that matter) death of Macbeth. He was brutally killed by Macduf, the commander in chief of the english army set out to retake Scotland. He was motivated by the killings of his family, in which Macbeth had killed. What I write here is the many problems with corruption and what hasen't been done to aviod it. Human Communication. Macbeth was an example of many problems that go on in the world today.

There's always that deception you makes you believe everything is alright but that's never true When people come into a position of. Remuneration can also be a factor that can lead to fraud and corruption as poor pay contributes to how employees tend to and contrast essay, conduct their activities, often by accepting bribes and falsifying accounting documents. Impact of fraud and corruption to the organization Most organizations end up loosing a lot of sheppard, profits due to compare and contrast, the scrupulous nature of its employees. The organization ends up loosing its place in the competitive market and at times leading to argumentative essay, bankruptcy as most of its customers will tend. attorneys weve had.” “ He was also extremely fair,” said Miller, who represented two officers who were convicted with several witnesses (Jim Smith, 1987). Although the FBI’S police corruption probe continues Klien said during an interview last week that the primary thrust is behind him (Jim Smith, 1987). The corruption began in 1981 and and contrast essay, has led so far to the convictions of 31 former officers including Deputy police commissioner James Martin who has since died. Thomas H. Lee 35 an assistant U.S. attorney.

the work of a 30-person staff, including about a dozen investigators asserted that the Lindsay administration had failed to promptly investigate reports on specific corrupt acts, despite evidence that the corruption was widespread. Human Communication. Bit by bit, reports of the commission’s findings of police corruption in paintings essay New York City leaked out to cause essay, the public. One of the most sordid stories was told by then 14 year veteran officer, William Phillips. Officer Phillips, explained how he and innumerable other cops had taken. Why Is Corruption a Problem? Essay example.

In the political realm, it undermines democracy and good governance by flouting or even subverting formal processes. Essay. Corruption in elections and in legislative bodies reduces accountability and distorts representation in policymaking; corruption in the judiciary compromises the rule of law; and corruption in public administration results in the inefficient provision of services. In some country like Indonesia, some or maybe most of the politicians are corrupt. They can get huge houses, cars imported. Corruption and human communication, Indian Politics Essay. gone 'rotten in the Kingdom of India'. With India being the ‘largest democracy in the world’,can the number of zeros looted be proportional to the size of the democracy? The answer is an emphatic NO. Well what is democracy then? And how is corruption killing it?

Abraham Lincoln spoke of compare and contrast paintings essay, a representative democracy as a 'government of the difference argumentative essay, people, by the people, for compare paintings the people'. A government of which people? A prime minister who is only worried that the corporate sector will feel bad after the. The Westminster System and Corruption Essay. inherited system of government has been of popular essay, greater advantage or disadvantage to citizens throughout the Caribbean region. the governing of essay, several countries throughout the region over the past few decades has been marked by a steady increase in corruption, a lack of accountability and transparency among public officials, abuse of power by political factions and increasing crime rates. the point must be made that the view that what is good for difference essay Britain is good for the Caribbean can no longer be. Economy and Government Corruption in paintings essay the World Essay. lone positive outlier. Asian countries have the popular, most spread of compare essay, corruption amongst all of the region groups, which has some countries occupying the bottom and being the most corruption. Asia also has some of the least corrupted countries in gordon radicalism of the american New Zealand, Singapore, and Australia.

Countries such as Finland, Denmark, and New Zealand maintain top positions in being the least corrupt countries but have experienced a slight dip in their corruption ratings. There is and contrast paintings essay also a pattern of countries becoming less. How To Reduce Police Corruption Essay. Are certain types of officers more prone to being corrupted than others? As stated earlier, all officers are vulnerable to corruption.

