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Gun Control Essay


Writing an Essay on Gun Control has few main points which should be mentioned. To make your essay informative and interesting

Stephen king writes post-newtown essay on guns

Stephen king writes post-newtown essay on guns

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AT#038;T#8217;s Resources and Capabilities Essay. ATT is one of the largest telecommunication network provider in the world and king writes on guns they are a market leader in United States. Besides the traditional forms of communication like local and essay on regionalism distance telephone services through mobile lines or landlines, ATT’s primary business is to stephen king post-newtown essay on guns provide a diversified of telecommunication services to American customers and their services includes: Wi-Fi, high speed internet, internet TV, fiber optics, satellites, voice and cloud services with a whole suite of real the inside, IP-based business communication services. They were established back in 1876 when Alex Graham Bell first invented telephone. Together with the group of ATT subsidiaries, they have over 105 million subscribers in 225 countries and close to 250,000 employees worldwide (ATT, 2014). According to the (Plunket Research, 2013), the market value worldwide for telecommunication industry in 2013 was USD 5 trillion and post-newtown essay on guns the market value for United States alone was USD 1.2 trillion. Technology has been an integral part of our daily life; and it is widely used in all business organizations. 91% of adults in United States owned a cell phone (Pew Research, 2013) and the telecommunication industry may seems to be an attractive industry with the increase demand of such product and beauty the inside services. However, due to stephen king the rapidly technological evolution, this is a highly competitive market to on regionalism sustain competiveness in the market. On Guns. For example, ATT’s business evolves around technologies, there is shift of demand in the consumer market; consumers have switch to Video Critical Analysis use instant messaging services like ‘whatapps’ instead of talking over the phone or short messaging services. ATT must be able to implement alternate strategies to meet customers’ need before competitors.

Though there are four major players in the telecommunication industry, ATT’s main competitor is Verizon; they have similar financial strength and market share while Sprint and stephen king post-newtown essay on guns T-mobile hold a very small percentage of the student essays market share. When firm resources in an industry are homogenous, competitive advantages cannot exist (Bain, 1956). To continue as the market leader, ATT needs to have sustainable competitive advantages against stephen post-newtown essay on guns competitors. According to on software Barney (1991), a firm is said to have a competitive advantage when it is writes essay on guns, implementing a value creating strategy not simultaneously being implemented by on regionalism any current or potential competitors. And to sustainable competitive advantages firms have to analyze their internal environment and implement strategies that will exploit their strengths by exploring the external opportunities while neutralizing external threats and king writes post-newtown essay on guns avoid internal weakness. Porter (2005) reinstates that firms will attain competitive advantage by developing a strategy that enable them to have a unique marketing position. Kanter (1999) also argue that to setting out an sustain competitiveness in the market, firm must innovate in an accelerating rate. Resources and Capabilities Leading ATT the stephen writes post-newtown Market Leader. The resource-based view (RBV) strategy analyzes a firm’s internal resources that may potentially be the key resources that can have a competitive advantage. And in order to sustain a competitive advantage, a firm must have unique resources (Barney, 2004). RBV strategy is used to evaluate the internal capabilities on an organization resources and competences (Barney, 2001).

Resources are productive assets owned by the firm; capabilities are what the 2003 ap us firm can do (Grant and Jordon, 2012). By applying Barney’s (1991) VRIN framework, we can determine whether the stephen writes essay internal resources will contribute to the firm’s strategic capability. They four key attributes of the VRIN framework are: (1) Valuable; exploits competitive opportunities (2) Rare; they must be rare in the competitive environment (3) In-imitable; competitors cannot duplicate the sources (4) Non-substitutable; must not be easily replaceable by 2003 ap us history dbq student alternate products. Stephen On Guns. The key resources ATT possesses are the strong financial resources, extensive network infrastructure, research and student essays development facilities, human resources, unique culture, brand image and intellectual properties. Resources are then classified into stephen king essay on guns tangible assets or intangible assets and they must be heterogeneous and immobile to have sustainable competitive advantages. For ATT to achieve strategic capability, we need to evaluate ATT internal resources and their capability to perform well with those resources.

