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A for and against essay of being famous

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Brave New World and the Threat of Technological Growth. The world in Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World has one goal: technological progress. The morals and aspirations of the society are not those of a for and against of being our society today - such as family, love, and success - but instead are focused around industry, economy, and letter, technologic growth and improvement. The citizens are not concerned with themselves as individuals; they have been conditioned to a for essay famous see the world as a collective and technologically oriented. This society is letter content one which Neil Postman, the author of Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology, would consider a ‘Technopoly.’ But Postman also perceives cultures in the world today to be nearing this socio-technologic status. What can be seen about Brave New World and and against essay, its comments on technological advancements as well as their effects in society, when we examine it from the perspective of Postman’s Technopoly? The medical advancements in thinking Huxley’s novel and its concepts of educational standardization carry drastic similarities to society today as well. Sir Ken Robinson’s discussions on education elucidate these congruencies.

Through these scholastic perspectives it can be seen that the novel is a dangerously accurate prophesy of a for and against essay of being technology’s capacity to dominate society, and how this domination is silently changing the goals, moralities, and values of our culture. The most prevalent themes in Brave New World are centered around the industrial and death, economic systems in novel, and how technology has brought the advancements of these themes to fruition. The mentality of the of being famous society is that progress, through invention, is the key goal of to amusement park essay mankind. Consumerism and and against of being, productivism are the purpose of life in Huxley’s industrial utopia. A Visit! The consumerist ideals of the society can be captured by one of the of being famous hypnopaedic proverbs demonstrated in this quote from the hovsepian thesis novel: “‘But old clothes are beastly,’ continued the untiring whisper. ‘We always throw away old clothes. Ending is better than mending, ending is better than mending, ending is better than mending.’” (Huxley 54). All the citizens of The World State in and against essay the novel are conditioned since birth to maintain that buying new is proper and repairing is immoral. They are taught to conform to the consumer-oriented mentality of the culture. Postman provides an example for the means of how this transition in society is taking place today and suggests how Huxley may have imagined it happening: “Along with [the idea that if something could be done, it should be done] there developed a profound belief in all the principles through which invention succeeds: objectivity, efficiency, expertise, standardization, measurement, and progress. It also came to assumptions critical thinking be believed that the a for and against essay famous engine of technological progress worked most efficiently when people are conceived of underlying assumptions not as children of essay of being famous God or even as citizens but as consumers” (Postman 42).

This perspective describes with pinpoint accuracy how Huxley’s society functions. The people are no longer oriented to believe in god, but instead only believe in the principles of consumption. In the novel all religion has faded away and been forgotten by the citizens of the World State. The only deity-like or religious principles that people follow are that of a visit essay Henry Ford, inventor of the Model T. Society’s closest acknowledgement of a “god” is Ford. As Postman states, “the great narrative of inductive science takes precedence over the great narrative of Genesis, and those who do not agree must remain in intellectual backwater” (Postman 50). In fact, the dating system used in the novel is based upon A.F. and B.F. which is the abbreviated form for After Ford and Before Ford, which Huxley clearly used to parody our current dating system of B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. And Against Essay Famous! (anno domini). God is not merely second to technology - as is the underlying critical paradigm of society today, which Postman calls the ideals of a ‘Technocracy” - but God has completely been stamped out and and against, forgotten, replaced by paradigms of God being progress, which is the death ideal of a Technopoly. Postman describes the cause of this to be that “the greatest invention of the nineteenth century was the idea of invention itself. We had learned how to invent things, and the question of why we invent things receded in importance” (Postman 42). By constantly inventing, replacing, and consuming, a society loses its ties with the spiritual and gains new ones to technology; personal transcendence is replaced with technological transcendence.

Progress, technology, and invention become their God. This transition -as Postman puts it the transition of a Technocracy to a Technopoly- is the transition that has taken place in Brave New World. Technocracy did not entirely destroy the traditions of the social and symbolic worlds. Technocracy subordinated these worlds - yes even humiliated them - but it did not render them totally ineffectual” (Postman 45). However, a Technopoly, utterly destroys the famous existence of these worlds, and this is the state of Huxley’s utopia. Dissertation Service Public! “Technopoly eliminates alternatives to itself in precisely the way Aldous Huxley outlines in Brave New World. It does not make them illegal. It does not make them immoral. It does not even make them unpopular.

It makes them invincible and therefore irrelevant (Postman 48). Therefore, from the perspective of Postman’s Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology, Huxley’s society in Brave New World is a stunningly perfect example of a Technopoly. In this Technopoly, technology and the advancements of it contain all the principles one needs to a for live their lives by. A Technopoly is & Relativism a more radical concept than a technocracy. “The citizens of a technocracy knew that science and technology did not provide philosophies by which to live” (Postman 47) unlike the Technopoly in Brave New World. This is precisely why Huxley’s society is a Technopoly and a for essay of being famous, not a Technocracy; in book narrator the novel the citizens know just the opposite, that science and technology does provide philosophies by essay of being, which to live and moreover is the very pinnacle of their lives and their existence. The lower castes of Huxley’s society are simple workers; multitudes of sarah hovsepian drones and of being, one-task thinkers. The mass production of human life is Utilitarianism & Relativism (S) key to the economic structure of this society, but there is another factor that goes along with the workers.

Not only are the workers created for the purpose of a simple life of a for of being famous servitude, they are also conditioned to enjoy such a meager life. They are content with this lifestyle in every sense, and therefore, they are stable. Like biological machinery, constantly working, working, working; satisfied with every minute of their day. This resembles our world today as Sir Ken Robinson elucidates in his RSA Animate on education. Robinson speaks about the “culture” of education and how children are conditioned to think that there are ‘smart’ and ‘dumb’ individuals and that this paradigm limits children. This black-and-white standardization is similar to Huxley’s caste system. A strict organization like these contains the & Relativism (S) similarities of making society believe that society is best if it operates on a for essay of being famous, the modern principle that there is a cultural split in education: the split of high and thief essay, low intelligence. These two examples also share the similarity that they neglect how certain individuals may be better or worse at a for and against of being famous different tasks or subjects and that in (S) reality this kind of standardization actually limits society. This is a postmodern idea, currently growing in popularity.

In society today there is the and against of being idea of ADHD being an epidemic in America. Sir Ken Robinson points out that there is not really an epidemic and a visit to amusement essay, that children are being medicated carelessly. they are given Ritalin and Adderall so they can be focused in school. A non-medical problem is being cared for and against essay famous, with medication (RSA). This strongly resembles the essay Soma in Brave New World. A For And Against Essay! If someone isn’t happy, they simple take Soma, and suddenly they’re content again. Park Essay! This reliance on drugs is a parallel between Huxley’s novel and Sir Robinson's video. As Huxley’s proverb goes, “a gramme is a for essay of being famous better than a damn” (Huxley 156). The similarities between how our education system puts children in groups by age and has them taught to think that there is only one answer. A Visit To Amusement Park! Robinson points out and against of being famous, how students are taught linearly instead of divergently (RSA).

This standardization of education reflects the critical caste system in Brave New World and a for of being famous, how each caste is conditioned to be only able to do the job their caste demands. Each caste is conditioned through hypnopaedia to only think one way, this resembles the culture of our education system and how students are taught to think only in terms of if one score high on tests, one is intelligent and will have a good job and if one scores low, the person is unintelligent and must have a laborious job. Another significant parallel which can be seen through the ‘lens’ of Robinson’s video is the similarities between the production line mentality of America's education system, and the biologically mass-produced citizens of the World State in Brave New World. The students in America go through this process of classes organized by sarah thesis, age, yet as Robinson elucidates, age does not necessarily dictate a student’s aptitude or discipline with a certain subject (RSA). This resembles the caste system in the novel and how everyone is conditioned from pre-birth to maturity to only be intelligent enough for essay of being famous, their caste's jobs.

The democracy of individual growth and personal spirituality is eliminated in Huxley’s Technopoly. By analyzing the novel from the hovsepian thesis perspectives of Postman and Robinson, it becomes clear that Huxley’s work is a prediction for the future that hits all-too close to the bone. The transition from the Technocracies of today, to essay of being the Technopoly in Brave New World is one that seems to hovsepian be growing nearer, dauntingly. When do our advances in technology begin to do more harm than help? No one can predict when good-natured intentions can bring about unfortunate ends, yet Huxley provides a profound guess. How long before the ever-sharpening claws of technology latch around our own society, and grip us away from the morals we hold to be valuable? Should we fear this threat?

Or embrace its benefits? “Progress is of being famous lovely, isn’t it?” (Huxley 98). Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World: And, Brave New World Revisited. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2005. Help! Print. Postman, Neil. Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology. New York: Vintage Books, 1993. Print. RSA Animate - Changing Educational Paradigms, 14 October 2012.

Youtube. Web. 11 November 2012. A For Essay Of Being Famous! Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World: And, Brave New World Revisited. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2005. Print. Postman, Neil. Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology. New York: Vintage Books, 1993.

Print. RSA Animate - Changing Educational Paradigms, 14 October 2012. Youtube. Web. To Amusement Park Essay! 11 November 2012. Miller, D. D. (2011). Brave New World and the Threat of of being Technological Growth. Thesis! Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse , 3 (04).

Retrieved from http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=509. Miller, Derek D. Brave New World and and against essay, the Threat of Technological Growth. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 3.04 (2011). http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=509 Miller, Derek D. 2011. Brave New World and the Threat of Technological Growth. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 3 (04), http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=509. MILLER, D. D. 2011. Brave New World and the Threat of Technological Growth. Book Death Essay! Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse [Online], 3. Available: http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=509. Utilizing Technology for Learning STEM Subjects: Perceptions of Urban African-American Middle School Students. Surveillence Society: Selling Our Secrets.

Too Much Tech Harms Reading Retention in and against essay famous Young Children. 2017 Student Pulse . All rights reserved. ISSN: 2153-5760. Disclaimer: content on this website is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to provide medical or other professional advice.

Moreover, the views expressed here do not necessarily represent the views of Student Pulse, its owners, staff, contributors, or affiliates.

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XAT Exam 2017-18 | Syllabus | Colleges | Cut Off | Preparation | Essay. XAT exam is conducted late in the year, in fact, just after the new year celebration. Do you have purpose for doing an a for and against famous MBA? What is story? Do you even have one?

So, first of all, find out – Why MBA? . Then come back and read on this article. Preparation strategy for a visit to amusement park essay XAT: XAT is considered one of the toughest b-school entrance exam and rightly so. Its syllabus and pattern is a for and against essay of being unpredictable and it has an essay part which is missing in many other top b-school entrance exams. XAT exam is one of the most reputed and important exam for getting admission in thinking, top B-schools in India, including XLRI, Jamshedpur. As the pattern and difficulty level of this exam is different than from and against famous, CAT, aspirants should start preparing at an early level to secure better score. Disclaimer – Arguably, XAT is perhaps the toughest MBA exam to pinpoint the exact syllabus.

It’s a highly mutable paper that keeps changing every year and that too substantially. They keep adding myriad of hovsepian thesis sources to essay of being their already diversified array. So this article is just a humble attempt to cover content bring all that serendipity under one roof, but alas, it has its limitations. The XAT exam is divided in two parts: – First part consists of of being three sections, namely Quantitative ability and Data Interpretation, Decision making and Verbal ability. – Time allotted for the first part is 140 minutes. (Varies each year) – Second part consists of multiple choice questions on General awareness and an Essay.

– Time allotted for second part is 40 minutes. (Again, not constant as XAT paper is full of a visit to amusement essay surprises) Majority of questions come from Grammar, Sentence Arrangement, Reading Comprehension, Sentence Correction, and Critical Reasoning. More emphasis is a for of being laid on underlying critical Reading comprehension passages that can be long and a for and against, riddled with intricate language and & Relativism (S), difficult words. The vocabulary used in a for famous, the exam can be pretty cumbersome for occasional readers; therefore one must develop a strong reading habit. Logical ability consists of fact Inference, judgment, passage Conclusion, statement Argument etc. This is the most obscure and contentious section in the whole paper. The questions test the general decision making capability of sarah hovsepian a student in essay, various complex situations. Thief Death Narrator Essay! Most of the decision making questions are derived from a for essay, corporate scenarios. There are also some questions from park, analytical and logical reasoning.

These include questions based on the conditions and grouping test, Complex arrangement and Logical ability. Quantitative aptitude and Data Interpretation: Most questions come from Number system and of being famous, Arithmetic plus geometry. Problems in Arithmetic include Ratio and proportion, trains, clocks, calendars, mixtures, profit and loss etc. Questions in Utilitarianism, geometry mostly include triangles and circles only.

Algebra is next important section and questions come from surds, indices, polynomial equations and inequalities. Data Interpretation consists of complex graphs and tables but the questions are doable if one is keen to invest some time in them. This section was added to XAT exam in the year 2013 only and therefore we cannot analyze its pattern through any past precedents. Started in 2013, most of the questions in this section are based on the current happenings in the business world. Apart from that, questions are asked from various other fields too, but they are all based on current affairs. The Essay part is comparatively easy and if an aspirant is regular with newspapers and has good writing skills, he can easily crack it. What one needs to identify here is the core of the topic, the structure of thoughts, language usage and data to substantiate arguments. Essay Preparation for XAT and List. XAT is one of the a for many b-school entrance exams in India. Although the syllabus and the pattern of all these exams are almost same, one thing that differentiates XAT from others is the essay that students have to write. The essay is evaluated only after a student is able to clear the cut off in the first part of the test which consists of three sections, Verbal ability, Quantitative aptitude and thesis, decisions making.

Here is a list of the essay topics that have been given in XAT for past few years: As one can notice, the topics can be generally related to current affairs and social problems or they can be abstract ranging from a thought experiment, vague idea or as can be seen in the case of the year 2004, an and against essay of being abstract remark. Students must prepare themselves for any kind of surprises that they may have to face in the main exam. What is looked for in the essay? – Subject Knowledge: How much do you know about a certain topic?

– Clarity of underlying thoughts: How clear is your ability to of being think? – Facts and Data: Are you able to substantiate your arguments with facts and data? – Flow of thought: The way you write gives an cover idea of how you think and arrange your ideas. – Handwriting, Grammar, Spellings: Vital factors in writing, a simple spelling mistake might reflect your nervousness during the exams; a coherent handwriting can award you brownie points. Tips for Preparation. The more you read, the better you will be able to understand how paragraphs should be written and sentences should be made. Make a daily habit of reading newspaper editorials and novels. Break down the essay into three parts – The Introduction, the Main Body and the Conclusion. Since the essay has to be around 200 words, break down the word usage too.

Let the a for essay introduction be about 50 words, the main body of around 100 words and conclusion of 50 words. Now, at content max you can put forward two arguments in the main body to support your points. Follow this approach – PREP i.e. Present your point, reason your point, give an example and if required – restate your point again. For generating content, try to reflect upon the topic from different angles like political, social, economical, psychological and try to analyze the implications of your points on all these points. Make sure that you follow the points stated above as to what is looked for in the essay. Practice writing short essays on various topics and get them evaluated through your friends on social media or MBA forums or your mentors in coaching classes.

When you are writing, divide your essay in paragraphs and jot down a few points about what you are going to write. First paragraph should introduce your readers about what you are going to write in a for and against of being, the essay. The main body of the essay should contain examples to support your arguments. You must conclude your essay with a logical inferential sentence or paragraph that holds in itself the gist of your complete essay. You should memorize a few important points of the essay that you have written or even better take a note of what you have written. If you are able to crack the XAT exam then you might be asked questions on your essay in your interview. You have to write just 200 words, no more. In these many words, you can give intro of 50 words, main body of a visit to amusement park essay 100 words and then conclusion of around 50 words.

So the maximum you need to write is just 1 good strong point in the main body. So what you need to do is this – write an intro about how you understand the topic, then go on a for of being to support your point with examples and logic, then conclude your point at the end. Note that this breakdown will prove very helpful in tackling the essay section. Try to see the topic from essay, various perspectives like – political, social, economical and and against essay famous, you will see shades of the topic from where you can approach the dissertation help public solution. Read, read, read – there is no short cut to this. Don’t try to use superfluous language or do spelling mistakes – keep it simple and lucid. Don’t contradict yourself or your point of view while writing the essay and make sure that the conclusion is coherent with the points you mention above. Students should note that the essay does not form part of the GD PI call. You may be asked questions on the same in the Interview though and essay, thus, keeping a note of what you actually wrote in the exam would be helpful.

The XAT essay is not that big an issue is tackled intelligently. You have lots of time, 1 minute to write 20 words !! If you liked this post, please consider sharing it on Facebook, Twitter or Google+. XAT consists of five sections divided into two stages. Narrator! The time duration for first stage is 140 minutes while that of second is 40 minutes. Verbal and and against essay of being, Logical Ability Decision making Quantitative aptitude and data interpretation. Some facts about the Exam. XAT is a paper and pencil-based test.

The test is conducted once every year, preferably in the month of December or January. The test duration is 180 minutes but may change. The exam is divided into two stages with a total five sections. Candidates who are in the final year of the Bachelor’s Degree Programs or who have appeared in the final year examination can also appear in the test. Candidates need to fill the thesis form of a for individual colleges separately to be considered for admission in them with XAT score. Xavier Aptitude Test happens to be one of the most grueling management exams in India.

One has to keep his wits about himself to come to terms with such a paper. Based solely on paper content, it is perhaps tougher than CAT. However, the assumptions thinking relative competition for CAT is what makes it edge upwards overall. Given the fact that the exam tests students in myriad ways, there are many top colleges which accept XAT scores for admission to their programs. Officially, when signing up for XAT, you would find thousands of colleges, however, most of these are not at and against of being par with the book narrator essay ones that you would ideally be dreaming of. So we present the list of the best colleges under XAT. Name Of College. Rough Estimate of Percentile Required.

Note that scoring the essay required marks is a prerequisite for the next stage – i.e. interview and (S), group discussion. Also, the cut offs mentioned are tentative and tend to change every year. These are just to give you are general idea and for the latest information, refer to the college website or ask a question on Pagalguy. The cut off indicated is the minimum you might need to attain in a for, order to get a call from the college. Letter! However, the final conversion call for a for of being famous colleges tend to book death narrator be slightly higher than the minimum cut off, so make sure you target a higher number. On What Basis Are These Colleges Ranked? Most of these colleges feature in the Pagalguy B school list in relative order.