A well trained, most often educated officer will be able to recognize the beginning stages of corruption. Ultimately it is the officer’s decision whether or not to fall prey to the exploitation presented to sheppard, them. There are certain factors that play a role in the development of a rogue officer. Compare And Contrast Essay. These factors include unfavorable work environments, police subculture. 63-64). His innocence is no longer available, that it is nearly a pawn in his game to be crown King of Scotland. While he seems very strong on the outside, very quietly on the inside Macbeth's existence is roelof thesis being thrown about, all from the corruption of the compare paintings essay, want of power which leads to cause and effect drinking, the feeling of guilt. Macbeth's ambition allows him to become more involved in the thought of becoming powerful. He first begins to think of his being King, after the three witches begin to tell. Corruption in Nigeria Tertiary Institution Essay.

Objective: The Nigerian society is undergoing reformation as a result of confusion in governance, moral decadence, corruption and corrupt practices on the part of stakeholders in compare education. These actions have affected educational quality and delivery. It is unfortunate that the national integration, educational system has lost its values and the society is compare and contrast paintings not any better due to essay, corruption. Compare Essay. The paper focuses on corruption in roelof sheppard thesis the tertiary institutions in Nigeria, which is and contrast a huge stumbling block in the educational sector. This paper. Corruption and Tribalism in Jamaican Politics Essay. eventually, eliminate, conditions in which corruption can exist.

There are too many departments that exist in government agencies that have to be accessed when carrying transactions. Administrative reform will give birth to new mechanisms, such as auditing and inspection, which will demand a more open and cause and effect drinking, accountable work practices within the crucial government agencies in our country. The aim of this measure is to efficiently combat and eliminate corruption across the administration. During the reforming. Bribery and Corruption in International Trade Essay. The distinction between international and domestic corruption is that normally international is involved with grand corruption and petty corruption is involved in domestic corruption. “Bribery of public officials takes place to obtain government contracts or to compare and contrast essay, get officials to do what they should be doing anyway” The problem of countries that uses a legal basis for ethical behaviour is that laws vary between countries. Not all moral values are common to every culture and strong governments may. Essay about human communication Clean Rewards Prevent Corruption. However, the key to curbing corruption relies on working out a set of severe supervisory measures that match rewards. And Contrast Paintings. It's easy to see whether civil servants have made mistakes or not, but it's difficult to determine whether they are corrupt.

How is clean performance defined? There must be a rigid assessment standard to ensure the transparency and fairness of reward system, so that it could really help curb corruption. Movies Backgrounders Special Photo Gallery Wuyetingcan (wenming. Essay on Global Political Corruption: Causes, Effects and Remedies. Besides in the era of democracy, members of the parliaments are hired through votes, but unfortunately vote rigging is a very common thing. Parliamentarians also add their considerable shares in moving the about integration, corruption cycle by having undue access to public funds.

However, Politicians may use the funds on their personal leisure like vocational trips abroad with their family etc. No doubt, elected members are supposed to utilize state assets in and contrast paintings essay best possible way; however, they may sell valuable asset. Taxation, Corruption and Unsuccessful Reforms Caused Rome to Fall. profits. This lead to disputes and the citizens of Rome could not raise enough money to pay all the taxes imposed because of this feud between the generals and the tax farmers (A.H.M. Jones Bartlett 291). In addition to the corruption between officials, there was corruption in the collection of about national essay, taxes. When tax farmers went to collect taxes and the citizens could not pay they were subject to severe beatings (Shaw 818). Roman tax collectors often hired thugs and soldiers to brutally mutilate and essay, attack.

Violence and Corruption Analysis: Slumdog Millionaire Essay example. with the about national, simplicity of the statement, “The answers. I knew the answers.” Boyle’s use of dialogue to reinforce images of violence and corruption emphasise Jamal’s essential goodness and honesty and allows the audience to witness the ability of inner strength to overcome physical brutality. Boyle uses cross cutting to further foreground the violence and corruption in the opening sequence. By cutting to the “Millionaire” set, with the non-diegetic ticking clock, the responder is bombarded with a. Police Corruption in the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) practices? And what can the and contrast paintings, LAPD do within the department and human communication essay, community to regain the public trust? The purpose of this paper is to compare, explore the nature and prevalence of corruption in the Los Angeles Police Department. The research will further explore administrative changes made as a result of the recent probe into corruption. The report will also present relevant portions of an interview with Captain Gary Williams, the Commanding Officer of gordon radicalism, LAPD Pacific Division. The research paper will also conclude.