Just resources alone or capability alone will not lead to strategic capability. History Essay. Over the decades, ATT has built different network platform worldwide to support a range of wireless voice and data capabilities. Stephen King Writes Post-newtown On Guns. They have the widest network coverage, with more than 18,000 WiFi hotspots in 42 countries. In the United States, ATT’s customers can access to free WiFi services at on regionalism many popular hangout places like Starbucks, Borders and McDonalds. ATT is also financially strong to invest of king, their network infrastructure. They have invested billions of dollars to dbq student essay install fiber optic cable nationwide to provide customer a much faster and stephen king writes essay stable network connection. Lieberman and Montgonmery’s (1998) first-mover theory state that firm may have competitive advantages through new innovations. Essay. ATT was the first to introduce 4G networks in the nation and they are the first and only company who has the resources and capability to writes post-newtown restore the network issue in the event of natural disaster.

They have built their reputation and brand in student essays mexico, the industry over the years and are known as a technology leader with new innovations. Being the king first-mover, ATT has built customers’ confidence by Critical Analysis being perceived as the industry leader who can deliver additional values to consumers thus reduce rivalry competition. Stephen King On Guns. For example, ATT was certified by Department of Homeland Security for their Network Disaster Recovery program and dbq student US Navy awarded them a 10.4 million contract for stephen writes post-newtown essay, the cloud-based voice-over IP recently. Financial and network infrastructure are key tangible assets to ATT, they are extremely valuable to ATT as these primary resources integrating with their intangible assets to achieve competitive advantage. Essay On Regionalism. Physical resources as such may confer little advantage to company for long term. Writes Essay. For example, rival like Verizon, who has the beauty essay similar financial capabilities may soon acquire similar assets. Verizon has already starting building the 4G networks. Acquisitions and mergers are often strategies in big firm.

Strong financial resources give ATT the capability to acquire other companies to strengthen their portfolio by leveraging on external capabilities. ATT has announced to acquire DirecTV, the biggest cable television provider to strengthen their portfolio. Though ATT provides cable television services, they have less than 6 million subscriber in their ‘U-Verse’ bundle package, which include Internet, landlines and cable TV. The merger of on guns, DirecTV increase ATT’s cable television subscriber four time more than their U-Verse and an additional 18 million cable television subscriber in South America (Forbes, 2014) by leveraging on the DirecTV’s existing network infrastructure and customer data based. There are high risks in every merger, many firms failed because company are unable to integrate. I believed that ATT will successfully integrate these businesses together and will be able to 2003 essay deliver additional value to the customer by writes essay providing an integrated solution and thesis extend to more subscribers. Stephen Writes Post-newtown Essay. Unlike tangible assets, intangible assets like human resource, branding, intellectual properties, research and developments do not have a financial value and often the mexico intangible assets are undervalued and yet contribute much more than the tangible assets. ATT is the most valuable brand in Texas, with a value of 45 billion (Jean, 2014). Through various strategies, they have built a great reputation and brand recognition in the United States over the century. ATT has the exclusivity distribution of Iphone when Apple first launched them in the market. ATT has the upper hand in terms of business negotiation and bargaining power of essay, suppliers are low due to essay on regionalism the ATT’s extensive customer base and their brand.

Porter (2005) argues that differentiation strategies give the firm competitive advantages against rivals. Being unique and different will also lead to higher profitability by demanding higher price. ATT differentiates them from rivalry by highly focusing on research, development and customer-centric approach. ATT has invested heavily in their research and development lab and they have 1300 of the world’s best scientist and stephen king writes essay on guns engineers. ATT’s researcher has contributed to the industry with many new inventions since 1901 and they made major technological inventions like communication satellite and solar cell that changes the way technologies work. According to Barney (1999) ‘A firm obtains valuable and rare resources because of its unique path through history, it will be able to exploit these resources in implementing value-creating strategies that cannot be duplicate by others’ and ‘A firm with scientists who are uniquely positioned to ap us history create or exploit a significant science breakthrough may obtain an imperfectly imitable resource from the history-dependent nature of stephen king on guns, these scientist’s individual human capital’. Since ATT is a network company, research and development will be one of the most valuable resources to the firm. Besides new innovations, understanding customers’ need is equally important. Some other key development focus includes increase process automation and student consolidation, improve and enhance customer experience.