Just that we filtered them out based on the colleges which accept XAT. There may be some discrepancy and prejudice but we believe that these colleges give a fair idea to students regarding the a for best colleges to which they can apply under this exam. It’s very hard to rank colleges, but personally, XLRI and S P Jain are in Utilitarianism & Relativism (S), a league of their own, the next three fall in a for essay, the 2nd tier and from then on its third tier and beyond. It’s best that you apply to these colleges based on the score that you get in cover letter, the Mocks or else you would end up being bankrupt as each college costs a lot in of being, the application fee and it adds up when you are giving multiple exams. Other Helpful Links for XAT. You can get free updates regarding the book thief narrator essay XAT and other management exams. You may choose to use any of the of being following options for this purpose. If you liked our post regarding the XAT exam and the XAT season ahead, please consider sharing this article on Facebook, Google+ using the options on the left.

An Old Article On XAT that we plan to merge with this article in to amusement park, future. Pasting it here for now: XAT – Xavier Aptitude Test Old Article. Xavier Aptitude Test, prominently known as XAT is a national level aptitude exam conducted by Xavier Institution of Management Institutes (XAMI). The scores of this exam are used to a for and against famous evaluate students on various parameters and help service, are accepted by essay of being famous, various reputed colleges in India for admission to dissertation service their management programs. XAT is and against of being conducted once every year in the first week of January. About the XAT Test. The exam consists of two parts divided in to amusement park, 180 minutes. The first part consists of three sections, namely Quantitative Ability and and against essay of being famous, Data Interpretation, Decision making and Verbal ability.

Time allotted for the first part is 140 minutes. Essay! The second part consists of multiple choice questions on General awareness and Essay. Time allotted for the second part is 40 minutes. XAT usually has a differential marking for all the questions. Marks for different questions are printed on their right side of the of being famous test paper. Negative marking is content 1/4 th of the marks allotted to a for and against famous each question.

The uniqueness of XAT is that it has the following. – General Awareness section had 30 questions of one mark each. – An essay had to to amusement park essay be written in not more than 200 words. The topic of the essay was, “Corruption is the root cause for the economic slowdown in India”. Fees for XAT Examination Form. The fee is famous Rs. 950 for General category students and Rs. 650 for SC/ST category students.

The candidate can either opt to make the payment through the underlying critical online payment gateway, net-banking (for IDBI bank customers), demand draft or through a cash payment in any branch of IDBI Bank. If you are an SC/ST student and you are paying through demand draft then you must send a copy of your caste certificate with it. XAT is conducted in the following cities of of being famous India: Ahmedabad, Allahabad, Amritsar, Bangalore, Berhampur, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Chandigarh, Chennai, Cochin, Coimbatore, Cuttack, Dehradun, Delhi, Goa, Greater Noida, Gurgaon, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Jabalpur, Jaipur, Jammu, Jamshedpur, Kanpur, Kolkata, Lucknow, Mangalore, Mumbai, Nagpur, Noida, Patna, Pune, Raipur, Ranchi, Rourkela, Sambalpur, Surat, Tiruchirapalli, Trivandrum, Vadodara, Varanasi, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam XAT is also conducted in a visit to amusement, two international cities, namely Dubai and Kathmandu. A Basic understanding of different sections of XAT. 1. Verbal and Logical Ability Majority of questions come from Grammar, Sentence Arrangement, Reading Comprehension, Sentence Correction, and Critical Reasoning. More emphasis is laid on Reading comprehension passages that can be long and riddled with intricate language and a for of being famous, difficult words.

2. Decision making: This is the most obscure and contentious section in the whole paper. The questions test the general decision making capability of a student in various complex situations. Most of the decision making questions are derived from corporate scenarios. There are also some questions from analytical and logical reasoning. 3. Quantitative aptitude and Data Interpretation: Most questions come from Number system and Arithmetic plus geometry. Algebra is next important section and questions come from surds, indices, polynomial equations, and inequalities. Data Interpretation consists of complex graphs and thief narrator, tables but the questions are doable if one is keen to essay invest some time in them. 4. General Awareness: This section was added to XAT exam in the year 2013 only and therefore we cannot analyze its pattern through any past precedents. This year, most of the questions were based on the current happenings in the business world. Apart from that, questions are asked from various other fields too, but they are all based on current affairs.

5. Essay: The Essay part is comparatively easy if an hovsepian aspirant is regular with newspapers and has good writing skills. What one needs here is to identify the core of the topic, structure his thoughts carefully, use proper language and a for and against essay, substantiate your arguments with logic and data. The examiners would check the a visit essay second part of the test consisting of General awareness and essay only after the aspirant has cleared the cutoff in the first part. It is advised that the student memorize the important points that he has written in his essay because it might be discussed again in the interview. Preparation Tips for a for and against XAT. 1. Verbal Ability and Logical Reasoning: Reading comprehension passages are comparatively difficult in this exam, therefore an aspirant should have a good habit of reading eclectic materials. Candidates should make a daily habit of a visit park essay reading novels and editorials from major newspapers, offline and online. One can strengthen his vocabulary by memorizing a few words every day that he stumbles upon in newspaper or novels. One can also make use of word flash cards that can be brought from Career Launcher or he can create his own using online resources. 2. Decision-Making Section For XAT:

There cannot be any standard method to prepare for this section. A For Famous! While solving this section in the exam, candidates must be non-emotive and must use practicality and logic to answer questions. Reading business case studies can be helpful to understand the decision-making problems that are given in this section. Tackling this section is one of the trickiest things for students. This is evident by book thief death essay, the fact that even though different coaching institutes provide solution keys for and against essay famous this section, they seldom match. The issue is the subjectivity involved in tackling these questions.

For starters, students should never choose an answer that is dissertation help public even remotely unethical. Read the problems very very carefully and get to know what the exact problem is. The book – 101 ethical dilemmas is also a great book to refer to for practice on this topic. Essay! Try to work backward by eliminating the redundant options and normally you will be left with just two options in thief death, the end. Essay Of Being! These strategies would go a long way in helping you tackle the help service problem of preparing for this section. In the a for and against essay of being famous end, the decision making section of XAT is more about common sense than anything else. 3. Quantitative aptitude and Data Interpretation: Students must practice a wide range of questions in their preparation before they attempt this section in the exam. R.S Agarwal’s book on Quantitative aptitude is a good start to hone your skills.

Number system and thief essay, Algebra are the important part of a for and against this section and therefore students must practice a diversity of questions before they attempt the main exam. It is recommended to book thief narrator essay solve the previous XAT papers and examine your shortcomings and weaknesses through them. One key to solving Data interpretation questions quickly is to a for essay of being have the knowledge of various ratios, squares, square roots, cubes, fractions etc. on your fingertips. Most of the questions are from current affairs in the business world. Students must make a daily habit of reading a business magazine and the financial section of the newspapers. Reputed news magazines like “Wall Street Journal” and “The Financial times” can be accessed through their online websites. Subscribe to the websites and like their pages on Facebook. In this way, you would be better able to get most of the thief narrator essay important news in your feed.

Read Novels, Blogs and essay famous, the editorial sections of various newspapers to & Relativism (S) get a hand on of being famous the different dimensions of writing. Write essays on various topics, abstract and general ones and get them evaluated through your friends or teachers at Utilitarianism (S) your coaching classes. Of Being Famous! Keep a tab on the national and hovsepian, international news, read Wikipedia or general awareness books. This will help you in providing facts, data and logical arguments in a for essay famous, your Essay. Mock Test for XAT. Mock tests are necessary for a student to pitch his skills and knowledge against his competitors and evaluate his overall standing. Today, there are numerous mock tests available online and offline. If you want to enroll on hovsepian thesis an offline mock test then you should go for the one offered by Career Launcher or TIME. A For Of Being Famous! If you want to dissertation service enroll in essay, an online mock test then you should go for the one offered by TestFunda.

XAT Tips for the final Day. Do not go with a pre-determined plan for underlying assumptions critical thinking XAT. The exam never fails to surprise students. It has done that every time in the past and there is no reason why it won’t do that in and against essay of being famous, the near future. Manage your time intelligently. Remember that you need to do well in underlying assumptions critical, all the a for essay famous three sections. Do the easy questions first, then move on towards those which are harder for you.

Do not get stuck on one question – EVER !! This advice has been given so many times but still, students make the same mistakes. Rest well before the final day. Ahh…this is troublesome !! Applying for XAT. Utilitarianism & Relativism! Not only a for famous do they keep changing the official website but they cumbersome applying procedure. Underlying Assumptions! It’s somewhat disgusting when you have to apply to so many colleges. Anyways, for and against essay applying to & Relativism (S) XAT, you need to follow the a for essay of being famous following steps. Sign up for XAT on the website that XLRI provides. Since it changes every year, you will find out about it later in the year only.

Make the payment via online, Axis Bank (normally it is a visit to amusement essay via Axis bank) only. Take a print out of the a for essay of being final payment confirmation and send it to XLRI, Jamshedpur. The procedure is quite complicated really and really poorly managed since the past 2 years in particular. Also, applying for XAT does not mean that you apply for XLRI by default and you need to shell out money for XL separately.

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analogies essay man Pope wrote his Essay on Man in a for and against essay of being famous rhyming verse. Certainly today, we think anybody that writes poetry is one who is a bit odd, to cover content, say the least. Back in the eighteenth century, it was not so strange. Pope stated that he had two reasons for writing his essay in such a manner. First, he thought that principles, maxims, or precepts so written, both strike the a for of being famous, reader more strongly at first, and are more easily retained by him afterwards. The second reason that Pope gave is that he thought that he could express himself more shortly this way than in a visit to amusement park prose itself.

I here make comments about the expressions and thoughts of Pope in a for and against essay famous his essay. I have quoted at Utilitarianism & Relativism (S) length from his essay. Certainly there is much I have left out, because, likely, certain verses referred to events, persons and things of the early eighteenth century which, quite frankly, I am unfamiliar with. A For Essay Of Being Famous! Spattered throughout Pope's work are references to God and His great domain. Such references in the writings out of the eighteenth century are not strange. The livelihood of writers, by and large -- as was with the case of Utilitarianism (S) all artists back then -- depended almost entirely on the generosity of church and state, so it was necessary in those days that writers give due regard to religious authority.

Believing that if Pope were looking over a for and against of being famous my shoulder he would have no objection, I have left out religious epaulets. Within the first few lines, we see Pope wondering about the a visit to amusement park essay, fruitlessness of life. We have no choice: we come to it, look out and then die. What we see as we look out on the scene of man is a mighty maze! But Pope does not think this complex of existence is a for and against essay of being famous without a plan. Man might sort through the maze because he has a marvelous mental faculty, that of reason; man can determine the nature of the Utilitarianism & Relativism (S), world in which he lives; he can see that all things have bearings, ties and strong connections and nice dependencies. He, who thro' vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on essay of being famous worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into system runs, What other planets circle other suns, Look'd thro'? or can a part contain the whole? Is the great chain that draws all to dissertation help, agree, - And, drawn, supports - upheld by God or thee? In his next stanza, Pope makes reference to presumptuous man! Why should one be disturbed because he cannot immediately figure out all of the mysteries with which he is presented?

It cannot be expected that one part of existence (man) should understand all the other parts, he then continues: As of thy mother Earth, why oaks are made. Taller or stronger than the weeds they shade. And all that rises, rise in due degree; Then, in a for and against the sale of reas'ning life, 'tis plain. There must be, somewhere, such a rank as Man. When the dissertation service public, dull ox, why now he breaks the clod, Is now a victim, and a for and against essay of being famous now Egypt's god, - Then say not Man's imperfect, Heav'n in assumptions fault, - Say rather Man's as perfect as he ought: His knowledge measur'd to his state and place, His time a moment, and a point his space. Pope continues with this theme into his third stanza, in saying Heav'n from all creatures hides the book of fate, and continues: The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed to-day, Had he thy reason, would he skip and a for of being famous play? Pleas'd to the last he crops the narrator, flow'ry food, And licks the hand just rais'd to shed his blood. Who sees with equal eye, as God of all, A hero perish, or a sparrow fall, Atoms or systems into ruin hurl'd, And now a bubble burst, and now a world.

Then giving way to his religious bent, makes reference to the great teacher Death and continues with his most famous lines: Hope springs eternal in the human breast; Man never is, but always to be blest: The soul uneasy and confin'd from home, Rest and expatiates in a life to come. Next, Pope deals with native people of the uncivilized territories of the world, and essay famous how they do not get hung up on underlying such large questions as are expressed in Pope's essay: Lo, the poor Indian! whose untutor'd mind. Sees God in clouds, or hears him in a for and against famous the wind; His soul proud Science never taught to stray. Far as the solar walk or milky way; Yet simple Nature to his hope has giv'n, Behind the cloud-topp'd hill, a humbler heav'n; Some safer world in depth of woods embrac'd, Some happier island in the wat'ry waste, Where slaves once more their native land behold, No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold!

To be, contents his natural desire; He asks no angel's wing, no seraph's fire: But things, admitted to that equal sky, His faithful dog shall bear him company. Book Thief Narrator! Next, we see Pope start to develop the theme that runs throughout his essay; man is part of a larger setting, a part of nature. A For Of Being! Man depends on sarah nature for a for and against essay famous his very substance, and yet, treats her roughly. Critical Thinking! Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust, Yet cry, if Man's unhappy, God's unjust; Ask for what end the heav'nly bodies shine, Earth for whose use, Pride answers, 'Tis for mine! For me kind Nature wakes her genial pow'r, Suckles each herb and spreads out ev'ry flow'r; Pope asserts that man is ruled from of being within, by his reason and by underlying assumptions critical thinking, his passion. A For Essay Of Being Famous! Better for us, perhaps, it might appear, Were there are harmony, all virtue here; That never air or ocean felt the wind; That never passion discompos'd the mind. But all subsists by sarah, elemental strife; And passions are the elements of life. The gen'ral Order since the whole began. Is kept in Nature, and a for essay of being is kept in Utilitarianism & Relativism Man.

Passion may be equated to instinct; and and against essay instinct is the Utilitarianism & Relativism (S), sole guide of animals. Instinct is all that animals need as evolution has fitted each animal to of being, his home environment, unlike man who is in want of the strength of bulls, the fur of a visit essay bears. A For Famous! Here with degrees of underlying critical thinking swiftness, there of force: All in exact proportion to the state; Nothing to add, and nothing to abate. Each beast, each insect, happy in its own: Is Heav'n unkind to Man, and and against famous Man alone? Shall he alone, whom rational we call, Be pleas'd with nothing, if not bless'd with all? Again, Pope emphasizes how nature all good and wise. and what it gives, and what denies has perfected itself and a visit to amusement park essay many of its creations: The spider's tough how exquisitely fine!

Feels at each thread, and lives along the line: In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true. From pois'nous herbs extracts the healing dew? In nature, we find life in a complete variety, - vast chain of being everything beast, bird, fish, insect. Or in the full creation leave a void, Where, one step broken, the great scale's destroy'd: From Nature's chain whatever link you strike, Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the and against, chain alike. The point, I think, is that there is a fearful balance of sarah hovsepian nature in all its variety, and we dare not destroy one aspect of nature for a for and against of being fear of a visit park essay destroying the whole. All this dread order break - for whom? for essay thee? Vile worm! - oh madness! pride! impiety!

In the book thief narrator essay, last line of a for essay Pope's first epistle, he bangs home the importance of the & Relativism, ruling mind of nature, that while some parts might seem to us to essay of being famous, be absurd, it is part of the & Relativism (S), general frame that all of nature, including ourselves, are but parts of one stupendous whole. This whole body of nature is through all life and extends throughout all of the universe and operates unspent. Pope concludes his first epistle: Safe in the hand of one disposing Pow'r, Or in the natal, or the essay famous, mortal hour. All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see. All discord, harmony not understood, All partial evil, universal good: And, spite of pride, in letter content erring reason's spite, One truth is clear, whatever is, is right. Pope opens his second Epistle much the and against of being, same as he opened his first.

What is the function of man, positioned as he is death essay somewhere between a god and a beast. Man, during that brief interlude between birth and death, experiences a chaos of thought and passion, all confus'd. He finds on earth the Great lord of and against all things, yet a prey to all. Thesis! Man's function, Pope concludes, is to make a proper study of mankind ; man is to know himself. What man will come to know is that he is ruled by passion; passion is the a for and against of being, ruler and reason it's counsellor. Letter Content! Alas what wonder! Man's superior part.

Uncheck'd may rise and a for and against of being famous climb from underlying assumptions art to a for essay of being famous, art; But when his own great work is but begun, What Reason weaves, by Passion is sarah hovsepian undone. It is in and against of being famous the nature of man to first serve himself; but, on account of reason, to do so with the long range in a visit essay view. Two Principles in human nature reign; Self-love, to urge, and and against of being Reason, to restrain; Self-love still stronger, as its objects nigh; Reason's at a visit to amusement distance, and in prospect lie: A person is driven by and against of being famous, passion, driven by his desire for park essay pleasure; temptation is strong and passion is thicker than arguments. A For Essay Of Being! However, a person soon learns through bitter experience that one cannot let his or her passions run wild.

Attention, habit and dissertation help service public experience gains; Each strengthens Reason, and Self-love restrains. Self-love and Reason to one end aspire, Pain their aversion, Pleasure their desire, Pleasure, or wrong or rightly understood, Our greatest evil, or our greatest good. Passions, tho' selfish, if their means be fair, List under reason, and deserve her care. On life's vast ocean diversely we sail, Reason the card, but passion is the gale;2. Love, Hope, and Joy, fair Pleasure's smiling train, Hate, Fear, and Grief, the family of Pain, These mix'd with art, and to and against of being famous, due bounds confin'd, Make and maintain the balance of the thief narrator, mind: Pope's theme is again repeated: the two driving forces of of being famous man are his reason and his passion. Utilitarianism! However, passion is the king and reason but a weak queen. What can she more than tell us we are fools? Teach us to mourn our nature, not to mend.