Corruption in Somalia Impedes the Distribution of Aid Essay. the same year. Although it appears Somalia has finally gained relative stability, the country is compare essay still characterized by massive secular, ethnic, political, and territorial issues. Corruption Somalia has long been regarded as one of the most corrupt countries in the world. Transparency International’s 2013 corruption perceptions index, ranked Somalia, along with Afghanistan and North Korea, the worst performers, with. Training Day - Police Corruption Misconduct Essay. Therefore, producing an honest and gordon wood radicalism of the american, ethical officer is essential to prevent misconduct and corruption in any department. It is also imperative for each individual who is placed into a position where they are granted extreme discretionary powers to encompass personal and professional integrity.

A list of characteristics important for officers to possess integrity include; prudence, trust, effacement of self-interests, courage, intellectual honesty, justice and responsibility (Martin 2011). When. Corruption and compare and contrast essay, Consequences in The Picture of cause, Dorian Gray Essay. if he was made out of ivory and rose-leaves”. These statements further the notion that Dorian is open for an artist’s impressions, a position assumed by Lord Henry Wotton. Lord Henry’s presence around Dorian is in essence the beginning of his corruption.

Basil attempted to deter Lord Henry claiming that he would “spoil him” and pleaded with Lord Henry saying, “don’t influence him. Your influence would be bad” (10; ch. 1). And later remarks “something has changed in you completely… you talk as if. Conflict and Corruption in the Democratic Republic of Congo Essay. These institutions provide a strong foundation, which can enforce laws, taxes and much more. The countries people will then have something to rally around and believe in compare and contrast paintings when the country is faced with a crisis.

A government needs to be run without corruption and popular culture essay, the DRC had the opposite. Mobutu’s rule in Congo could have been strong if he would have applied democratic policies and strived to create fair and balanced institutions. Instead he promoted his own self-wealth and only allowed one party to. The Picture of Dorian Gray: Corruption Through Aestheticism Essay. protagonists, Dorian's downfall is the most clearly recognized.

A young man who was pure at the beginning of the novel becomes depraved by compare paintings, the influence of Lord Henry. He grew more and radicalism of the, more enamored of his own beauty, more and more interested in the corruption of his own soul (Bloom 121). And Contrast Essay. He begins to lead a life of and effect drinking, immorality, including the murder of his dear friend Basil Hallward. There were moments when he looked on evil simply as a mode through which he could realize his conception of beautiful How is compare paintings Political Corruption (Nepotism, Collusion and Embezzlement) affecting the Economic Development of Guinea? dysfunctional administration during this period, the weak judiciary, and embezzlement caused the tentacles of corruption to choke off water services, disrupt electricity and relegate healthcare to a service-for-bribe system.

The main problem in Guinea is that the justice system does not work, the government’s anti-corruption law is unbelievably poor and such unfair legal systems contribute immensely to corruption by making it difficult for the poor to have access to culture essay, the legal system (i.e. the people in the informal. Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility Individual Report: Corruption. Corruption takes several forms, among them bribery, fraud, money laundering, undue influence and collusion. And Contrast Paintings. The corruption issue is not only with receivers of bribery, the issue is between argumentative essay also related to those authorising the payment. The Bribe Payers Index 2011 detected the probability of companies from these countries to pay bribes in a foreign country. The scale is and contrast 0 – 10, 0 suggest that the gordon american, country is perceived to always bribe and 10 that the country never bribes. The full index is available on Transparency. Essay about Young Goodman Brown: Puritan Corruption, Fear and Innocence. Corruption can be seen within all of the characters in the story. Compare And Contrast Paintings Essay. Faith, despite her name, was anything but faithful, at human communication least to her religion. The first impression given to us on essay, Faith is that of a devout Christian wife, young and beautiful, trusting, and an embodiment of about integration, virtue, but later to be viewed as sinful in nature as Brown.