Ability to stephen king essay deliver new technology and offer alternate products and services that better suit the customer needs is the key strategy to stay ahead of competitors. ATT is rated as the company with the on software testing best customer service experience in the industry and ATT’s customers are the stephen king post-newtown essay on guns first in the industry to have e-commerce services; they are able to view their bills online and also have added features like bill sorting by categories, request service updates and thesis testing many more. Intangible assets like intellectual property, trademarks, copyrights and patents do not have an asset value, but they extremely valuable, rare, in-imitable and non-substitutable. Having heavily invested in research and development, these patents give ATT the exclusive right to protect their innovations. ATT has more than 5,000 registered patents and trademarks; they have 3 patents registered averagely per day. Grant (2005) describes human resource as the productive services offered to the firms by human being through their skills, knowledge, reasoning and decision-making abilities.

Besides the stephen king post-newtown essay on guns scientist and engineers in the ATT Lab, ATT has employees from a diversify background that has different potential to 2003 ap us dbq student contribute to the organization in different business function. Continue training and education will ensure that employees will have the essential knowledge, and the capability to king writes perform their jobs. There are a variety of training programs specially designed for the employees of out an, all level and functions. For example, ATT University provides leadership training to managers at stephen writes post-newtown essay on guns different level, skills development program design from 2003 essay retail sales to essay engineers. In 2012, ATT spent 250 million dollars for employees’ training and development and 28 million for student essays, tuition reimbursement to increase the employees’ knowledge and skills, which can in return transform into the human resource capabilities.

It is very difficult to find a right candidate for the right position and it is even harder to retain talent in an organization. ATT has one of the best compensation packages to retain talent, to increase employees’ loyalty and decrease employee turnover rate. Barney (2005) recognized that a firm’s culture is one of the most valuable resources. Culture is the work routines and how organization operates; every organization has their own mission, vision, strategies, values, beliefs and behavior. ATT has a unique culture, they are highly focus in technology, leadership innovation, customer-centric focus, possess high integrity and believe in stephen king, collaborative teamwork. Embedded capabilities are very likely part of the organization culture and ATT’s unique culture contributes to the strategic capabilities on Critical Analysis the firm. Both human resource and company culture are valuable resources, rare, in-imitable, and non-substitutable. AT is stephen writes post-newtown on guns, a differentiation leadership, who has superior customer service with the most reliable and fastest services; customers are willing to pay a premium price for the best provider. Thesis On Software Testing. Their core competencies are: ability to scale the king business, creation of new innovations ahead of competitors, integration of network components, integration of software components and network integration. ATT has sustainable competitive advantages in the telecommunication industry because they possess inimitable strategic capabilities through complexity of internal and external linkage, with their achievements and past experience in the telecommunication industry, they are able to innovate and stay ahead of competitors. Video Critical. The organization has accumulated knowledge through both formal system and shared experience of people and they are able to integrate into organization capabilities.

Due to the complexity of the resources, another firm will able to achieve sustainable competitive advantages with the stephen king post-newtown same kind of resources. Ap Us History. For example, Continental Lite tried to imitate Southwest’s budget airline, they failed and suffered heavy losses. Similar, even if Verizon have some of ATT’s employees like the engineers, senior management, and including the same network infrastructure, Verizon will not have able to achieve competitive advantages as ATT because they do not know the linkage of writes post-newtown essay, all the core competencies which will lead to ap us history failure. ATT (2014) Investors Relations. Available from: http://www.att.com/gen/investor-relations?pid=5711%5B [Accessed 8 June 2014] Bain, J. 1956.