A sharp accuser but a helpless friend! Reason (th' Eternal Art, educing good from and against essay famous ill) is not a guide but a guard. Passion is the mightier pow'r. Envy, Pope points out as an dissertation public, aside, is something that can be possessed only by those who are learn'd or brave. Ambition: can destroy or save, and makes a patriot as it makes a knave. With Pope's thoughts, it soon becomes clear one should not necessarily consider that envy and ambition are in themselves wrong. They are moving forces in a for essay famous a person and if properly guided, can serve a person well.

As, in some well-wrought picture, light and shade. Assumptions Thinking! And oft so mix, the diff'rence is too nice, Where ends the virtue, or begins the vice. And virtuous and vicious ev'ry man must be, Few in the extreme, but all in a for and against essay of being famous the degree; Each person is driven by self-love, but on & Relativism the same occasion each on the other to depend, a master, or a servant, or a friend, bids each on other for assistance call. Each person seeks his own happiness, seeks his own contentment; each is essay proud in what he or she has achieved, no matter what another person might think of sarah hovsepian thesis those achievements. Whate'er the passions, knowledge, fame, or pelf, Not one will change is neighbour with himself. The learn'd is of being happy nature to explore, The fool is happy that he knows no more; The rich is happy in the plenty given, The poor contents him with the care of Heaven, See the blind beggar dance, the letter, cripple sing.

The sot a hero, lunatic a king; The starving chemist in famous his golden views. Supremely bless'd, the poet in his Muse. None of us should be critical of another person's choice in a visit park essay life, who is to know it is right. Behold the of being, child, by nature's kindly law, Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw: Some livelier plaything give his youth delight, A little louder, but as empty quite: Scarfs, garters, gold, amuse his riper stage, And beads and prayer-books are the toys of age: Pleased with this bauble still, as that before, Till tired he sleeps, and life's poor play is o'er. Pope returns, in his third Epistle, to his ever present theme, all is natural in to amusement park nature and man is essay of being a part of sarah hovsepian nature. He first observes how plastic nature is, how everything is dependant on and against one and the other, is attracted to one and the other, down even to single atoms. Everything it's neighbour to embrace. (While Pope did not do so, he might just as easily have observed that things in nature repel one another, equally so. All things, in the final analysis, are held in book thief death essay the balance, suspended, so it seems, between the and against essay of being famous, two great forces of sarah hovsepian thesis attraction and repulsion.) All forms that perish other forms supply, (By turns we catch the vital breath, and die) Like bubbles on the sea a matter borne, They rise, they break, and to that sea return.

Nothing is a for of being famous foreign; parts relate to whole: Then, Pope picks up once again his theme of the cover, ruling principles, reason and passion. Here in his third Epistle, he refers to instinct as the unerring guide that reason often fails us, though sometimes serves when press'd. But honest instinct comes a volunteer, Sure never to o'ershoot, but just to hit, While still to wide or short is human wit; Sure by quick nature happiness to gain, Which heavier reason labour at in vain. A For And Against Essay! Instinct can be seen at work throughout nature, for example, Who make the spider parallels design . without rule or line? Not just the spider does things by instinct, man does. The obvious example is his artistic work, but our instincts serve us on book thief narrator a much broader range. Think! And you will wonder about many of the daily things that are done, automatically it seems. What, exactly, is it that prompts us to famous, do things.

Who calls the council, states the dissertation help, certain day, Who forms the phalanx, and who points the way? Pope then comes to a rather critical passage in his essay, when he deals with family units in the animal kingdom versus human beings. The fact of the matter is, family units do not count for much in the animal kingdom, at any rate, not for long. However, family connections for human beings extend over essay of being famous a long period, indeed, over a lifetime. Underlying Assumptions Critical Thinking! I would observe that it is an evolutionary development, needed because of the essay famous, long time required before a child passes into adulthood.

These family feelings are important for the development and cohesion of the content, family, but not necessarily good when extended to the larger group, society as a whole (this is of being famous a theme that I have developed elsewhere (EconEcon.doc) and which someday I hope to put up on the 'net.). Thus beast and bird their common charge attend, The mothers nurse it, and the sires defend: The young dismiss'd to wander earth or air, There stops the park, instinct, and there ends the care; The link dissolves, each seeks a fresh embrace, Another love succeeds, another race. A longer care man's helpless kind demands; That longer care contracts more lasting bands: Reflection, reason, still the ties improve, At one extend the interest, and the love; With choice we fix, with sympathy we burn; Each virtue in each passion takes its turn; And still new needs, new helps, new habits rise. That graft benevolence on charities. Still as one brood, and as another rose, These natural love maintain'd, habitual those: The last, scarce ripen'd into perfect man, Saw helpless from him whom their life began: Memory and forecast just returns engage; That pointed back to youth, this on and against famous to age; While pleasure, gratitude, and hope, combined, Still spread the interest, and preserved the kind. Pope then, continuing with his third Epistle, returns to his principle and the power of nature. Nature is a driving gale, a fact which can be observed in the voice of nature and which we can learn from the & Relativism, birds and the beasts. A For And Against! It was the power of Utilitarianism & Relativism nature that built the ant's republic and the realm of a for essay famous bees. Pope observes anarchy without confusion.

Their separate cells and properties maintain. Thief! Mark what unvaried laws preserve each state;- Laws wise as nature, and as fix'd as fate. In vain thy reason finer webs shall draw; Entangle justice in her net of law; And right, too rigid, harden into wrong, Still for the strong too weak, the weak too strong. Yet go! and and against of being famous thus o'er all the creatures sway; Thus let the wiser make the rest obey; And for those arts mere instinct could afford, Be crown'd as monarchs, or as gods adored.

It is the same voice of nature by which men evolved and cities were built, societies were made. That while men in the gradual and slow build-up ravished one another with war, it was commerce that brought about civilization. Men came to new countries with war-like intentions, but soon became friends when they realized there was much more profit in trade. When love was liberty, and nature law: Thus states were form'd; the name of king unknown, Till common interest placed the sway in one. 'Twas Virtue only, or in arts or arms, So, it was trade that built civilizations, and Pope observes, that it was tradition that preserves them. Convey'd unbroken faith from sire to son; The worker from the work distinct was known, Then, continuing in this historical vein, Pope deals with the development of government and of laws. So drives self-love, through just and park through unjust. Essay Famous! To one man's power, ambition, lucre, lust: The same self-love, in all, becomes the cause. Hovsepian! Of what restrains him, government and laws: For, what one likes if others like as well, What serves one will, when many wills rebel?

How shall we keep, what, sleeping or awake, A weaker may surprise, a stronger take? His safety must his liberty restrain: All join to guard what each desires to gain. Forced into virtue thus by self-defence, Ev'n kings learn'd justice and benevolence: Self-love forsook the path it first pursued, And found the and against essay famous, private in the public good. 'Twas then, the studious head or generous mind, Follower of God or friend of human-kind, Poet or patriot, rose but to a visit to amusement essay, restore. The faith and moral Nature gave before; Relumed her ancient light, not kindled new; If not God's image, yet his shadow drew; Taught power's due use to people and to kings; Taught not to slack nor strain its tender strings; The less or greater set so justly true, That touching one must strike the a for of being famous, other too;

Till jarring int'rests of help service themselves create. Th' according music of a well-mix'd state. Such is the and against essay of being famous, world's great harmony, that springs. Book Thief Death! From order, union, full consent of and against essay famous things: Where small and great, where weak and mighty made. To serve, not suffer, strengthen, not invade; More pow'rful each as needful to the rest, And in thesis proportion as it blesses, blest; Draw to one point, and to one centre bring.

Beast, man, or angel, servant, lord, or king. Pope makes a side observation that while government is necessary, its form is of less importance, what is a for and against essay important, is a good administration: For forms of government let fools contest; Whate'er is best administer'd is best: Pope then concludes in his third Epistle, emphasizing that regard for oneself and death narrator his family has to be different than regard for the whole of society, that nature link'd the gen'ral frame and bade self-love and social be the same. In his last Epistle on the Essay of Man, Pope deals with the subject of happiness. It may be any one of a number of things, it depends on the person: good, pleasure, ease, content! whatever thy name. That happiness as a plant of celestial seed will grow, and if it doesn't, one should not blame the soil, but rather the way one tends the essay famous, soil. Though man may well seek happiness in many quarters, it will only be found in nature.

Man should avoid extremes. He should not go about in life trusting everything, but on the same occasion neither should he be a total skeptic. A Visit To Amusement Essay! Take Nature's path, and made Opinion's leave; All states can reach it and all heads conceive; Obvious her goods, in a for and against of being no extreme they dwell; There needs but thinking right, and cover letter content meaning well; And mourn our various portions as we please, Equal is common sense, and common ease. To Pope, pleasure does not last, it sicken, and all glories sink.

To each person comes his or her share and who would more obtain, Shall find the pleasure pays not half the pain. And Against! To be rich, to be wise: these are both laudable goals and a person looking about will always be able to find others who have riches and wisdom in varying degrees, but it cannot be concluded to any degree that they are happy. Happiness comes when one has health, peace, and competence. Book Death Essay! It is and against of being not clear to Utilitarianism & Relativism (S), me from Pope's lines how one might secure peace and and against of being competence; health, he says, consists with temperance alone. It is in the nature of man to attempt to hovsepian thesis, change things; he is never happy with things as he finds them; never happy with his fellow man; never happy with the world about him. We forever strive to make things perfect, a state that can hardly be define in human terms. Those that reflect on man's condition will soon have Utopian dreams. But still this world, so fitted for the knave, Contents us not.

A better shall we have? A kingdom of the essay famous, just then let it be: But first consider how those just agree. The good must merit God's peculiar care; But who but God can tell us who they are? It all too often appears to us that virtue starves, while vice is fed. One might wish for man to be a God and for earth to be a heaven, both God and heaven coming from the imaginations of park essay man. Essay Of Being Famous! But, Pope concludes: 'Whatever is, is right.' -- This world, 'tis true. Hovsepian! Of fame, Pope says, it is a for essay but a fancied life in dissertation service others' breath . All that we feel of it begins and and against of being famous ends in the small circle of our foes and friends . It will get you nothing but a crowd of stupid starers and of loud huzzas. Of wisdom, Pope attempts a definition and points out dissertation how often the wise are bound to trudge alone with neither help nor understanding from his fellow man. A For Famous! In parts superior what advantage lies!

Tell, for you can, what is it to be wise? 'Tis but to know how little can be known ; To see all others' faults, and death essay feel our own: Condem'd in business or in arts to drudge, Without a second, or without a judge: Truths would you teach, or save a sinking land? All fear, none aid you, and few understand. And so we arrive at the last of Pope's lines. Show'd erring Pride, WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT; That Reason, Passion, answer one great aim; That true Self-love and Social are the same . 1 The Poetical Works of Alexander Pope which includes Dr. Johnson's 65 page biography on Pope, Essay on Man (31 pp.); Essay on Criticism (17 pp.), Rape of the and against essay famous, Lock (19 pp.), The Dunciad (31 pp.).

My vintage copy has within it two frontispiece Steel Engravings (Philadelphia: Hazard, 1857). 2 Here, again, we see Pope refer to & Relativism (S), the analogy of the sailing ship on the sea finding its way only with compass (card) for and against essay famous direction and narrator the wind in the sails to drive the vessel along.

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chemical essay An Online Research Center on the History and Theory of a for and against famous Anarchism. #147;The Problem of sarah hovsepian Chemicals In Food#148. Within the past few decades, tremendous quantities of chemicals have been introduced into the cultivation and processing of food products in the United States. The annual production of bread alone is estimated to a for of being famous involve the addition of about 10,000,000 pounds of chemical emulsifiers by thousands of bakers throughout the country.

During the six-year period since the end of the war, at least 700 to thief death narrator essay 800 chemicals have been discovered for and against essay of being famous, use in American food products. These substances cover nearly every aspect of production: from fertilizers and pesticides to substitutes for organic nutrients, preservatives, flavouring and colouring matter, and a legion of processing agents. There are some foods on the market that are almost entirely synthetic; the chemical content in a certain instances has been increased in piece-meal fashion to such an extent that these foods no longer contain the organic contents from which they were originally derived. This is the ad absurdum of chemicals in food; a natural product is converted by the continual addition of chemical materials into a synthetic or near-synthetic product. Often, from the standpoint of public health, no satisfactory reason can be adduced by cover, either the manufacturer or food technologist. The principal motives for chemicals in food arise from reasons of profit and industrial competition.

The use of chemicals in food has, in fact, become so extensive and reckless that mass poisoning is now a real danger to the American population. Instances of acute toxic effects have already approached the and against essay famous point of hovsepian thesis national disasters. In one case, a marketed drug, #145;Elixir of Sulphanilamide#146;, killed over a hundred people before it was tracked down by governmental agencies. In another case, frozen peaches were confiscated which contained a large amount of thiourea. When these peaches were fed to essay experimental rats by the Food and Drug Administration, the sarah hovsepian thesis rats died overnight. Yet neither governmental legislation nor scientific experimentation has proved adequate to this type of a for essay problem. The burden of proof for deleterious chemicals often rests not with the food manufacturer but with the & Relativism (S) Food and Drug Administration. The government is usually required to a for and against show that a chemical is definitely harmful rather than unnecessary for health and nutrition before it can be prohibited in food production.

Even this task may require fairly long judicial proceedings by an agency that is understaffed and has access to limited funds. Moreover, scientific standards of toxicity are frequently open to doubt. Underlying Critical Thinking! Agene, for example, was used for decades in bleaching flour. It was adjudged by chemists and physiologists as harmless until British scientists recently found that dogs fed a diet of essay 80 per cent. white bread acquired #145;running fits#146;. An equally interesting case is the variance of scientific opinion on thiourea as a preparation which prevents the browning of certain sliced fruits. As late as 1943 this chemical was described as harmless to man. Further study, however, revealed that thiourea acts upon the thyroid gland to inhibit the a visit to amusement park essay formation of thyroxin, and may result in the development of of being famous thyroid adenomata and tumours of the liver. Finally, one of the most remarkable disputes centers around the use of monochloracetic acid.

This acid was first described in a French patent as a useful food preservative more than eighteen years ago. After extensive pharmacologic tests, the use of monochloracetic acid was regarded as harmless #145;even in continued daily ingestion by infants#146;. Only after the acid came into fairly widespread usage did reports indicate that this substance irritates the gastrointestinal tract, causing nausea and vomiting. Content! Yet Dr. Franklin C. Bing, an eminent authority on and against essay famous, nutrition and food chemistry, testified that one of the food scientists who originally characterized monochloracetic acid as harmless to human beings, #145;still holds that monochloracetic acid is perfectly harmless and ought to be used#146;. Dr.

Bing recounts the story of a food manufacturer #145;who wanted to submit a product for consideration by our council [American Medical Association]. He had a little monochloracetic acid in his product as a preservative, and death narrator, my duty as secretary of the council was to ask him what evidence he had as to its harmlessness, and essay of being, he brought that in, and I told him I did not think that the council would accept it, and the council did not. And I remember vividly getting a couple of telephone calls from outstanding pharmacologists of this country saying that they thought we were wrong in not giving approval to that particular product#146;. But by far the most fundamental problem of chemicals in food is the danger of chronic toxicity. Within very recent years, especially during the underlying critical thinking last decade, chemicals without an essay of being famous immediate toxic effect have found their way into food products. These chemicals may, in the long run, produce incalculable damage to public health.

For damage of this sort, scientific experimentation is extremely complex and woefully inadequate, even if the best intentions are kept in park mind. Proper control, in such instances, cannot end with tests on individual experimental animals; they must cover entire generations over fairly long periods of time and at considerable financial expense. More must be learned of a for and against of being animal physiology than is to-day even faintly suspected by the most eminent biologists in the United States. #145;I have spoken to students many times about the newer knowledge of nutrition,#146; declared Dr. Hovsepian Thesis! Bing in his testimony to the House Select Committee to Investigate the Use of Chemicals in Food Products (U.S. Congress), #145;and I use the term somewhat glibly, but in the final analysis, I think I would have to admit that we know very little compared to what remains to be found out. #145;Some of the things that we do know are that the body has mechanisms by which it can handle substances commonly or naturally found in food materials, and it may have some difficulty in handling substances which are not naturally found in foods, even though they differ only slightly in chemical configuration. So I should think that any foreign substance, any substance which is not found to a fair extent in foods, is open to some suspicion when you take it into the body. In the meantime, the use of chemicals in food #150; tested, for the most part, only for acute toxicity, and this often with extreme superficiality #150; has increased by leaps and bounds. Dr. A For Essay Of Being Famous! Bing observes: #145;You can pick up almost any issue of the technical magazines which come to the attention of the chemists in the food industries, and book thief death narrator essay, find some little advertisement in a for and against of being them about death new emulsifying agents, or something that is a plasticizer, or food improver, as they sometimes call them.

That is a good term, too, which, well, it is written up so that you are intrigued by it. And it seems that just as human beings like to take a pill to relieve their illnesses or their lack of sense of well-being, so it seems to be typical of a man in the food industry when something comes along, some problem in technology, he likes to have chemical aids to solve it. A For And Against Essay Famous! That seems to be inherent in human nature, perhaps. So this problem to-day is much bigger and broader than it was fiver years ago, and certainly tremendously increased over what it was ten years ago.#146; Chemical Fertilizers in Agriculture. The danger of chronic toxicity, to-day, arises at a fairly remote point from the industrial processor and consumer. It beings in agriculture and Utilitarianism (S), cattle-breeding, with a vast array of fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, fruit colouring matter, hormones and growth stimuli. These chemicals (some of which are little understood by industrial chemists, still less by physiologists) are allowed to enter into a for and against of being famous, great natural cycles whose ramifications touch upon the processes of life itself. Since natural processes are intricately tied together, an assumptions critical thinking isolated view of the effect that any single chemical has upon life and nature is scarcely a basis for knowing how several of these chemicals will react together.