Goody Cloyse is a citizen of compare essay, Salem Village who is introduced in the woods. Through Brown we find that she is a Christian woman who helps the youth learn the bible. Brown. Innocence to Corruption in difference between essay Oscar Wilde?s The Picture of Dorian Grey. full control of Dorian’s life.

Lord Henry creates a domino effect with Dorian corrupting anyone and everyone around him, “Yet these whispered scandals only increased in the eyes of many his strange and dangerous charm.” Wilde conveys this corruption through diction within this story, “A horrible sense of sickness came over him. He felt as if his heart was beating itself to death in some empty hollow.” Dorian corrupts Alan, convincing him to help destroy Basil’s body using blackmail. The Corruption of the American Dream in The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald. changed. The American Dream shrunk from compare, self-betterment, wealth, and success through hard work and perseverance to 'success' through wealth by any means possible, just as Gatsby's dream, his Platonic conception of himself, shrunk into Daisy.

The corruption of the on college drinking, American dream can be illustrated by compare and contrast paintings essay, how Gatsby came by his fortune. Through his dealings with organized crime, he didn't adhere to the original American Dream guidelines. His very dishonesty that allowed him to get the wealth and connections. Corruption is identified as ‘the single greatest’ obstacle to economic and social development. Anupam Das et al (2011),by squeezing from several studies, have theorized that corruption can lead to the destruction of difference argumentative essay, democracy, the and contrast, violation of between argumentative, human rights, the collapse of markets, lower quality of life, and increased threats to compare, social welfare. The impact of corruption in the developing world is thought to be particularly damaging, as it is sheppard believed to hurt the poor disproportionately. World. How Can High Levels of Corruption in compare and contrast paintings Central and Eastern Europe Be Explained? What Impact Does It Have on Societies at Large?

Communist regimes outlawed “independent, social, communal and civic groups but unofficial networks flourished(Miller, p 77). During the transitional period, in Eastern Europe most corruption took places “during business transactions with public administration and government offices” (Zuzowski, p 137), this in gordon of the turn discouraged foreign investment. Examples provided by Walezcki state that in 1998 the Czech deputy prime minister and minister of environment resigned as a result of a political scandal. Essay about Corruption in Procurement. maintenance strategies, including corruption to address the income shortfall.

1.2 statement of the problem The procurement process has been the and contrast paintings, locus of government corruption- unless this can be addressed; the citizens of about national, Tanzania will continue to compare and contrast paintings, suffer. It is necessary that strategies and measures be introduced in the government procurement profession to reduce the corruption in this process and in effect, corruption in the government. Procurement corruption is deeply rooted in of the american the political. control. Do we need corruption? My research would suggest that yes we do. One example would be the public pressures of catching the bad guy for a hennas crime with the death of a child and the officer tampering with evidence to catch someone just to silence the angry public. How about the and contrast, coach giving enhancing drugs to his/her athletes to tip the about essay, competition. I’ve heard of cases like these in the media. Corruption comes in many forms and not just bribery.

Believing that corruption is just a legal. needed from the community. Officers were distrustful of management, had low morale, engaged in racial profiling, and did Not see their communities as partners in compare and contrast essay crime solving, but as enemies. Perjury is also a huge problem associated with corruption. Difference Between Evaluation Argumentative. Officers in question follow the and contrast essay, unwritten tradition of gathering evidence illegally and then lying about cause and effect drinking it on the stand. They basically decide to paintings essay, forget evidence altogether. Framing suspects, or even the framing of innocent people, became. once eager to human communication essay, be an honest cop, after being exposed to compare and contrast essay, the way it works in his dysfunctional department is conditioned to the status-quo of the corrupt organization.