Barriers to New Competition. Stephen Writes. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Barney, J.B. On Regionalism. (1991). Firm’s resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of king writes post-newtown essay on guns, Management, 17: 99-120 Barney, J.B. (2001)‘Resource-based theories of competitive advantage: A ten-year retrospective on the resource-based view’ Journal of Management December 2001 27: 643-650, Bloomberg Businessweek (2014), ATT Inc (T: New York). Mexico. Available from: http://investing.businessweek.com/research/stocks/financials/financials.asp?ticker=T [Accessed 21 June 2014] ‘ATT-DirectTV Merger Shows Telecom And Television Are Now The Same Business’ 2014, Forbes.Com, p. Stephen Post-newtown Essay On Guns. 1, Business Source Premier, EBSCO host, viewed 3 June 2014. Jean, S. (2014) Dallas News.

Ranking: ATT is the most valuable bank in Texas. Available from http://bizbeatblog.dallasnews.com/2014/03/ranking-att-is-the-most-valuable-brand-in-texas.html/ [Accessed 25 June 2014] Grant, R. and Jordan, J. (2012) Foundation of 2003 ap us dbq student, Strategy. 1st edn. King Writes. West Sussex: John Wiley Sons Ltd Grant, R. (2005) Analyzing Resources and Capabilities. Contemporary Strategic Analysis. Volume 5 p.130-185 Kanter, R. Student Essays. M. 1999.

From spare change to real change. Harvard Business Review 77 (3): 122–32. Lieberman M.B. Montgomery D.B (1988), “First-Mover Advantages”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 9, 41-58 Market Watch. (2014) ATT Inc. Available from http://www.marketwatch.com/investing/stock/t/financials/cash-flow [Accessed: 8 June 2014] Porter, M. (M 2005) #8216;Michael Porter on Strategy#8217;, Leadership Excellence, 22, 6, p. 14, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 23 June 2014. Porter, M. (2008) M. Writes Essay. E. Competitive Strategy, Free Press, New York, 1980. Porter, M 2005, #8216;Michael Porter on Strategy#8217;, Leadership Excellence, 22, 6, p. 14, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 23 June 2014. Pew Research. (2013) Cell phone ownership hits 91% of Critical Analysis, adults [Online] Available from: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/06/06/cell-phone-ownership-hits-91-of-adults/ [Accessed: 10 June 2014] Plunket Research. King Writes Essay On Guns. (2014) Telecommunication Industry Market Reseach [Online] Available from: http://www.plunkettresearch.com/telecommunications-market-research/industry-and-business-data [Accessed: 10 June 2014] The Wall Street Journal (2014), ATT Enhances Mobile Internet Coverage in Bud Walton Area At The University of beauty, Arkansass. Available from: http://online.wsj.com/article/PR-CO-20140603-905535.html# [Accessed: 8 June 2014] University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

Date: 8 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on writes post-newtown AT#038;T#8217;s Resources and Capabilities. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.

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Comprehensive list of stephen post-newtown resume buzzwords to use, and how to use them. This is on software testing, one of two articles dealing with buzz words. You may want to king on guns, also read, Buzz Words on a Resume: Why They’re Important. Apparently we are all still searching for thesis on software testing the magic buzzwords to use on our resumes, thus today’s blog post is all about the magic buzz words most people are using, buzz words not to use, and why the choice of buzzwords is so critical. Notice that I said “buzz words” or “buzzwords” 4 times in one sentence? While I typically wouldn’t write with such redundancy, it seems that search engines like us to break a basic rule of writing — thus, I do so. And, I’ve allowed for the both spellings: buzz words, or buzzwords, both of stephen writes post-newtown essay on guns which are correct. If you found this blog via a search engine, you have the proof you need that SEO (search engine optimization) matters.

In fact, though I have two articles dealing specifically with buzz words, it is THIS article that you’ll find first, simply because of my opening paragraph. Which leads to our first point: In many instances, computers search your resume. Critical Analysis! It’s known as “ATS” and you can learn more, here. Resumes need to be loaded with the right buzz words. I’ve written about the specifics of ATS, and won’t repeat it now.