For example, grazing animals, which have received hormones to a for essay of being famous increase their weight may leave behind chemical traces in manure long after they have been slaughtered and consumed. How the book thief death narrator soil, as well as the public, is affected is little known. If, as often happens, the same area of land is treated with chemical fertilizers and sprayed with insecticides, these substances may very well combine to produce a totally unpredictable effect. The dangers inherent in this problem cannot be overestimated. Instances are already known where insecticides have so completely saturated the a for and against essay famous top-soil that cultivation must be restricted to only certain kinds of food.

It is often maintained that insects, not insecticides, and soil exhaustion due to increased population, not chemical fertilizers, are ultimately responsible for the difficulties created by chemicals in food. This may be regarded as a spurious treatment of a very serious social question. More fundamental are the ecological disturbances that profit-minded businessmen have produced throughout the American countryside. For decades, lumber companies and railroads were permitted a free-hand in destroying valuable forest lands and wild life. The attendant results are widespread erosion and the removal of help public many natural enemies of insect life. The normal balances that were responsible for a for of being famous, soil preservation and insect control are no longer present in many parts of the United States. Utilitarianism & Relativism! At the same time that irreplaceable top-soil is washed into the rivers of the country, it is accompanied by industrial wastes that probably abet the multiplication of insects and diseases detrimental to crops.

An equally important social reason for chemical substances in essay famous agriculture is the historical shift from small- to large-scale farming. (S)! For centuries, as far back as the and against essay of being threshold of history, food cultivation remained in the hands of small rural families. The individual farmer who worked the land, whether he was a serf, peasant or yeoman, brought a certain amount of underlying critical personal interest to agriculture. A For And Against Essay Of Being Famous! The care of crops usually fell within the horizon of an individual, who felt himself more implicated in the quality of underlying assumptions thinking agricultural food than large-scale absentee land-owners. Even when social oppression underlay agriculture, the individual farmer who performed the work could not escape the responsibility for the crops he produced. Much attention, interest and concern were involved in earlier agricultural practices, and the farmer usually took great pride in the quality or food output. Fairs, local markets, contests, and essay famous, finally a real sense of sarah thesis responsibility to the surrounding community often induced the farmer to a for of being bring his best efforts to food cultivation. Agriculture in past eras depended upon a material technique that had not changed in many respects for thousands of years. Labour was arduous and famine remained a continual threat.

But the farmer had the satisfaction of thief death essay knowing that drought, insects and crop diseases were seldom the result of man-made difficulties. Nor has modern science removed many of the natural disturbances that entered into earlier food cultivation. The greatest difficulties of the past were solved when machines or knowledge of ecology, not synthetic chemicals, were brought to the farm. The advances made in soil chemistry and crop rotation during the eighteenth century were based entirely on organic and natural resources. Charles Townshend, for example, taught the of being famous English farmer the four-course rotation of wheat, turnip, barley and assumptions thinking, clover. A For Essay Of Being Famous! Bakewell formulated the pragmatic orientation toward the selection and breeding of cattle.

There is no better description of the agricultural advances of the eighteenth than the world #145;husbandry#146;. Dissertation Service Public! The rule-of-thumb researches of the period were intent on garnering, rather than substituting for, the a for and against forces of park essay nature. The #145;conquest of nature#146; meant a rational use of a for and against natural resources, not a disruption of the biological processes around man. It can never be too strongly emphasized that every tract of sarah thesis soil and every area of countryside compromises a relatively unique ecological situation. Just as climate, land, vegetation and wild-life may very greatly from of being famous one part of the country to another, so every square mile presents in some degree a distinctive balance of natural forces. Food cultivation by cover, man, which must be regarded as a form of a for essay of being famous botanical #145;domestication#146; imposed on what was originally virgin and wild land, always threatens to upset this balance. In many cases, of course, uniform conditions completely outweigh ecological differences, and large-scale farming is not only feasible but even necessary. For the most part, however, successful agriculture depends upon how the farmer adapts himself to the small differences he is likely to find. He must understand not only assumptions critical thinking, gross variations in a for and against essay famous soil, but particularly his own soul as it is affected by the local vegetation, insect and sarah, animal life it supports. He must ask himself how far he can interfere in his given situation without causing irreparable damage. This can only come with personal familiarity, with fairly extended experience and understanding.

The farmer must bring not only insight to the specific characteristics of his land, but also sympathy, interest, and a socially-responsible attitude. With the and against shift to large-scale farming, the emphasis of agriculture changed from the quality to the quantity of book thief death narrator essay food cultivation. A For And Against Of Being! This meant that the & Relativism (S) land was to be exploited like any other resource under capitalism #150; in a drastic and one-sided manner. A For Of Being! The #145;success#146; of large-scale, quantitative farming depended upon a uniformity of resources, and #145;average#146; in the agricultural situation. Since nature never presents uniformities or averages in such simple terms, they had to be created. To a large degree this task devolved upon chemicals. Thus fertilizers were used to compensate for differences in soil; chemical hormones were employed to cover letter standardize the size of crops; and growth stimuli were discovered to replace the results of variations in climate. The most elementary lessons of and against essay of being famous man#146;s relationships to the soil and nature have since been abandoned for #145;synthesis#146; #150; for artificiality not only in agriculture but also in thief narrator essay nature. In short, #145;husbandry#146; has been replaced by #145;chemistry#146;.

But just as capitalist farming has #145;created#146; an #145;average#146; agriculture, so it has created an #145;average#146; farm worker. Wherever the farmer has been dispossessed by huge corporate growers, he has also been replaced by rural labourers who view the and against essay of being intimate problems of park essay crop management with complete indifference. On large estates to-day, #145;farmers#146; often include aviators who spray insecticides, tractor drivers and and against essay famous, sales#146; agents; not to mention harvesters who never sow and sowers who never harvest. The division of to amusement park essay labour in large-scale farming often precludes a total view of the agricultural situation. Even the agricultural technician, who can provide an over-all view, must change his orientation to meet the needs of #145;average#146; farming. As a result, the a for essay famous complex requirements of co-operation with nature and & Relativism (S), natural processes are fractured into essay of being famous, numerous, unintegrated tasks.

Management is often supplied #150; at least in motivation #150; from remote heights above, by business interests which include little appreciation for the problems of the hovsepian soil. Demands imposed upon a for and against essay famous, the land are shaped neither by the needs of the public nor by the limits of nature, but by the exigencies of profit and competition. All the dissertation help public gaps in the picture #150; from the a for essay of being variations of the land to hovsepian the indifference of farm labourers #150; are filled by chemicals. Fertilization by organic and inorganic (chemical) fertilizers plays a decisive part in a for and against of being altering various soils for #145;average#146; farming. In making these alterations, a number of help very important principles are involved. Under natural conditions, the fertilization of land by organic materials is a process in the course of which complex substances are broken down into simpler plant nutrients. For example, nitrogen in proper quantities is indispensable for plant nourishment. Ordinarily, this element is provided through the well-known #145;nitrogen cycle#146;. When proteins decay, they are eventually reduced to carbon dioxide, water, ammonia, and free nitrogen.

Soil-dwelling bacteria act upon a for, ammonia to produce nitrate compounds that are suitable for plant nourishment. When excessive nitrogenous compounds exist in the soil, denitrifying bacteria may reverse the process to produce a suitable balance. Excesses of this sort are no longer a serious issue because animal proteins play a very small part in supplying the land with nitrogen. Burial conventions require that a human body shall not be used to further the cultivation of food, and the human body, in (S) turn, consumes the proteins of cattle that once eventually reached the soil. But other means exist.

Leguminous plants like beans, peas, clover, and alfalfa support nitrogen-fixing bacteria that use free nitrogen in and against of being the atmosphere. Furthermore, the fecal deposits of many living animals (including man) are also rich in nitrogen. In the past, and to-day to a great extent in Utilitarianism the Orient, these resources have been carefully husbanded and restored to a for and against of being famous the land. The major principle behind chemical fertilization is to introduce these simpler nutrients directly, often without intermediate steps through bacteria. By industrially combining atmosphere nitrogen with lime or soda ash, the nitrogen-fixation process is performed in the factory instead of in the soil. Thief Essay! Phosphates are usually obtained commercially for agriculture by treating phosphate rock with sulphuric acid. A For And Against! In fact the acidulation technique has a wide variety of uses in preparing chemical fertilizers. It often not only supplants the work of bacteria but also brings to the soil a bewildering number of chemicals that are not always necessary for agriculture. Cover Letter Content! The added chemicals often play no role whatever in of being famous soil fertility. They either represent residual substances that cannot be avoided because of the acidulation technique itself, or at assumptions critical best they are added to render inorganic fertilizers soluble or absorbable. Often, they remain in the soil where they do nothing for plant nourishment as such, accumulating over the years to serve no special purpose for agriculture.

Do these new accretions harm the soil? Do they play any role in human health? Generally speaking, is enough known of the effect of chemical fertilizers have on the soil or on the human body to lend inorganic fertilization to adequate controls? Behind each of essay of being famous these questions are even more obscure problems. During the hearings of the Select House Committee, for example, Mr. A Visit Park! J. I. Rodale of the a for and against essay of being #145;Soil and Health Foundation#146; suggested the complexities that are introduced by inorganic fertilizers as part of his objections to such fertilizers. #145;In some cases they (chemical fertilizers) are caustic. They actually have a burning quality that will kill bacteria. (S)! In other cases they are too soluble.

It is as if an individual were forced to eat when he were not hungry. It forces itself on the plant, crowding out important trace mineral elements. #145;The most important reason why some chemical fertilizers are harmful,#146; continued Rodale, #145;is because they contain more than one element. The one element that they need to feed the plant in order to a for make it soluble is tied in with some other element which gives it that solubility and which is there practically only for that purpose. #145;An example is a very common fertilizer called superphosphate. What they are after is to feed the plant phosphate. Help! But is it mixed with sulphuric acid to give it that solubility. The plant takes up a great deal of and against famous phosphate but very little of the sulphur.

When sulphur piles up in the soil there are certain kinds of bacteria, called sulphur-reducing bacteria, which begin to multiply to work down that sulphur. As they work they have to feed. It so happens that those sulphate-reducing bacteria feed on a very important soil organism, which is needed to break down organic matter. Therefore when you have a lot of sulphur piling up in the soil there are bacteria multiplying which are killing off certain organisms which the farmer needs to break down organic matter.#146; This problem, which was first introduced because of the underlying assumptions critical acidulation technique, reaches even further back. #145;When you grow a crop of anything,#146; concludes Rodale, #145;that root that remains in the soil must break down for famous, the next crop. The roots are very valuable. The roots of the preceding crops give nourishment to the next. Letter! If the soil does not contain enough of this breakdown bacteria it will not be able to furnish the food in essay of being time for death, the next crop.#146; Rodale#146;s testimony may be regarded as a very unorthodox view in a for essay of being famous the United States. It was opposed at a visit to amusement park essay the hearings by a battery of #145;experts#146; who vehemently argued for chemical fertilizers, #145;judiciously#146; mixed with organic substances.

Although the a for essay of being #145;experts#146; freely acknowledged that organics keep the soil friable, easy to work and permeable to water, they pointed up transport difficulties and, in fact, the entire arrangement of modern society as objections to book death supplying the of being land with enough organic materials for agriculture. #145;It is neither economically feasible nor physically possible to rely upon organic manures exclusively in our present-day agriculture,#146; observed Dr. Richard Bradfield of Cornell University, who particularly tried to place inorganic fertilizers in perspective from the help specialist#146;s standpoint. #145;Organic gardeners make a great deal of what they call the #147;law of returns#148;, by which they mean the return to the soil of all the elements which the crop removes from it. A For Of Being! Such a system is feasible in a primitive, sparsely populated area in which practically the entire population is engaged in farming, and in which there is a high proportion of the population which can collect and transport city wastes to the farms which feed the cities. If we stopped to & Relativism think for a minute, it would become apparent how difficult it would be to apply this law literally in the United States at a for famous the present time.#146; In support of inorganic fertilizers, Bradfield insisted that such fertilizers supply elements in the same form that they are released by organic substances. In fact he found organic fertilizers of very limited value because #145;the organic matter which is generally available for use on soils does not contain these elements in the proportions in which they are needed to critical give the best growth of crops on a for essay famous, most soils.#146; Now we may reserve the social problems raised by underlying, the exclusive use of organics for later discussion. But Bradfield#146;s unfavourable comparison of organic with inorganic fertilizers may be regarded as resting on entirely spurious premises.

Dr. A. F. Camp, Vice Director in charge of the University of Florida Citrus Experimental Station makes the observation that #145;the difference between trees fertilized with organic fertilizers and those fertilized with chemical fertilizers lay primarily not in the field of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and calcium but in the lack of the and against essay of being so-called minor or secondary elements such as magnesium, manganese, copper, zinc, and letter content, boron which were present as impurities in the organic materials but not present in appreciable amounts in the chemical materials. Thus, in the case of bonemeal which was credited with containing only nitrogen, phosphorous, and calcium, it was found that one of the famous most important elements it supplied was magnesium which is universally deficient in Florida citrus soils and for which citrus trees have a very high requirement. Superphosphate contained only traces of magnesium and when substituted for bonemeal resulted in trees that were acutely deficient in magnesium. All of these so-called minor elements which are actually as necessary to the development of citrus as the so-called major elements were found as sizable impurities in dissertation help service the natural organic materials because, just as in citrus, they were necessary to the growth or development of the organisms from which these organic materials were derived#146;. Indeed, it hardly tells us much to a for essay of being famous criticize the book efficacy or proportions of organic fertilizers that are #145;generally available#146;. What is a for famous #145;available#146; has a very restricted meaning in the lexicon of experts to-day.

To the average farmer, organic fertilizers are almost completely represented by dissertation help service, manures, which are admittedly a limited source of soil fertility. Even if we include the best composts in use to-day (and this being exceptionally generous) the term #145;organic fertilizer#146;, as it is currently employed, would ignore a wide range of potentially valuable substances which could be brought to the soil. Curiously enough, the #145;experts#146; carry the greatest responsibility for this situation. They have almost completely evaded, and directed attention away from, research into new and essay of being, better organics. Indeed, the current emphasis on inorganic fertilizers in agricultural laboratories and projects has reduced organic substances to an #145;indispensable#146; but entirely ancillary position in food cultivation. Bradfield went on park, to deny that #145;valid evidence exists#146; to show that #145;crops grown with chemical fertilizer are more attractive and nutritious to insects and plant pathogens#146;. This too will be discussed elsewhere.

His denial, however, that evidence exists as to whether #145;crops grown with chemical fertilizers are less nutritious to essay of being famous men than those grown with organic fertilizers#146; is extremely questionable. Slowly and in the face of extreme hostility from the #145;experts#146;, a number of sarah hovsepian soil scientists and practical farmers are producing evidence that inorganic fertilizers may seriously reduce the quality of crops. The discussion is still being cast in a strictly adaptive framework, as part of a general reconciliation to the use of chemicals. It is widely accepted that the contemporary social scene renders the use of inorganics necessary and few are willing to abandon chemical fertilizers as such. Of Being! But, as Dr. K. C. Beeson pointed out, #145;Fertilization with large quantities of nitrogen can also result in letter content some lowering of certain nutritive constituents in and against essay of being famous the plant. For example, in some experiments with turnip greens, applications of nitrogen reduced the hovsepian thesis percentage of calcium in the greens in twenty-four to essay of being thirty experiments. Fertilization with the ammonium salts of nitrogen has resulted in a reduction of vitamin C in park essay plants, but fertilization with the nitrates under the same conditions did not affect vitamin C. The reasons for a for and against, the difference are unknown.#146; Perhaps the most strongly emphasized point made by all the #145;experts#146; in public favour of inorganic fertilizers is the a for conclusion that chemicals increase crop yield. #145;The most important reason for the use of fertilizers,#146; said Bradfield, #145;is that they increase the yield of practically all crops on all but our most fertile soils. This point is so generally appreciated that detailed elaboration is unnecessary#146;.

Very well, then #150; let us elaborate! By leaning on poorly-evaluated experimental facts, the #145;expert#146; generally knows that the addition of certain chemicals to the soil can increase the size of crops. Although impressive yields can be produced, more and more evidence has appeared to show that these yields often drain the soil of valuable substances. Dr. Sarah! William A. A For And Against Famous! Albrecht of the letter University of Missouri astutely observed at the Hearings that #145;a fertilizer balancing the supply of nutrients in the soil is famous merely a help to take all the other things out faster. So if you fertilize a soil with nitrogen, which is deficient, and grow a bigger crop, you merely have taken all the park other things out faster and by virtue of that observation people will say, #147;Oh, yes, fertilizers ruin your soil#148;. Well, they have just helped you wear it out faster. That is all.#146;

But is that all? #145;We have built up the lime, the phosphorous, the potash,#146; continues Albrecht, later in his testimony. #145;Now we come along and shove under the nitrogen and that is very demonstrative for the first year or second year until we pull the other things down. And Against Of Being Famous! We had the same thing with limestone. Underlying Assumptions Critical! The moment we build up the one thing that is deficient, we get a glorious effect until something comes in a for essay famous as a deficiency, and cover, then we are in trouble. . . Of Being Famous! . Book Thief Death Narrator Essay! Lime is a necessity but like alone is not enough. Many years ago the farmer, who did not know any chemistry, gave us a very interesting jingle which is very true: #147;Lime and lime without manure make father richer but son poorer.#148; #145;A very find old truth, very fine, because when you lime, the calcium next to a for and against the hydrogen serves to push the other things out. So when you lime, a crop gets greener and a crop gets bigger, but not because the lime did that in the crop but because it pushed out other things and balanced up the thing to help it.#146; Before chemicals can replace organic substances without leading to disaster, more must be known of the & Relativism factors which enter into soil composition, of the soil itself and finally of plant and animal nutrition; in short, of a for famous a stupendous natural process concerning which agronomists know surprisingly little.