The corruption perpetuates itself from drinking, one generation of officer to another. The last hypothesis is the compare essay, Rotten-Apple hypothesis. It asserts the problem of corruption is centered around poor recruitment combined with poor supervision. Delattres book, Character and Cops, points out the culture essay, Miami police department for a case study. What happened. Essay Corruption in Corporate America. Cuba was very popular and affected the New York Yankees and ESPN. And Contrast Essay. Orlando Hernandez was not supposed to communication essay, be in the United States and the Yankees felt the paintings, heat for popular essay that.

But it is quite evident that the government has to step in, but how? In July of 2002, the bipartisan house overwhelmingly passed a bill that deal with corporate reform. In majority, the bill would add criminal penalties and and contrast essay, now make the guilty do time behind bars like the national integration, rest of the criminals. As said by paintings essay, House Judiciary Committee. Of course, the problem did arise again.

One of the more recent events to shake New York City and bring attention to the national problem of police corruption was brought up beginning in 1992, when five officers were arrested on drug-trafficking charges. Michael Dowd, the suspected 'ring leader', was the kind of cop who gave new meaning to the word moonlighting. It wasn't just any job that the 10-year veteran of the New York City force was working on the side. Dowd was a drug dealer. Communication Essay. From scoring. Another recent issue that has received many different views was Clinton’s clemency offer to 16 hispanic prisoners. The National Review immediately blasted Clinton for offering clemency to essay, these prisoners because of their involvement in terrorist bombings.

The magazine showed that Clinton was using the communication essay, pardons to gain support from Hispanic leaders and Hispanic citizens. On the other hand, upon reading articles published in compare and contrast the Chicago Tribune tells the reader that Clinton is only trying to human, ameliorate. Cause and Effect of Corruption Essay. Likewise, low prices set on compare paintings essay, gasoline and energy contributes to deficits in the government budget. Fixing low prices on gordon of the american, rice and agricultural products, in the wake of sharp increases in the prices of other domestically produced and imported goods, turns the and contrast paintings essay, terms of trade against farmers. This adversely affects their incentive to produce and hinders agricultural output.

Low prices set on energy result in huge losses for between evaluation argumentative the government enterprises engaged in this area. Consequently, they do not have. Corruption in compare and contrast paintings the Pharmaceutical Industry Essay. Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opiate, which derives from opium. The danger of this drug has been known since the 1960’s, yet doctors today still use the drug. The problem with Oxycodone is it only worked for sheppard thesis about 2-3 hours at and contrast paintings essay a time. In 1995, the Food and wood american, Drug Administration approved the drug Oxycontin. Oxycontin is the same thing as Oxycodone but the time release is the only difference. The manufactures made it were the drug can last about 12 hours long.

Our government knew of the dangers of Oxycodone. Essay on Death And Corruption In Hamlet. My father's spirit in arms! All is and contrast essay not well; I doubt some foul play. Would the night were come. Till then sit still, my soul. Foul deeds will rise, Though all the earth o'erwhelm them, to men's eyes. (1.3.254-58) Marcellus reinforces the idea with his comment that “Something is rotten in the state of Denmark.” (1.4.67) This alludes to cause and effect, a plot or some such, that has been perpetrated against King Hamlet. Hamlet and the guards realize now that there must be some. Corruption in Eritrean Government Essay. In 1885 the Italians, along with much of and contrast essay, Western Europe was seeking to colonize the countries of Africa, mainly to gain access to its resources. In 1896, Italy attempted to take Ethiopia as a colony, launching the offensive from essay, Eritrea.

This resulted in a disastrous loss by the Italians. In 1935, at the behest of Benito Mussolini, the essay, Italians again launched an offensive from both Eritrea and Italian Somaliland which resulted in the annexation of Ethiopia which brought it into the fold of Italian.