But if you’re not familiar with how computers read your resume, I suggest that you might also want to writes essay, read an earlier article on the topic. Remember back in grammar school when you first learned about nouns , adjectives , verbs , and adverbs ? Here is a reminder: Nouns, we learned, are used to describe a “person, place, or thing.” Adjectives describe a noun. Out An! Verbs are “action words.” Adverbs describe verbs. The nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs you use in your resume make up those all- important buzz words that are intended to king, describe your skill set and achievements, and capture the attention of a computer or human. Here is a list of common nouns found in a resume. Mexico! Notice that many of them will differ, depending on your industry: Common Resume Buzz Words – Nouns.

ADJECTIVES — descriptive words that tell us more about the noun. It is the adjectives that “fluff up” a resume. Be careful: You want to remain honest and king post-newtown essay not fluff so much that you create a work of mexico fiction! Resume’ Buzz Words – Adjectives. As I said, use adjectives carefully, honestly, and sparingly. If your resume is overly peppered with these descriptive buzz words, you lose credibility. If you are not genuinely “meticulous,” for example, choose another word. An action word is one that does something. Stephen Post-newtown Essay On Guns! For example, sang is the verb in “The girl sang .” It tells what the student mexico noun (the girl) did or is doing. Stephen King Essay! In my opinion, the essay on regionalism verbs in a resume are the most important descriptors.

It is the use of the verb that hopefully provides an king post-newtown essay, accurate description of your achievements. More than anything, employers are looking for your achievements . Thesis On Software Testing! They want to stephen, know what you have done, what actions you have taken. That falls squarely into the world of verbs. What follows is an exhaustive list of essay on regionalism these important verbs, words considered by writes on guns many as “resume buzz words.” Notice that nearly every word has the “ ed ” suffix. I’ve listed the verb in its proper tense for use in most resumes: Verbs — Resume Buzz Words (A-O) Like adjectives, use adverbs sparingly.

Be honest, accurate, and selective. Essay! I personally have only two adverbs in my resume. Here is writes essay on guns, a list of the 2003 history essay most frequently used adverbs: Adverbs — Resume Buzz Words. COMBINING BUZZ WORDS ON YOUR RESUME. Which words you choose and stephen king essay on guns how you combine those words is uniquely up to you. Real! And if I’ve not yet gotten it through to you, let me repeat: Be honest. Don’t over fluff your stuff! Let’s first combine a few adjectives and nouns: experienced executive skillful litigator proficient orator successful author proven leader talented negotiator effective communicator detailed researcher.

Now, let’s combine a few verbs and adverbs: succinctly demonstrated quickly revealed creatively reconfigured dramatically improved significantly increased reliably calculated progressively strengthened. WORDS NOT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME: Google reports that many of you search for the phrase, “Buzz words not to use on resume’.” In my opinion, the use of “buzz words” applies only to words that we should use, not words that are best left in a bar or in a piece of fiction writing. In general, it is how a word is used that matters most, as opposed to stephen king on guns, a succinct list of essays words not to use. King! For example, while there is essays mexico, nothing wrong with any of the writes following words, per se, the way they are used could be problematic: experience, environment, team, leadership, professional, proven. If those words are used to say, “Experienced professional with proven leadership in a professional environment,” then you really aren’t saying much. Instead, provide a concrete example: Provided 10+ years successful team leadership with 20 subordinates, a zero attrition rate, and student essays mexico 80% customer satisfaction at stephen writes post-newtown on guns a Fortune 100 company. Yet you still seek a concrete list of setting out an essay words you should not use.

I know… I know. So here is the stephen essay best I can do for you: A resume is real is on essay, about accomplishments, not duties. King Post-newtown Essay On Guns! Thus, only use the following when you don’t yet have work achievements (as in the case of students who are just starting out in their careers): responsibilities included duties included responsible for. use of first person – “ I ” — as in, “I was the employee of the month.” use of “ References Available Upon Request “ use of the word “ assisted ” unless there is no other option. Focus on your achievement(s) as they relate to your assistance to someone else, and specify it on your resume. use of the word “ seasoned “, as in “seasoned professional.” This ages you. Use “experienced” instead. Setting! use of king post-newtown on guns personal identification phrases like, “ young ,” “ youthful ,” “ healthy ,” “ fit ,” “ attractive ,” “ Caucasian ,” etc. use of thesis any word that is not accurate and honest. Aside from my over-stating the issue of integrity, the following are important considerations when choosing the king writes essay on guns best buzz words to use in your resume: Don’t use a complex word when something simple will do. Thesis On Software! Example: If you “directed” a project, say so.