The soil, as Dr. & Relativism (S)! Beeson has put it, is #145;a highly complex dynamic system of a for of being minerals, inorganic chemical compounds, organic compounds, living organisms, air and content, water#146;. Yet soil cannot be synthesized in the laboratory; and entire areas of plant nutrition, including photosynthesis, remain a complete mystery. In fact, as Beeson tells us, #145;There is no known laboratory method or group of methods by which all the nutritive constituents in food can be measured and evaluated in terms of the nutrition of man or animals. A For And Against Essay! Consequently, there is no single unique value that can be assigned to a food to express its nutritive quality. All of the constituents contributing to nutritive quality have probably not yet been recognized, and there are no adequate methods for quantitative measurement of death essay many constituents that we do recognize. A For And Against Essay! Therefore, no measurement of the over-all nutritive quality of a food has ever been made#146;.

In some cases, soil scientists have even discovered that an book thief death narrator essay element which is unnecessary for plant growth (but which is derived from the a for essay consumption of plants) is indispensable to proper animal nutrition. Soil deficiencies of cover letter cobalt, for example, have resulted in nutritional disturbances in cattle and sheep. Other of a for and against essay of being famous these so-called trace elements are probably even less understood. The point is that whereas the #145;experts#146; tend to break up, simplify and crudely manipulate the agricultural situation, supporters of organic farming usually predicate themselves on the complexity and far-reaching character of letter food cultivation. There is a for and against more than a difference in technique. It is a basic antagonism in outlooks toward natural phenomena. The organic farmer essentially argues that man can know and husband nature, but he cannot replace natural processes without serious detriment to himself and society. Insects, Insecticides and dissertation help service, the #145;Human Bug#146; If the rejection of chemical fertilizers rests on the complexity and obscurity of the agricultural situation, there are very direct reasons for regarding other chemicals in agriculture as detrimental to human health.

Perhaps the most significant category of essay famous chemicals suspected of being dangerous to man are insecticides and cover letter, pesticides. The problem that these substances presents is very simple: All are poisonous to one or several forms of lower life. They are employed on the principle that they either do not remain in foods that finally reach the consumer market or that the a for essay of being famous human body finds them harmless in the amounts that do remain. Both #145;principles#146; are now open to grave doubts by physiologists and biochemists. The extensive application of insecticides to narrator essay crops in the United States reaches back before 1870 with the use of Paris Green for and against famous, the control of the critical thinking Colorado potato beetle. Afterwards, a number of extremely toxic chemicals came into use. Lead arsenate, for example, was widely employed against the codling moth in apple and pear orchards. A For And Against Essay Of Being! It is still used to-day, although it has been regarded by many health workers as a danger to agricultural labourers and the public since the first World War. The use of insecticides has now grown to cover content incredible dimensions. With the and against essay famous passage of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act of 1947, about 16,000 brands of insecticide preparations have been registered with the government. These brands range from poisons absolutely deadly to man to very questionable #145;hormone#146; herbicides like 2, 4-D dichloro phenoxy acetic acid. #145;One of the disturbing things about the recent advance in insecticides, in the discovery of new insecticides,#146; said Dr.

Dunbar to the Select Committee, #145;has been that a great many very potent and help, valuable insecticides have been developed on which very little is known, either about their chronic or acute toxicity or about their fate after they are applied to food. #145;In many cases we do not know whether the insecticide after application is absorbed into the body of the food, whether it is destroyed on weathering, were even insecticides put out for which no chemical method of famous identification or analysis is known.#146; Many insecticides and pesticides are known in some way to affect higher animal organisms, including man. Thief! Hydrogen cyanide, a fumigant commonly used on grains and cereal foods, is described by a Food and Drug official as #145;moderately to extremely poisonous; however, under normal conditions of use the fumigant volatilizes so that no significant [ ! #150; L.H.] residue remains on the food products and no hazard results to the consumer. An exception [ ! #150; L.H.] occurred several years ago when a large shipment of raisins on the docks in one of the seaport cities was repeatedly fumigated with liquid hydrogen cyanide under conditions which prevented volatilization of the fumigant.

These raisins were distributed and resulted in and against essay of being numerous illnesses to a visit to amusement park consumers#146;. We may very well wonder how many digestive illnesses reported to doctors throughout the essay of being famous country are due to unsuspected poisons in food that were not discovered by the Food and Drug Administration. It is maintained by may #145;experts#146;, that when insecticides are produced from simple compounds they can be washed away and kept from directly affecting the public. This, however, is by no means universally accepted; on the contrary, it is believed that residues usually remain or are absorbed by the crops. According to Dr. Francis E. Ray, Director of the Cancer Research Laboratory (University of letter Florida), arsenic #145;in the form of famous copper arsenate or lead arsenate is commonly used as an agricultural insecticide and fungicide. It has been known for many years that exposure to to amusement park arsenicals produces a certain type of a for and against essay of being famous cancer of the skin. More recent evidence is that inhalation of arsenic dust #150; and sprays #150; may cause cancer of the lung. It is possible that other types of internal cancer may be caused by thief, the long-continued ingestion of so-called non-toxic doses of and against famous arsenicals. It is suspected that the arsenicals used in growing tobacco contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer among heavy smokers. Arsenical sprays on tobacco and food should be prohibited#146;.

Another #145;simple#146; chemical (indeed, an element) that has come into widespread use against insects is selenium. Underlying Assumptions Thinking! Experimental study by a for essay, the Food and Drug Administration indicates that selenium and its compounds #145;are highly toxic and are capable of producing insidious poisoning. When as little as three parts of selenium (in the form of book thief death essay selenized corn) was added to each million parts of the diet of rats, it produced liver disease (cirrhosis) in the majority of the animals within a year. Higher concentrations eventually produce liver tumours in some of the animals. All these factors combine to make selenium extremely dangerous as a food contaminant. Minute amounts of it (at least in animals) can initiate a sequence of pathologic changes, the earliest of which are symptomless and pass unnoticed, while the later stages are irreparable and ultimately fatal. These facts combined with our conviction that the use of selenium-containing sprays could be avoided, have been the a for and against of being basis of our reluctance to set any tolerance whatever for selenium residues on thief, fruit#146;. In 1942, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a series of experiments and studies to ascertain the extent to which ordinary packing house washing removed selenium from oranges, and the degree to which this substance accumulated in the soil after repeated usage. The conclusions of this study, which covered a period of several years, is remarkable. #145;Washing as ordinarily practiced removed little or none of the selenium,#146; dryly observes a memorandum of the agency to the Select Committee. #145;Soil in groves with a history of repeated spraying showed a selenium level ten or more times that of and against of being famous unsprayed groves, and the flesh of oranges grown on the soil showed the same selenium level as above, even though no spray had been applied to park essay this crop.#146; As of the hearings, however, the Food and and against famous, Drug Administration has not been able to sarah remove this substance from the market. Even State agencies, with whom the Administration discussed the insecticide on 17th January, 1950, were of the opinion that a selenium product was #145;necessary under certain conditions to control mites#146;. As the development of insecticides continues, ever greater dangers to a for and against essay public health are being produced.

Perhaps one of the gravest hazards arises from recent insecticides developed around hydrocarbons #150; the organic insecticides like the underlying thinking chlorinated hydrocarbons (chlorinated camphene, etc.), the organic phosphates (parathion, etc.), and a for and against, so on. Since these insecticides are fat soluble and chemically stable, they are readily retained in body fat. The human body can acquire parathion, DDT and similar hydrocarbons from cover letter any number of and against vegetables, fruits, milk, and even the flesh of sprayed fowl and book narrator essay, cattle. No limit has been agreed upon by the #145;experts#146; on how much of these substances can accumulate in the fat of the organism. Indeed, aside from the fact that insecticides can be intrinsically harmful, it may be supposed that the hydrocarbons are especially dangerous because they may enter the and against essay famous blood steam in larger quantities precisely during illness, when stored fat is being released by the body to resist infection and disease. According to an article by W. A. Book Narrator Essay! Brittin, head of the food laboratory of the Beech-Nut Packing Co.: #145;These organic insecticides reached the a for essay famous market for general use before adequate information was available on the acute or chronic toxicity of the (S) chemicals involved#133; with the exception of one or two insecticides, methods of analysis were lacking which were specific for these various organic spray residues.#146; When chlordane was introduced for essay, use in agriculture, for example, one manufacturer described the insecticide as being half as toxic as DDT.

Afterwards, the belief was expressed in sales literature that chlordane #145;is among the safest of dissertation help all available organic insecticides#146;. According to Dr. Miller, one of the of being members of the Select Committee, chlordane sprays were even available in drug stores for household use. If we are to accept the opinion of dissertation help service Dr. Lehman of the Food and Drug Administration, however, the essay of being truth appears to be that #145;chlordane is one of the most toxic insecticides we have to deal with#133; First of all, it penetrates the dissertation public skin very readily. Therefore, anyone handling it could be poisoned. Or of it is used as a household spray, the a for and against of being potential hazard to living in these houses is quite great because of the cover letter ability of chlordane to penetrate the skin and because of the volatility of the insecticide and the possibility of a for and against of being poisoning by inhalation.

More to the point is that it is very toxic to the liver and underlying assumptions, kidneys of an individual. A For And Against Essay Famous! As an over-all picture, to use DDT as a yardstick, I would put chlordane four to five times more poisonous than DDT.#146; Yet at the time that the Food and Drug Administration conferred with a manufacturer of this substance, (23rd September, 1947) it was reported that 700,000 pounds of chlordane had been sold, and another company had sold approximately 300,000 pounds. When Lehman was asked if chlordane was employed extensively as an sarah hovsepian thesis insecticide he replied that #145;based on poundage it must have been quite widely used#146;. Thus far, to the knowledge of this writer, the Food and Drug Administration has not been able to prevent its continued sale to food growers. Parathion is another organic insecticide that came into wide use fairly recently. It has already caused the death of some nine people, one of whom was spraying tobacco and and against of being, another citrus fruit. Although Dr. Underlying! Lehman believes that this insecticide is #145;quite safe for use#146; and that no #145;evidence#146; exists to show it is harmful to consumers eating foods sprayed with parathion, he was obliged to make the a for and against of being famous following judgement: #145;Parathion is a liquid.

It penetrates the & Relativism (S) skin. It is very poisonous. Very small amounts will produce fatal poisoning.#146; This order of opinion #150; that a substance is #145;very poisonous#146; but no #145;evidence#146; exists to show that it will harm consumers when used on crops #150; is often the most favourable response that can be elicited from governmental agencies like the Food and and against of being famous, Drug Administration. But some biochemists and health workers who are not obliged to maintain an acute sensitivity to the pressure of content industry allow themselves less restrained opinions. Dr.

Franklin C. Bing, in conjunction with a committee on food and nutrition, has made the more sweeping observation that, #145;Contrary to previous beliefs, it now seem likely that a substance which is poisonous to one form of life is and against of being famous very apt to be found to sarah thesis some degree toxic for other animals, including man#146;. This observation appears to have received its most striking confirmation with the use of DDT, an insecticide which for of being, years was heralded as completely harmless to man and extremely effective against book narrator essay insects. A considerable literature has fostered the belief that DDT is so free of any hazards to human beings that is may be sprayed directly on the body for and against famous, protection against such parasites as lice. The contrast between these claims and the results of recent research led to a very lively controversy before the Select Committee. Possibly hundreds of pages of testimony were devoted to the merits as against the dangers of this widely used insecticide.

It is interesting to note that few experts were prepared to maintain that DDT is completely harmless; the dispute actually centred for the most part, on to amusement park essay, whether DDT, once regarded as without any hazard whatever, is to-day responsible for an epidemic of nervous and physical disorders! This controversy reached its most acute point in and against of being the testimony of Dr. Morton S. Biskind, who has devoted himself to & Relativism (S) extensive research into the pathological symptoms of DDT poisoning. According to Dr. Biskind: #145;The introduction for uncontrolled general use by essay famous, the public of the insecticide DDT, or chlorophenothane, and the series of even more deadly substances that followed has no previous counterpart in history. Beyond question, no other substance known to man was ever before developed so rapidly and spread indiscriminately over so large a portion of the earth in so short a time. Letter Content! This is the a for and against essay famous more surprising as, at the time DDT was released for public use, a large amount of data was already available in the medical literature showing that this agent was extremely toxic for many different species of animals, that it was cumulatively stored in the body fat and thief, that it appeared in the milk. At this time a few cases of DDT poisoning human beings had also been reported. A For! These observations were almost completely ignored or misinterpreted#133; DDT is as lethal in repeated small doses as in larger single doses. In low-grade chronic poisoning in underlying assumptions critical thinking animals, growth is impaired, and the implication of a for and against essay of being this observation for the growth of (S) children should be given serious consideration.

In rats, tumours in the liver have been produced by low-grade continuous poisoning with DDT. DDT is stored in the body fat and is excreted in the milk of dogs, rats, goats, and cattle as we have shown, in that of humans, too. Virtually all of these effects have also repeatedly been observed in known DDT poisonings in human beings. The other agents of the DDT group, chlordane, benzene hexachloride, chlorinated camphene, and methoxychlor, so far as these have been reported, also produce serious tissue changes varying in site and degree with the compound. Chlordane is an especially dangerous nerve poison and animals who have received toxic amounts rarely recover even though bodily changes prior to death do not seem at all alarming. A For Essay Of Being! Fortunately in my own limited experience with chlordane poisoning in man, I can report that with stringent avoidance of further exposure and & Relativism, intensive nutritional therapy to a for and against essay help repair the tissue damage, recovery does occur, though this may not be complete. Benzene hexachloride changes the to amusement park chromosomes of plants and probably, too, those of animals. The possibility that this agent may adversely effect the heredity of human beings must be taken into consideration. Already in one report from Europe, seedlings treated with benzene hexachloride were so altered in their heredity that it was suggested that nondegenerated stocks be used for seed subsequently#133; We are dealing with double-edged swords, for the very substances now promoted to increase the size of our crops in the long run turn out to be detrimental to agriculture itself. All these substances and a for famous, the fantastically toxic parathion, too, inhibit the growth of certain plants, and compounds of the DDT group also persistently poison the to amusement essay soil, so far as present evidence goes, for five or six years and possibly indefinitely.#146;

In the a for essay famous course of his testimony, Dr. Biskind carefully elaborated the symptomology of DDT poisoning. A comparison of book death these symptoms with alleged #145;virus#146; epidemics in many American communities has suggested to him that many of these epidemics may actually result from mass DDT poisoning. Biskind#146;s experience with individual patients suggests that this belief is by no means as reckless as it first appears. Essay Of Being! He cites the case (an example among many) of a patient who apparently suffered severe nervous disorders. After repeated examinations and tests for two-and-a-half years, he was finally referred to Dr. Biskind for treatment. Help Service! #145;When I saw this patient,#146; observes Dr. Biskind, #145;he had an enlarged tender liver, sings of nutritional impairment, reduced ability to feel vibration in his legs and a reduction in his pulse pressure. Under ordinary circumstances none of these signs, nor all together, could account for his symptoms. When he was advised to give up his job as seek less toxic employment, to remove all traces of DDT and chlordane from his environment, was given nutritional therapy to alleviate the of being famous liver damage and put on a diet low in a visit essay insecticide residues, he showed prompt improvement within a week.

Four months later he was almost free of symptoms. He was then unknowingly exposed to a for essay of being famous DDT in a restaurant kitchen which has just previously been aerosoled with DDT. Within half-an-hour the entire syndrome returned and required more than a week to subside.#146; It may be noted that Dr. Biskind claims to be familiar with entire families who exhibit the syndrome of this patient because of DDT. Experimental evidence favourable to dissertation public DDT ordinarily rests on situations where a group of people are voluntarily exposed to a few repeatedly large doses of the insecticide. Since no acute pathological findings are reported by these #145;experiments#146;, it is assumed that DDT is harmless to human beings except in cases of individual sensitivity.

Thus the tendency is to regard all admitted cases of DDT poisoning as exceptional, where an a for essay individual rather than a public reaction is at stake. A Visit To Amusement! This approach is slowly being reversed by a number of researchers. The public, mass hazards of DDT are now being seriously considered because of new and more complete experimental evidence. A considerable amount of information of DDT has been supplied by the Texas Research Foundation, an independent non-profit institution supported entirely by private business interests. According to Mr. John M. Dendy, head of the analytical division of the and against famous foundation: #145;1. All processed milk and meat samples (tested by the Division for evidence of insecticides) were found to be contaminated with DDT. #145;2. The degree of contamination ranged from book thief essay 3.10 parts per a for and against million of DDT in lean meat to 68.55 parts per million in fat meat. In milk the underlying critical contamination ranged from less than 0.5 parts of a for essay of being famous DDT per million in death narrator essay 13.83 parts per million. #145;3.

Both corn and sunflowers sprayed with insecticides were found to absorb the chlorinated hydrocarbons in unchanged form. #145;4. The rate of absorption was found to be cumulative, the degree of contamination increasing with each spraying. The extent of absorption in corn ranged from zero parts per million where there was no spraying to essay famous 8.11 parts per million after two sprayings with insecticide. Contamination of the sarah hovsepian sunflowers ranged from zero for no spraying to 3.72 parts of insecticide per million after one spraying and a for essay of being, 7.40 parts per million after two sprayings.#146; Mr. Dendy concludes as follows: #145;#133; one of these insecticides [a reference to several organic insecticides tested by the Division, including DDT], when sprayed on a crop such as corn is absorbed by the corn.

The dairy cow or beef cow which feeds on the corn in turn absorbs a portion of the chemical in its fat, and the insecticide is passed on to the human being who consumes milk or beef from the animal. Assumptions Thinking! In experiments in the laboratories of A. J. Lehman, M. I. Smith, and H. J. Welch, it has already been shown what concentration of DDT will produce death in test animals. We know, too, that DDT is absorbed into plant and animal tissues cumulatively. Therefore, we can only conclude that the continued indiscriminate use of DDT and other chlorine hydrocarbons holds an ever-increasing hazard to the public health.#146; Later in his testimony, Mr. Dendy points out that, #145;Milk containing small concentrations of DDT has been found by most of the investigators in the field.

Even though the intake is small, the essay of being fatty accumulation in (S) the tissues as the result is magnified as high as thirty-four times the original intake. In other words, with a diet of ten parts per million you could expect, in some instances, 340 parts per essay million in the fat#146;. It is interesting to note that Dendy flatly refuses to acknowledge the adequacy of the tests which either support the harmfulness or the harmlessness of DDT to human beings. #145;As I see it, in this particular field,#146; he observes, #145;we exposed almost everything to the indoctrination of DDT. As most of thesis you know, in a for essay of being the service we used DDT for everything, and we got home and used DDT with no thought as to its possible effect on the individuals. Yet, as I say, there is no one that has established a truly detrimental effect on the human being to my satisfaction yet. There has been no elaborate human test made yet.

Someone has to authorize, delegate and carry on such experiment, to ascertain whether or not all this wealth of information is a visit going in the wrong direction. We are showing a possibility of mass contamination, but we do not know its effect. Of Being! We know it has an effect on help, test animals, we can show that, but we do not know its human effect.#146; Perhaps we have misunderstood Mr. Dendy, but this is the same acme of the positivist method: animals are known to and against famous respond adversely, but since no test has been made on help service public, man, Dendy is not satisfied that DDT is and against essay of being detrimental to human beings! The real point seems to be that no adequate test has been made to support the harmlessness of the insecticide to the public. In the narrator essay meantime, DDT is ubiquitous. A recent experiment on the insecticide could proceed only with the a for essay of being greatest difficulty because the control rats, which were supposed to be checked against those given DDT, were also found to have acquired the insecticide from their normal environment.

Organic insecticides have been found not only in the fodder, fat, milk and eggs of animals consumed by man but in the brains as well. Book Thief Death Narrator! The dangers of DDT to public health have been echoed in the reports of Dr. Lehman, who acknowledges under questioning by the Select Committee #145;that the potential hazard of DDT has been underestimated#133;#146; But few remarks sum up the meaning of DDT to the public health more vividly than the following quotation from a British food journal (cited by Dr. Biskind): #145;Atomic bombs and DDT will be regarded by many as the two most notable scientific developments of the war. They have now been brought together in a more direct and scientific sense by recent British research carried out by the Pest Infestation Laboratory. Essay! Radioactive isotopes produced as the Harwell Atomic Pile have been used to study the biological movement of DDT residues#133;#146; After reporting that an insecticide almost identical to a visit to amusement park essay DDT has been found in the #145;gizzard, the liver and a for essay famous, the kidney, the tissues of the heart and brain, and the sciatic nerve fibre#146; of Utilitarianism & Relativism (S) test hens, the quotation concludes: #145;These new results give strong confirmation for the view that DDT is a hazardous contaminant of animal and human foodstuffs.

Though in themselves the residues from DDT application may be small, it is clear that they are considerably retained after ingestion. Toxic effects of a harmful if not lethal nature could arise from the of being famous cumulative absorption of DDT residues.#146; Actually, the hovsepian coupling of atomic bombs with organic insecticides as the most noted scientific developments of the war is not a helpful amalgam. Atomic bombs have proved to a for and against of being be very effective in snuffing out human life. It is by no means, assured, however, that insecticides perform a similar function with respect to insects. If we are to accept a number of very remarkable facts brought out before the Select Committee, it would appear that not only do insecticides often fail to provide a long range solution against insects, but they may even result in the widespread appearance of thief narrator essay new pests.

It is ironic but apparently true that the use of many insecticides leads to the development of resistant varieties of insects, while producing new pests by destroying their natural enemies. #145;The New York Times last April (1950),#146; claims Dr. Biskind, #145;carried items indicating that because the wheat crop was threatened by green bugs and red spiders, more than 200,000 acres has been sprayed with parathion by airplane. What was omitted from the news dispatch was that the crop was threatened only a for essay of being famous, because prior use of DDT had killed off the normal predators of these two resistant insects, permitting them to flourish uncontrolled. Apparently the remedy for too much poison is dissertation help public still more.#146; A similar situation has been reported by leading entomologists like Dr. Charles E. Palm of Cornell University. #145;As far as the same number of insects,#146; declares Dr. Palm, #145;we probably has most of them before, but we have cases in our own experience where we have some minor pests that have become of major importance #150; I say possibly #150; through the use of a for of being insecticides, I think of the red-banded leaf roller on fruit. It was always a minor problem, and assumptions critical, as long as we used lead arsenate for control of the codling moth, it was no particular problem to the commercial fruit grower. But there is the a for and against essay of being possibility that DDT has reduced the parasites of the red-banded leaf roller as a problem that we have to contend with because we still have to to amusement control the codling moth with DDT.

We cannot go back to lead because we cannot do it economically from the viewpoint of a for and against essay of being codling moth control. So this thing gets a little tighter all the while and the importance increases.#146; This type of problem has become so acute in recent years that there is a tendency for #145;experts#146; to juggle the effectiveness of an insecticide against the natural predators of other pests which may also be destroyed. Utilitarianism! Dr. V. B. Wigglesworth, of the Agricultural Research Council in Cambridge, England, was obliged to suggest that #145;an insecticide which kills 50 per cent. of the pest insect, and none of its predators or parasites, may be far more valuable than one which kills 95 per cent. of the pests, but at the same time eliminates its natural enemies.

Perhaps this is where the future of chemical insecticides lies, not as a substitute for, but as a complement, to the more subtle and more remunerative methods of biology#146;. And Against Famous! The entire meaning of insect control by thief death essay, insecticides threatens to be upset by the very consequences of insecticides. In an article, appropriately called #145;The Philosophy of Orchard Control#146;, A. D. A For Essay! Pickett of the Dominion Entomological Laboratory in Nova Scotia writes #145;that when a chemical is used for some specific purpose, such as the control of dissertation help service a fungus disease, it may increase the survival potential of one or more pests which were unimportant before the a for essay spray was applied. An example of this is the increase in population of oyster shell scale and European red mite following applications of elemental sulphur#146;. The British have tried to show some moderation in the use of letter content insecticides; the Americans, however, work on the principle that the and against essay of being famous bug must be bludgeoned#133; or else! The difference in national attitudes reflects itself in the fact that while British #145;experts#146; are thinking of reducing insecticides and, in content some measure, getting nature to work with them, the American #145;experts#146; continually increase the dose of an insecticide as the pest grows more and a for and against of being, more resistant, until complete resistance has been achieved. At the same time, the increased dosage adds to the contamination of food and tends to complete the destruction of natural enemies, including not only other insects which are helpful to man but also wild life and birds. Insects, to-day, destroy more than $4,000,000,000 worth of book narrator crops a year. The problem of famous controlling them, as Dr. Palm admitted, has become more acute and & Relativism, expensive that it ever was in the past.

The one possibility of reducing insect predators, namely by improving plant nutrition, has received very little attention by soil scientists. Yet it is an area of investigation that some of the most interesting facts and results have been brought to light. During the Select Committee hearings, the American novelist and practical farmer, Mr. Louis Bromfield, frankly stated his belief that the #145;increasing attack by insects and diseases upon our agriculture and horticulture has arisen largely through poor and greedy agricultural methods, through the steady deterioration of soils and the steady loss of organic material with which nitrogen is closely affiliated, and the increasing unavailability of the natural elements though the loss and destruction of soil structures and content. In other words, a sick soil produces a sick and weakened plants which are immediately subject to disease and insect attack. In properly managed soils the necessity for using poisonous preparations injurious to animals and people is greatly diminished and in many cases disappears altogether. The general deterioration of most soils in a for essay of being the United States since the first plough entered them is closely related to park essay the increasing attack of disease and insects and the consequent short-cut use of poisonous dusts and sprays later consumed by humans.#146; Falling back on essay famous, his extensive experience in farming, Bromfield went on to say: #145;I myself farmed and gardened in France, on land that has been in dissertation help service public use for 1,200 years, for a for and against famous, seventeen years without every using a dust or spray. A Visit To Amusement Park! It was wholly unnecessary because during that time the soil had been properly handled.#146;

According to Mr. Bromfield, the University of Missouri #145;has found that sufficient amounts of the element nitrogen will control the attack of chinch bugs on corn. And Against Famous! They found that corn not suffering from nitrogen starvation was simply not attacked by death narrator, the pests#146;. Of Being! Similar experiences have been obtained #145;in related to content the attack of the green bug on wheat#146; in Kansas. A For Famous! #145;The green bug,#146; observed Mr. Bromfield, #145;does not start on one side of the of the field and work his way across. They always go to work on the yellowish spot in cover the field and they work out in a circle. This yellowish spot is where there is a strong nitrogen deficiency, because they will not attack the deep-green wheat.#146; Bromfield#146;s remarks are a matter of record in the scientific journals and have even received confirmation from workers in the field who still regard the use of a for and against essay of being insecticides as indispensable to agriculture. Chemicals substances are not only introduced into the soil and sprayed on crops, but they are also injected on an ever-increasing scale into cattle and fowl. An extraordinary example was cited by Dr. Help! Clive McCay. #145;As you are aware,#146; Dr. McCay told the committee, #145;some producers of chickens are introducing under the skin into a for essay of being, the neck of the chicken diethylstilbestrol.

Such procedures produce more pounds of chicken from a hundred pounds of feed and increase profits. When these chickens are slaughtered the necks are cut off and may be fed to foxes and mink. Some of these farms have reported substantial failure in breeding. Now the question arises whether enough of this compound finds its way into to amusement, the flesh to affect the person who consumes the chicken. #145;The same type of problem arises when meat-producing animals are fed compounds to a for essay of being famous injure the thyroid so that the basal metabolism of the pig or steer will be lowered and more meat will result from each pound of feed. Thief Essay! Does enough of the compound fed the animal remain in the meat so that the a for and against essay of being consumer will be injured?#146; Despite a furious attempt by manufacturers of cattle hormones to prove the contrary, some of the most eminent endocrinologists in the United States no longer regard stilbestrol as a #145;problem#146; to be decided upon either favourably or unfavourably. In their opinion, these hormones, and Utilitarianism, especially stilbestrol, are a great hazard to and against of being the public health.

According to Dr. Robert K. Enders, chairman of the Department of Zoology in Swarthmore College, #145;it is against the public interest to permit its [stilbestrol#146;s] use and sale under present conditions#146;. Underlying Critical Thinking! The supporters of the use of diethylstilbestrol,#146; observes Enders, who experimented with the hormone for three years, #145;always cite that the drug is used in medicine with inference that it is, therefore, harmless. They point out the a for and against essay famous fact that large doses have been given patients without disaster although they may produce vomiting. They never mention the fact that small amounts, even minute amounts, given over thief narrator, a longer period may give results that differ from those where large dosages are given under the supervision of a for and against of being a physician. Yet the book thief literature shows that extremely minute doses can effectively sterilize and injure laboratory animals where larger doses have no long-range effect (Roberts and essay, Nature). These small doses do not produce vomiting. Nor do the supporters quote a leading endocrinologist who says: #147;#145; In women there is evidence that oestrogens are concerned in the etiology of mammary cancer. Not only does the help service clinical evidence point to such a conclusion, but now, with the a for of being lapse of time, cases are being reported in which cancer of the breast has followed prolonged treatment with oestrogens.#148; #145;Supporters of the use of diethylstilbestrol always say that #147;in properly treated fowl#148; there is no residue or if there is book thief it is discarded with the head or that there is no effect of the drug detectable on and against essay famous, humans. Apparently the definition of sarah what constitutes a #147;properly treated#148; fowl and fowl as they reach the market are far from the same thing. Having examined the heads of poultry that has been killed for market, I can assure the committee that a considerable number of chickens contained unabsorbed portions of pellets of the and against of being drug#133; What can and does happen is well illustrated by an examination of caponettes, as sold on the open market.

An expert examined fifty heads from one well-regulated packing house. He found pellets in twenty-six of the heads. Eight of the heads showed that pellets had been absorbed, three heads had the appearance of normal cockerels but no evidence of a pellet or injection site could be found in eight birds. This means that in 16 per cent. of the chickens sold the assumptions critical site of implantation was in such a place that it was sold with the meat. Even if only had of these had a residue of diethylstilbestrol left, 8 per cent. of the chickens contained large amounts of the chemical which is not destroyed in normal cooking. #145;The reluctance of the trade to use animal charcoal to mix with the a for and against essay famous pellet to mark the site of the injection may be due to the fact that the site of injection may be included in the sale of the fowl.#146; Commenting on damage that stilbestrol can inflict, Dr. Enders warned that #145;one two-hundredth of the dose, that is of a maximum dose, given regularly over a period of time will kill the (experimental) animal.

Now while two one-hundredths of underlying thinking a milligram given over a period of a time will kill the animal, as much as two milligrams given over the same period of time to an animal of the same weight will not kill him. To me that can only mean one thing, that small doses are much more toxic than large doses#146;. Enders observes that mink fed with stilbestrol #145;were the poorest mink I have ever seen that were still breathing. That is, they lost their hair, they were fat and puffy, you could put your finger in the skin and dimple it and a for and against famous, the skin would not come back, there were scales around the external orifices because something was wrong with the urine, and, as I say, the few survivors were the Utilitarianism & Relativism (S) most miserable animals I have ever seen for a for and against famous, animals that were still breathing#146;. The testimony of Enders indicates that large enough doses of hovsepian stilbestrol will stop ovulation in women, profoundly alter the blood picture in chickens and cause changes in the reproductive tracts of experimental animals fed on poultry waste shudders at this prospect. Cystic ovaries, paper-thin uterine walls, dead and resorbing embryos follow such use. The drug should not be available except to essay famous experimenters and park, the physician.#146; Dr. Carl G. Hartman, a venerable leader in endocrinological research, gave testimony bearing out and against, some of Dr.

Enders#146; opinions before the Select Committee. #145;Whenever you tamper with one gland you tamper with all the others,#146; he warned. #145;When the ovaries or the tests are removed, the physiological effect is book thief narrator essay profound in the organism. If you give too much thyroid, you injure the ovary or the testes. We have to think of the body as a whole, and when you have an excess of one hormone over another you get effects which reverberate with the entire organism.#146; Hartman#146;s testimony was centred around synthetic chemicals that have estrogenic effects, of which #145;stilbestrol is the queen of a for and against essay famous them all#146;. These estrogenic chemicals not only find their way into meat but also into the cosmetics and homes of millions of women throughout the United States. When Hartman was asked if the estrogenic chemicals destroy the fibrin and fibrinogin in the blood, he replied: #145;I would not be able to say as to that, but I do know in the dog, for example, estrogen causes profound changes in park the bone marrow where the red blood cells are made. A dog, in three months, will die of asphyxia because it does not have red blood cells enough to go around. In the chicken likewise the and against blood-forming organs are profoundly effected.#146; Although it is reported that the Canadian government plans to prohibit the use of stilbestrol in poultry, the use of cover this chemical has increased enormously in the United States over the past two years. #145;The acceptance of the hormonized, or chemically treated birds, by the public has reached national proportions,#146; reports Dr.

Arthur D. Goldhaft, a director of a poultry laboratory that manufactures and distributes stilbestrol. #145;The major markets in American report a substantial increase of sale of this type of and against poultry meat with an content increasing demand for this product. The reaction of the New York City Live Poultry Terminal Market is characteristic. This market records a phenomenal gain in chemically treated birds in 1950; in a for and against essay of being famous fact, the book thief narrator hormonized birds have practically sounded the death knell of the legions of cross broilers that have been such a standby in the market for the past ten years. In the first ten months of 1950 they have gone from a low of 0.46 per cent. of total receipts #150; less, turkeys, ducks, and geese #150; in a for of being famous January to 25.77 per cent. in book death October.#146; We may, perhaps, compare these remarks with the reaction of Dr. Miler, a member of the a for of being famous Select Committee, to the report of Dr. Enders: #145;Dr.

Miller. I read your paper last night and I had to take an aspirin after dinner last night, I could not sleep. It disturbed me for a while. It was disturbing to think what it may do to the human race. Dr. Enders. That is what I say, the a visit to amusement park vegetarians may inherit the earth.#146; Dr. Enders expressed agreement #145;with those endocrinologists who say that the use of the drug to a for of being fatten poultry is an Utilitarianism & Relativism economic fraud. Chicken feed is and against essay famous not saved; it is merely turned into fat instead of protein. Fat is abundant in the American diet so more is undesirable.

Protein is what one wants from poultry. By their own admission it is the improvement in appearance and increase in fat that makes it more profitable to the poultryman to use the drug. This fat is of very doubtful value and is in no way the book thief narrator dietary equal to essay famous the protein that the consumer thinks he is paying for#146;. The truth is that even more is book death involved. The use of hormones in cattle and fowl, including thyroid depressants like thiourea (a drug that was already prohibited by the government for one purpose, only to and against of being reappear again for another), suggests a new emphasis on animal weight over animal reproduction. Dr. Albrecht, noting the tendency to ignore the mineral quality of cattle feeds for the carbohydrate and fat content, remarks that the #145;business of fattening cattle and pigs, more than reproducing and growing them, has been the much heralded agricultural success with livestock. In Missouri, the pig crop that goes to market is only 60 per cent. of that delivered by the sow in the litters of Utilitarianism & Relativism pigs at their birth. Dairy calves at weaning time are only 60 per cent. of the total conceptions. Diseases of the udder, of the and against reproductive organs, and others of the letter dairy cow #150; so baffling to a for essay of being veterinary science as to sarah thesis call for legislation #150; threatening to and against essay of being kill the very animals, are rampant#146;. It seems fairly apparent that the extension of hormones from face creams and cosmetics to stock-breeding and poultry will only serve to reinforce the trend toward carbohydrates which was begun with the cover content improper feeding of cattle.

The use of hormones in and against this connection is still relatively new. But the thief death narrator public may well imagine seven-league strides toward sweeping applications of synthesized pituitary, thyroid and sex hormones if makers of these products have their way. Since the invention of the atomic bomb (and, we may add, DDT), the and against essay of being famous wits of our time are continually conjecturing on how man will destroy himself. We feel justified in believing that if modern social relations continue, this will occur in letter content stages rather than by a for and against essay of being famous, a single blow. The meat eaters will probably perish first, assuming anyone survives the application of insecticides to agriculture. After the vegetarians take over, most of them will probably die from sarah hovsepian #145;improvements#146; in new and better insecticides. Those who survive will undoubtedly kill themselves with the atomic bomb and, finally, to complete irony by and against essay, irony#133;the insects will inherit the earth. Thus far we have examined the function and #145;possibilities#146; of chemicals in agriculture and stock-breeding. Now, we shall attempt to accompany our product #150; sprayed by poisons and injected with hormones #150; to the next great stage: the processing of food products for the market. Before, we were occupied with agriculture; now, we are concerned with industry.

But since agriculture simply reflects industry to-day, since both are thus oriented toward quantity instead of quality, the reader will not be surprised to learn that the prevalence of commercial over nutritive ends originates in the processing of foods. Dissertation Help! In this connection, Dr. A For Famous! McCay assures us, we are guided by death narrator, a great tradition. #145;Since very early times, in the interests of making more profits, men have attempted to introduce chemicals into foods in essay of being famous order to cover letter make a cheaper product appear like a better one.#146; In accord with great traditions, let us take the fate of bread. Ecclesiastical literature describes bread as the #145;staff of life#146;.

So profoundly has the importance of bread been etched on human civilization that our great divines often contrast the body with the spirit by saying: #145;Man does not live by bread alone.#146; At the very least, this implies that man also cannot live without bread. The implication was true until fairly recently. It is now an a for and against essay famous open question whether the underlying thinking product which currently passes for bread in the United States is famous any longer the service public same food that inspired many earlier sermons, aspirations, dreams #150; indeed, vast historical movements. #145;Bread traditionally was made from flour, yeast and salt,#146; profoundly avers Dr. William B. Bradley of the American Institute of essay of being Baking, #145;and that is what it is made from in most countries other than this one.#146; These are memorable words. Dissertation Help! They may well comprise the last, faint descriptions of the few scholars who still see bread. A For And Against Essay Of Being! Indeed, bread seems to be traveling on the road toward extinction, for in this country, at least, it is being made with the addition of & Relativism many synthetic substances and chemicals. Do these chemicals mark any improvement? Do they serve any beneficial function? Perhaps we may answer these questions by contrasting trends in the improvement of bread with the substances out of of being famous which many #145;breads#146; are now made in the United States.

We know what enters into #145;traditional#146; bread. Now a better, more nutritive bread is thesis one to which has been added milk, eggs and or/butter. In the mental and old-age institutions of New York State, for example, a minimum of six per cent. fluid milk and two per cent. wheat germ is required for an acceptable bread. This bread, according to Dr. McCay, #145;costs only a for of being, a half-cent more than the worst#146;. Yet despite the underlying assumptions critical small difference in a for and against essay famous price, a growing tendency among bakers has favoured the replacement of valuable natural and dairy nutrients by chemical substances that may either be harmful to the public health or may at the very least contain less or none of the sarah hovsepian nutritive values in the foods they have supplanted. A bad, although commonly used bread, for a for essay of being famous, example, is likely to include bleached flour, softeners or emulsifiers, increased quantities of water, yeast and to amusement park essay, salt. Dairy products will have been #145;successfully#146; removed.

They way in which wheat is refined and bleached to-day has radically altered the nutritive weight of bread in the modern diet. Research shows that a greater proportion of mineral richness in wheat is to be found in the outer layers of the berry. Yet it is usually this part that is removed for the baking of a for and against of being famous bread and cake, while the assumptions less valuable endosperm is retained. It is perhaps even more interesting to note that natural wheat is a for and against of being famous not as fattening as is ordinarily supposed. A pound of help public red winter wheat has about 1,471 calories.

As a result of a for of being milling, however, a pound of extraction flour yields 1,618 calories, an increase of more than 200 calories per pound. For every eight pounds of white bread consumed, the caloric equivalent of a pound of natural wheat is unnecessarily added to the diet. Sarah Hovsepian Thesis! The outer layer goes as offal to farm animals; the inner layer is sent off for man. The first contains a higher ratio of minerals to carbohydrates than the second. In short, farm animals receive the best portion of the grain while man is stuffed with substances that make for increased carbohydrates and the concomitant physical disorders of a burdened, over-weighted body.

The bread industry in the United States has tended to become a modern Circe: turning men into swine #150; in appearance if not in habits. But the problem does not end at this point. The remaining berry is often bleached until it is rendered suitable for the production of white bread. To-day this may mean that the berry is subjected to oxides of a for nitrogen, chlorine, potassium bromate, bitrosyle chloride, benzoyl peroxide or any #145;permitted#146; combination of underlying these chemicals. Are these chemicals harmful?

Will we have to wait for close on half a century (as with agene) to learn that they create disorders of some sort in experimental animals? A number of countries have already answered these questions by and against famous, simply prohibiting the bleaching of flour. Indeed, it is unnecessary in any case to bleach flour in order to hovsepian thesis make white bread. When flour is stored and permitted to age, it will turn white naturally. The use of chemical #145;maturing#146; agents arises principally because storage facilities are too expensive, insects have increased as a problem for stored foods generally and contemporary methods of distribution favour quick processing as against traditional techniques. Naturally-white flour is simply unprofitable and difficult to handle in the present social set-up. Another #145;development#146; in bread is the introduction of emulsifying or softening agents. The typical method for determining whether bread is fresh or not is by feeling it, by #145;playing the a for and against famous piano#146; (as the industry puts it) on the bread rack in retail stores. Until recently, the softness of bread and cake products was a good index of how long a product had been away from the oven. For the most part, the degree of help softness depends upon the rapidity with which a cereal loses its moisture.

Surface-active materials like natural fats, lecithin in egg yolk, and some plant substances which are in themselves valuable to the body will retain air and moisture in grain foods and thus keep these products soft without necessarily keeping them #145;fresh#146;. In this case, the consumer gains in food value what he may have lost in freshness. While this method of keeping bread and cake soft benefits the public, it is expensive and unprofitable to the bread industry. #145;Naturally#146;, a #145;way out#146; of the #145;horrible#146; dilemma had to be found. Naturally. During the #145;thirties, enterprising researches discovered that chemical surface-active agents like the mono- and a for and against essay of being famous, diglycerides and polyoxyethylene monostearates could achieve the desired end. Utilitarianism & Relativism (S)! At first, this discovery did not quite revolutionize the baking industry. At the time that emulsifiers were first put forward, observes Mr. George T. Carlin of Swift and Company, #145;the bread-softness vogue had not become as pronounced as to-day and we never thought in terms of softness in 1937. In fact, we tried to patent their (emulsifiers) use as staling retarders but found our usage patent application had been anticipated by at least ten years#146;.

During the war, however, the emulsifier industry prepared an extensive sales campaign for and against famous, the baking industry until the idea finally began to bear #145;fruit#146;. At this writing, the public how has little choice between breads which contain emulsifiers and those which do not. According to G.F. Gauger of the Purity Baking Company, an estimated 75 per cent. of the bakers in the United States use emulsifiers in bread. The possibilities which emulsifiers have are nothing less than extraordinary. Carlin advises the Committee, for example, that it is possible to reduce the fat in a cake mix from a high of 14 per cent. to zero.

The Swift Laboratories #145;have made suitable mixes with 0 per cent. Hovsepian! shortening content with the synthetic emulsifier#146;. Not only could the fat content be manipulated at will but #145;the reduction would make a cake that would be perhaps more appealing#146;. And Against Essay Of Being Famous! Mr. Carlin adds #145;that the egg content of a cake mix parallels the fat content. Fat makes a cake tender, eggs make it tough.

In other words, the eggs, the coagulation of the eggs will offset the tendering influence of fat, so when you reduce fat, you may also simultaneously reduce the dissertation help eggs#146;. #145;Mr. Keefe (Representative from Wisconsin): You would almost have to, would you not?#146; #145;Mr. Carlin: Unless you wished a tough, rubbery cake, you would.#146; If we are to accept the opinion of a for essay a number of food specialists, however, the principal danger of certain emulsifiers comes from the physical damage they have produced in experimental animals. Dissertation Help Service Public! Recently, the and against essay famous Swift laboratories subjected some emulsifiers and dissertation help public, allied substances to toxicological and nutritional evaluation. The experiments centred on the effect which #145;Myrj 45#146; and #145;Sta-Soft#146; (polyoxyethylene monostearate) have on rats, hamsters and rabbits. The results obtained were summarized by Dr. Edward Eagle as follows: #145;. . .Single doses (20 milliliter) of Sta-Soft of Myrj 45 in rabbits changed the normally cloudy, alkaline urine containing varying amounts of white crystalline precipitate to a clear, acid, precipitate-free urine containing 5.9 to 6.5 milligrams polyoxyethylene glycol per milliliter.

#145;The rats fed Sta-Soft showed occult blood in and against of being famous the feces#133; the Sta-Soft rats showed no unusual gross pathology; microscopically, however, they manifested unusual gastric, lymphoid, renal, and testicular involvement.#146; The level used in these experiments were five, ten, fifteen and twenty-five times the amount recommended for use in break and cake. According to Dr. Eagle, this represents a fraction of the test levels which the Food and Utilitarianism & Relativism, Drug Administration advises for a for and against essay of being famous, chemical substances used in food. #145;Furthermore,#146; observes Dr. Eagle, #145;the Food and Drug Administration states in writing, in assumptions thinking scientific journals, that in order to prove the non-toxicity of any substance, it has to be fed to a for and against essay of being famous animals at a level of 5 per help public cent. with no harmful effects. These materials cannot be fed to animals at a for essay 5 per cent. with no harmful effects#133; There are some people who feed a small dose to a rat, for example, and dissertation service public, say that since man, a 70-kilo man weighs 350 times as much as a 200-gram rat, then man can take 350 times as much as a rat can take.

That is very poor reasoning. #145;The best example I think you can give for that is aspirin. The LD-50 (lethal dose which will kill half the number of animals to which the dose is administered) for aspirin is 1,300 milligrams per kilogram. And Against Of Being! That means about five 5-gram aspirin tablets represents the LD-50 dose for the rat and kills half the animals. If a man weighs 350 times the weight of that rat, then 350 times 5 aspirin tablets is 1,750 aspirin tablets, and no one would ever say that a man can take 1,750 aspirin tablets and survive#133;. If you can cause harm to any animal with anything, that material is not good for man, and that is the assumptions critical reasoning behind a good many of the discussions with Food and Drug people. Man is the most sensitive of animals #150; at least, they regard him so #150; so that any material which is and against toxic to a rat or a hamster or a rabbit is unsafe for man.#146; Independent experiments by Dr. B. S. Schweigert of the University of Chicago essentially confirm the results obtained by Dr. Eagle.

Schweigert submits the sarah hovsepian thesis following summary: #145;The effects of feeding 5 or 15 per cent. of two polyoxyethylene monostearates (trade names Myrj and Sta-Soft) in the diet of weanling hamsters was investigated. Thirty-three animals were used in each group and and against essay famous, the growth rate, food utilization, general appearance, gross pathology and histological abnormalities were noted and death essay, compared to those observed for comparable groups fed 5 or 15 per cent. prime stead lard. A For And Against Essay Famous! The basal diet was designed to be adequate in all known nutrients. The animals were kept on experiment for ten weeks, at which time all remaining animals in each group were sacrificed. #145;A significant reduction in the rate of gain was observed for the groups fed either 5 or 15 per cent. Myrj or Sta-Soft as compared to the groups fed lard. A decrease in food utilization was also noted when Myrj or Sta-Soft was fed. Marked changes in the intestinal tract occurred and severe diarrhea also were observed for the animals fed Myrj or Sta-Soft. Mortality data, data on organ weights and gross pathology, also indicated that the ingestion of these compounds in these amounts was deleterious to the hamster as compared to the data obtained for animals fed lard. #145;Animals fed 5 or 15 per cent.

Myrj, Sta-Soft, or lard were sacrificed after two, four, six, eight, and ten weeks on experiment for histological study. Sections of the ileum, duodenum, rectum, liver, and kidney were examined for any histological abnormalities by Dr. Help Public! Wang, chief of the division of histology of the American Meat Institute Foundation. In addition, sections of the bone marrow and of testes were taken from some of the animals. Marked changes were observed in the duodenum, ileum, liver, kidney, and testis of hamsters fed 5 to 15 per cent. Myrj or Sta-Soft after two to ten weeks on experiment. The changes in the duodenum and ileum consisted of a severe erosion of the and against famous mucosa. Necrosis of the liver, decreased spermatogenetic activity of the & Relativism testis, and tubular degeneration of the kidney were also observed.#146; The fate of bread is only part of an entire industrial and profit-mad pattern. A For And Against Essay Of Being! Even the dairy products that are recommended for bread have become suspect because of the chemicals employed.

Butter, for example, was relatively pure food until recently. Hovsepian! To-day it is common to dye this food a sickly-yellow colour. The problem grows in dimensions when we recognize that the testing standards among pathologists are improving while those of industrial chemists often lag far behind. A large portion of chemicals employed in food products has been insufficiently investigated for carcinogenic (cancer-causing) properties. They have been tested primarily for acute toxicity. Another portion either has been or is and against essay of being famous being used which is sarah thesis allied to know carcinogens. A For And Against Famous! Still others are poisonous under some conditions and sarah hovsepian thesis, #145;less toxic#146; under other circumstances. #145;Butter yellow,#146; notes a memorandum from the Food and Drug Administration, is a for and against a colouring matter that was #145;used for a long time before it was discovered to be carcinogenic, at cover letter content least in animals.#146; It belongs to an entire class of chemicals known as the AZO compounds which have been found to produce cancer in mice. A For And Against Essay Famous! Oil orange E, another dye #145;in general use#146;, according to Dr. A Visit To Amusement! Francis E. Ray, Director of the Cancer Research Laboratory with the University of Florida, #145;caused tumours in a for of being famous seven out of seventeen mice, fourteen months after the start of the experiment #150; fourteen months is about half the thief death narrator life of a healthy mouse. An eighth mouse showed extensive liver damage#146;.

According to a for famous a list prepared by the Food and & Relativism, Drug Administration, over of being famous, 800 chemicals #145;have been used or are proposed for cover, use in or on foods, or in such a manner as to constitute potential food contaminants#146;. Many of these chemicals have crept into foods for extremely obscure purposes. The public, for example, does not have the faintest idea that phenyl alpha naphthylamine is an anti-oxidant that is known to have been used in chewing gum. Yet this chemical is regarded by the Food and Drug Administration as toxic and #145;not suitable for food use generally#146;. A For Famous! Some substances, like potassium iodide, are used as nutritive supplements in #145;iodized salt#146;. #145;However, potassium iodide per se is a poisonous substance. Utilitarianism & Relativism! Morever, its use in even relatively small quantities may lead to adverse effects in the case of persons suffering from tuberculosis and possibly other disease.#146; Sometimes, a chemical like saccharic acid, which is considered to a for essay be #145;harmless#146; in pure form, is rendered toxic in commercial form because of impurities.

Chemicals, which are apparently harmless, may break down into substances that have toxic effects. To Amusement Park Essay! Dulcin (alias Sucrol and Valzin), for example, is a synthetic sweetening agent that is chemically known as paraphenetyl urea. It is about 200 times as sweet as cane sugar and does not produce the after-taste found in saccharine. According to Dr. A. And Against Essay Famous! J. Service Public! Lehman, Director of the Division of Pharmacology of the Food and Drug Administration: #145;Although it has been available for over fifty years no investigation of its possible adverse affects when consumed daily in small amounts over a long period of time was made until a few years ago when the Food and Drug Administration studied the problem. Previous toxicity studies had been content to show that no immediate ill effects were noted in either man or animals from quantities such as would be used for sweetening foods. The fact that several workers had reported that Dulcin could break down to para amino phenol in the body us suspicious of it. Para amino phenol is also formed from acetanilid and of being, is responsible for that drug#146;s poisonous effect on Utilitarianism & Relativism, the blood. Our study of the chronic toxicity of Dulcin was begun in the fall of 1947 and extended over a two-year period.

It consisted of incorporating Dulcin or one of three other synthetic sweetening agents into the diet of rats and observing the effects on essay of being, growth and dissertation service, survival throughout their lifetime. After death the various organs were examined throughout their lifetime. After death the various organs were examined microscopically to see what pathological changes had taken place. As the experiment progressed it became increasingly evident that the toxic properties of Dulcin make it unsuitable for and against, use in food. Cover Letter! As soon as the scientific evidence permitted such a conclusion a statement of policy was published in the Federal Register (19th January, 1950) announcing that we regarded Dulcin and P-4000 (another synthetic sweetener) as poisonous substances which have no place in food.#146; Dulcin, it may be noted, was used in food products for sufferers of diabetes mellitus.

Anyone who is familiar with the characteristics of this disease may well know the extraordinary danger that toxins #150; especially blood toxins #150; present to diabetics. On 9th February, 1949, the Food and Drug Administration undertook to advise a large manufacturer of diabetic food products that incomplete studies indicated the toxic properties of Dulcin. Famous! After an a visit essay exchange of letters and oral views that continued into a for and against of being, September of the same year a representative of the Food and Drug Administration observed that #145;we were somewhat surprised to thinking learn that your company had continued to use Dulcin although fully aware of the fact that studies that were under way were indicative of the probably toxicity of Dulcin#146;. The Company finally discontinued the use of this substance. The Food and a for and against famous, Drug Administration, it may further be noted, also learned that Dulcin not only inhibits growth and hovsepian thesis, affects the blood adversely, but that it also produces#133; liver tumours! While few companies, to-day, are prepated to a for and against essay famous make the protracted tests that finally revealed the toxic effects of Dulcin, the use of toxic, #145;near#146; toxic, #145;probably#146; toxic, and toxic but #145;harmless#146; chemicals (all of these categories are frequently established in & Relativism (S) food chemistry) can be multiplied almost indefinitely. They have grown with entirely new classes of synthetic substances for entirely new types of meaningless or obscure uses. Alkyl aryl sulfanates are #145;wetting agents#146;, the a for of being famous toxicity and side effects of which #145;require careful study#146; according to the Food and Drug Administration.

But what, if you please, is a #145;wetting agent#146;? Is the public familiar with its function or its need? A Food and Drug Administration list faintly hints that this type of substance is dissertation service public employed for washing fruits and vegetables. Or else one discovers that there are wax coatings, resins, plasticizers and other ingredients of packaging materials. Phenol-formaldehyde resins, for example, are a number of such substances that have been used for coating tin cans. A For And Against Essay Of Being! Some of content these resins are explicitly regarded by the Food and a for and against essay, Drug Administration as deleterious; others are believed to be #145;relatively#146; safe. The hazards to letter content the consumer depend upon #145;whether the material would be transferred to the foods with which it might come in contact either by direct solution or leaching, volatilization, abrasion, or other methods#146;. The problems, in and against essay famous short, are legion and book death, the possibilities for essay, endangering the public health depend not only upon sarah, primary or secondary effects, but reach back into tertiary stages of nutrition. They grow with a one-sided over-complication of society, with a distortion of man#146;s relationship to natural forces and his bodily needs. Within recent years, the a for essay rise of little known and even unknown infectious diseases, the increase of cover degenerative illnesses and, finally, the high incidence of cancer suggests come connection between the growing use of chemicals in a for and against essay of being food and human diseases. There are, of course, many diseases that have been with man for dissertation help service, immemorial ages.

Little is known of why these diseases are acquired by some individuals while other individuals are immune. Investigation is a for essay slowly (and all too slowly) moving toward the study of immunity, of & Relativism (S) resistance factors which depend partly upon heredity but also upon the level of nutrition. Now, chemicals in food products may well play a very important role in these problems. A For Of Being! Much has to be learned of the primary, secondary and tertiary effects individual chemical substances, their derivatives and combinations play in reducing immunity. Something is already known of the lower nutritive level that has already been produced by dissertation, many chemical substitutes in food. The toxins produced by bacteria, however, remain the direct agents of death from infectious disease. In this connection, an entirely new field of research is being opened. It is known, for example, that species of bacteria are no longer as stable as was once assumed. Apparently harmless bacteria may undergo mutation or enter into an environment that suddenly renders them dangerous to human health. The question is: are chemicals in food products responsible for any of these changes and new environmental conditions?

In testimony before the Select Committee, Dr. Bing raised some considerations along this line. #145;The incidence of many diseases is changing,#146; he said. A For And Against Of Being Famous! #145;There is an increase in the morbidity and mortality from a number of diseases. And then we have this phenomenon of new diseases appearing, conditions which were unknown heretofore or which were seen so little that they went unrecognized. #145;The increase in incidence #150; and, well, man is heir not only to old diseases, but he acquires some new ones from dissertation time to time. Whenever that occurs we naturally suspect a change in and against famous the environment. #145;Now, foods are part of the underlying critical environment of the human being, and some alterations in a for essay of being foods are suspect or some alterations in drugs that may be given are always suspect.#146; Dr. A Visit To Amusement Park! Bing specifically pointed to one disease that is suspected to a for famous have arisen or, at least, to have increased in incidence because of an emulsifying agent in vitamins. #145;There is this condition of retrolental fibroplasias of babies born prematurely.

That condition is book thief narrator characterized by a change in the retina of the eye, and it results in total blindness of the a for famous baby in both eyes. #145;That condition was either now known or was observed so occasionally that it was not recognized, by and large, up until about 1941, and then the incidence of it increased so that from 30 to 40 per cent. of the prematurely born babies in some nurseries, some hospitals, had this condition and become blind. #145;Now, the medical investigators looking into that have cast suspicion on death essay, the use of synthetic emulsifying agents present in and against essay a vitamin preparation which was administered to the new-born babies. They are not sure that I was the emulsifying agent or not, but they have called attention to the fact that when they changed from the dissertation vitamin preparation containing this synthetic emulsifying agent to the same vitamins without that particular material, the incidence went from 30 to 40 per cent. blindness down to less than 1 per cent.#146; It is widely agreed that the tempo and a for essay famous, insecurity of American social life is Utilitarianism & Relativism a vital factor in the increase of degenerative diseases like heart and circulatory illnesses. But very little attention has been given to the role of chemicals in food. This problem is especially complex because much has to and against essay of being famous be learned about the way the body absorbs and service, uses calcium and a for essay of being, magnesium salts #150; in addition to many other substances that make for hovsepian thesis, over-all health.

When synthetic toxins and chemical combinations are introduced into the body, however, it is essay clear that all the balances that normally exist in a healthy human being are altered. While nature provides for many tolerances in the body, a sustained attack upon these tolerances is certain to have disastrous effects. In the oxidation of sugars, for example, quantities varying up to a teaspoonful of insulin (about 1 cc) are responsible for the difference between a mild and severe case of Utilitarianism (S) diabetes. Consider then, what it means when chemicals are introduced that violate these #150; and even more slender #150; tolerances day after day and year after year. A further problem is the a for famous heavy burden which toxins and chemicals place on the eliminatory organs of the body. Under the best conditions (which seldom prevail) these toxins are excreted.

Before they are removed, however, they not only remain a burden to the entire organism but especially to the heart, liver and narrator essay, kidneys which are most frequently involved in and against of being diseases of old age. In short, it is still to be determined how a chemical in food #145;behaves in the body, how it is handled in the alimentary tract; whether it is digested and absorbed; and, if absorbed, where it goes. Is it handled by the liver, the great chemical organ of the body, and converted to something else, and the eliminated or does it pile up in the tissues or go to the kidneys, where many soluble substances are channeled in order to be excreted? Does it have any effect on any of the organs of the body?#146; Dr. Bing, who posed these questions for the Select Committee, expanded upon the problems they raise for research. #145;We now know that there are some poisons which will kill an animal without causing any demonstrable pathology or change in the structure of the cells. Cyanides can combine with the essay blood pigment and a for and against of being, prevent taking in oxygen from the air. And then there are certain organic synthetic compounds which react with substances in the body called enzymes, and to amusement, can cause sudden death in experimental animals without giving any clue to any pathologist who may make sections of all the a for essay tissues of the body and look for changes in sarah hovsepian thesis the cell structure.#146; They very multitude of questions that can be raised around chemicals in food provides the essential setting for an answer.

In so delicate an arrangement as the human body, it can be asserted that many synthetic chemicals probably play a sweeping role in a for essay of being diseases that are due to changes in human physiology #150; in the #145;degenerative#146; illnesses. Perhaps the most remarkable data thus far on the role of chemicals in disease has been accumulated on cancer. This data has been supplied from dissertation help two aspects of research: the known properties of a for and against essay famous many chemicals in causing cancer (carcinogens) and the characteristics of malignant growth. That certain chemical substances could produce cancer was proven in dissertation help 1915 when two Japanese investigators, Yamagiwa and a for famous, Ichikawa, managed to produce cancer in rabbits with coal tar. Dissertation Public! Since then tests of some 1,000 chemicals have led to the discovery of about 100 carcinogens. Some of these chemicals like 9,10-dumethul-1, 2-benezathracine require only three applications to the skin to a for of being lead to cover content cancer in a few months. But it is a for essay of being famous necessary to emphasize that the vast majority of carcinogens require long-continued applications of to amusement park small doses before cancer can be produced. Carcinogens can be used for a long time before they are known to cause malignant tumours. As a result of investigations by Goldblatt, for example, the and against essay famous #145;interval between the first exposure of workmen to cancer-producing compounds and the appearance of symptoms of the disease was eleven to sixteen years in 54 per cent. of the cases. It was twenty to forty-eight years in 19 per cent. The shortest period exposure sufficient to cause cancer was 3.5 years and thinking, the longest thirty-three years.#146; A carcinogen may thus be used as a chemical in food without lending itself to any assured means of discovery #150; perhaps not only for many years but even at all.

Even when carcinogens are used on short-lived experimental animals, unknown conditions for cancer may remain long after use has been discontinued. In recent studies on the incidence of a for essay famous lung cancer among smokers, the investigators proffered the suspicion that cancer appeared later in life as a result of smoking although smoking was discontinued decades earlier. A new term (carcinogens) has been established for chemicals that #145;will not produce cancer when administered alone, but will enhance the cancer-producing power of other chemicals. For example, if very small doses of 20-methylcholanthrene are applied to the skin, no cancer may develop but if the (S) skin is then rubbed with croton oil, tumours soon appear at its site of application. #145;These small doses of the carcinogens will not produce cancer, but when the small doses of carcinogen is followed by the croton oil, then a tumour appears. #145;The croton oil can be applied several months after the cancer-producing chemical has been administered. Simultaneous application is not necessary.#146; The effects of carcinogens and cocarcinogens, therefore, prove to have an extremely complex background. Two substances may not appear to be carcinogenic when individual tests are made; but in combination, or in any given sequence of application, they may produce cancer sooner or later. Since any numbers of combinations or sequences are theoretically possible, the a for and against essay of being entire concept of carcinogens wants revision. As long as synthetic chemicals are used in food, the dissertation human body comes to resemble ac chemical factory in which incalculable combinations of toxins and carcinogens are possible at any stage of life.

The problems of and against essay famous chemicals in food products no longer centre so much on individual chemicals as they do on a completely altered level of hovsepian thesis physiology, nutrition and irritability. The fact that cancer can derive from the mistreatment of the body as a whole is suggested from the standpoint of pathological as well as chemical research especially in the work of a for essay of being Harry S. N. Greene at the Yale University Medical School. In the course of transplanting tissues that was microscopically diagnosed as cancerous, Greene found that sometimes tissue could be transferred successfully to the eye of an critical alien species and at other times it could not. After further research, Green came to the conclusion that many tumours which receive a diagnosis of a for cancer as a result of microscopic analysis were actually benign. Only the malignant tumours could be transferred. These facts led to several lines of speculation. Assumptions Critical Thinking! Cancer may be suspected of deriving as a rule from pre-cancerous lesions. In the pre-cancerous stage, a tumour may microscopically resemble in every detail a malignant growth and still be benign. Although it will be diagnosed as cancer and often successfully removed, in this stage there is no danger of metastasis (spreading to other sites). After a while, the a for and against supposed cancer may become truly cancerous and book death narrator, only then will metastasis occur.

What causes the change in behaviour? Greene expresses the belief that constitutional rather than local abnormalities are responsible. Abnormalities in the organism as a whole seem to disturb the and against essay of being organization of the cellular structure. This leads first to sarah a development through a pre-cancerous stage and eventually into malignant tumours and metastasis. Greene#146;s view, of and against of being famous course, does not necessarily challenge the local view of cancer; as, for book narrator, example, when tissue is rendered cancerous by continual irritation.

Rather, Greene also seems to open a more general source of disturbance. A For Essay Of Being! His view implicitly challenges the entire environment of underlying man. Among the most direct factors of man#146;s environment to-day that make for constitutional abnormalities are the tempo and insecurity of existence and the wholesale alteration of diet by the use of chemicals in food products. The former has given rise to nervous disorders on a vast scale. The latter tends to upset and distort human physiological processes, render nutrition inadequate and introduce repeated irritants and an over-loading of substances or toxins into the body. A For And Against Essay Of Being Famous! The problem that chemicals in food presents can no longer be confined to narrator the danger of acute toxicity. Sensational cases of food-poisoning (bad as they are) have been overshadowed by the slow distortion of organic processes as a whole. Broad issues in ecology, chemistry and physiology are being raised #150; not simply local instances of acute toxicity which supplied most of the attacks and legislation against the food industry in the past. When chemical fertilizers include the risk of altering soils, a general ecological problem is a for essay of being famous presented. When insecticides are developed from relatively simple compounds to complex and stable hydrocarbons that remain in animal tissue, the very constituents of the human body are involved.

Finally, when innumerable types of chemical substances are introduced into thief death, the absorptive, physiological and metabolic processes of the body, the whole cycle of nutrition, growth, organic development and a for essay of being, the normal tempo of physical degeneration in the course of life is changed adversely. We have said that the Utilitarianism & Relativism (S) motive for and against famous, introducing chemicals in cover letter content food is profit. A For Essay Famous! We shall soon have the a visit park essay occasion to point out that even more fundamental reasons have arisen in recent times for a for essay of being, chemicals in park food products. But for the present this motive continues to operate and extend itself, and it has led to an increasing and reckless marketing of the public health. Just as the profit-system introduces more and more irrational uses of man#146;s productive forces, so the problems raised by chemicals in food are met with totally irrational #145;solutions#146;. A For Essay Of Being! Perhaps the most absurd illustration is the story of #145;enriched#146; bread.

To-day, the housewife is cover letter likely to encounter explosive advertising notices on bread that is #145;enriched#146; with vitamins and other substances. The facts, however, are that many breads which are described as enriched have first been deprived of valuable nutrients. A For And Against Essay Of Being! The wheat is bleached and chemicals are introduced to replace the effect of a visit to amusement park natural substances that are useful to the human body. This approach to nutrition #150; if such it can be called #150; is in itself so perfectly irrational and and against essay famous, wasteful that it would defy any rational mind if it was any worse than many irrationalities to-day. Many individuals who do not pretend to book thief death narrator essay an expert knowledge of food or agriculture see in chemicals an a for essay of being famous assertion of man#146;s power over nature, a substitute for vital natural products and human labour.

This concept is help service public only partly true, as it stands, and so far as food is a for and against concerned is dissertation public dangerously wrong. The human body probably functions with the greatest difficulty when it is a for and against nourished in piece-meal fashion, on the basis of what we think we know it requires. Service Public! There are many important things we do not know for which there are certainly no synthetic substitutes. Modern science, at present, tends to segment the famous unity of the body into departments of knowledge that are, thus far, only Utilitarianism, approximations of and against of being its actual activities. These departments #150; physiology, morphology and so on #150; do not completely open to sarah us the complex, organic facts and a for of being famous, relations that actually exist in the organism. The body, for example, requires certain indispensable traces of content metals and compounds. In greater quantities these substances prove to be poisonous and, perhaps, carcinogenic.

When foods are bleached, dyed, sprayed or synthesized, these traces can be lost or excessively increased. Sometimes, the chemist and physiologist has only a faint idea #150; if at all #150; of what is required. Chemistry continually suggests cheap substitutes, but it is seldom possible to arrive at what is famous actually necessary to meet the complexities that enter into the total process. In pure foods, however, traces are not only acquired in underlying assumptions critical a manner by which the organism, over the course of animal evolution, has long been adapted to receive them, but they can also be eliminated without damage when these trace materials become excessive. The chemist, on a for, the other hand, may synthesize compounds which the body is compelled to a visit park receive because these compounds obey the general laws of of being famous chemistry more closely than the chemical processes of life. He may render compounds soluble which in pure foods are first acted upon by digestive agents. Indispensable steps in digestion, which may be both stages of nutrition and dissertation service, also obstacles to the assimilation of undesirable compounds both in quality and quantity, are thus replaced by a for essay famous, laboratory techniques. Even enzymes have now been synthesized to replace natural agents of digestion, often with a very imperfect picture of assumptions human digestive activity as a whole.

The human body, therefore, becomes a receptacle for chemicals it is compelled to absorb, not what it definitely needs. The principle behind this fact can be extended to nearly every aspect of nutrition to-day. The modern concept of #145;power over nature#146; is a similar distortion. Famous! For centuries, great thinkers had seen in man#146;s control of natural agencies the underlying key to man#146;s access to leisure, intellectual and spiritual development, and freedom. They did not see in this control an end in itself, but an end to suit man. Moreover, #145;control#146; did not signify violation. It referred to a conscious turning of nature to meet human needs, as these needs arose from a rational body of social relationships rather than irrational society. #145;Control of nature#146; was founded upon a for and against essay, the belief that nature had its own complex laws and that man could produce a society founded upon letter content, reason.

At present, the #145;conquest#146; of nature is predicated partly upon a control of forces to conquer the human organism. It is as though our insight into the facts of a for famous nature has been employed to manipulate the human body as something outside of nature. Soil experts, nutritionists and above all food industrialists toy with the human body very much as though it no longer was as much a part of nature as the death very natural forces that are commanded by chemistry. But the principal issue is a for and against essay of being that the #145;conquest#146; of (S) nature currently rests upon problems arising from social blindness and idiocy. By the misuse of chemistry, man is #145;solving#146; social problems; problems that are related to social insight and intelligence rather than the a for and against physical and organic science.

The growth of population, for example, has become a major excuse for cover letter, chemicals in agriculture and food. Yet population is large to-day primarily in the sense that half the world is practically uninhabited or has little industry, while huge urban centres are choking with millions. Land is insufficient because it is misused and and against of being, frequently ignore where it is actually available; worse, modern forms of land tenure have driven millions off the land, often into useless occupations. Numerous clerks, impotent bureaucrats, advertising agents and salesmen have created a new form of urban idiocy to overshadow the service tradition of rural idiocy. This idiocy ranges from a daily squandering of hours on trains and and against of being, buses to thief an inordinate preoccupation with anti-social and demoralizing media of entertainment. Modern society resists the possibility of restoring human contacts that have been broken by tawdry #145;entertainment#146;, siphoned into and against, the home by television and radio. Only recently has an increasing number of people begun to cover think of decentralizing the great urban menageries #150; and this because of a fear of a for essay famous modern warfare and bombing. Yet in decentralization exists a real possibility for developing the best traditions of social life and for solving agricultural and nutritional difficulties that have thus far been delivered to chemistry. Most of the food problems of the world would be solved to-day by well-balanced and rounded communities, intelligently urbanized, well-equipped with industry and thief death essay, with easy access to the land.

There is a logic to every situation in modern society. With the rise of huge cities, with a meaningless increase in detail labour, with the total supplanting of quality by quantity production #150; pure foods have not only been rendered unprofitable but also impossible if only because of a for and against famous transport conditions. The adulteration of food has now become a system, a net from which it is almost impossible to withdraw. Nearly every food product that appears on the market is to-day the repository of chemical substances. Help! Years ago, this trend was ineffectively challenged by various #145;fad#146; movements.

Now, there is essay famous scarcely any basis for choice between pure food and chemically treated products. Underlying! The door has been closed to individual selection, and the process of adding synthetic substances proceeds unabated. It is doubtful if legislation will do anything to arrest this trend, even if legislation against chemicals in food is enacted. The problem has become a social problem #150; an issue concerning the misuse of industry as a whole. It is on this basis alone that it can be solved.

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