Don’t say “orchestrated the management of…” or something too fancy. Use common headings: “Professional Experience” instead of “Employment Affiliations”; “Achievements” instead of “Notable Accomplishments” Write in third-person, not first, using phrases, not full sentences: “Founded successful program for disadvantaged youth,” rather than “I am the founder of a program for disadvantaged youth that was highly successful.” DO use the buzz words you find in stephen post-newtown essay, the job description. DON’T use color, photographs, or graphics unless you are in a creative arts industry. DO balance the white space in your document, and use 12pt font if possible. (I use an 11pt for substantive text, and a 12pt for beauty the inside headings, with a “left justified” margin, not “full justification” which reads oddly in many cases.) Order your resume in the most commonly accepted format, or a close variation: Heading name address or city and state phone numbers email address Career Objective You do not need to place a heading above your career objective. Stephen Writes Post-newtown On Guns! Just state the setting out an essay objective Use either paragraph or bullet format.

Education Reverse chronological order Degree obtained Name of institution Relevant or notable activities Dates of attendance (or years only, for “mature’ applicant) Skills / Achievements bullet list format include your most notable achievements, including percentages dollar amounts when possible include only your most relevant skills (after achievements) dates and information like company name are not needed here; it’s just a summary of stephen king writes your most notable achievements Professional / Relevant Experience Your work history, in reverse chronological order (most recent employer listed first) Your job title Name and thesis testing location of employer Dates of employment (last 10 years, generally) bullet list of significant / relevant achievements DO include volunteer and pro essay, bono work, if relevant Additional Relevant Memberships / Skills / Activities / Awards bullet list format brief description of relevant awards brief description of relevant memberships brief description of essay on regionalism relevant activities Key Competencies / Skills Some jobs benefit from this added section. Only include what is relevant to the position you seek, like … the type of software you can use, and your proficiency level the types of equipment you can operate, and your proficiency level languages you speak, and your proficiency level personal attributes that are directly relevant (i.e., “confident public speaker”) Notice that there is post-newtown essay, not a heading for ap us history “References” or for king post-newtown on guns “Hobbies”. Do not include them in your resume , nor should you include a statement that “References will be provided upon real is on the inside request.” That’s old school and will date you, showing that you’ve not taken the time to stephen essay, research current standards for resumes. Having said all of this, I will remind my regular readers — and point out to my new or visiting readers — that there are exceptions to every rule. For a good example of how someone “got the job” breaking nearly every rule, you might want to 2003 ap us dbq student, read this article.

If you would like an evaluation of your resume, I will provide you with a free critique! But, make sure you’ve first followed the rules of stephen writes resume writing and prepared the best document you can prepare. And, PLEASE CLICK HERE TO READ SUBMISSION GUIDELINES FIRST. The author appreciates your participation. Ask a question or leave a comment, below. It’s not necessary to subscribe (though it is encouraged) in Critical, order to share! Did you find this article useful?

Would you like to learn more about stephen writes on guns, how to find employment? Check out Video Analysis some of these fan-favorites : More? This is only a partial list of all of the king writes post-newtown on guns “Work” related articles Lynda has written for you. Thesis On Software Testing! Check out the “Work” category in the sidebar to the right for writes post-newtown essay a complete listing of all articles designed to help you. And don’t forget to check out the other categories! Keeping it all in balance is necessary for a comfortable, content life — and Lynda knows just how to Video Critical, do it!

This helped me with resume writing tips for career advancement. i Love the veRb. That’s a great relationship to have, Princess Hannah — with the verb, I mean. King Writes Post-newtown On Guns! LOL I understand it can be really active! This is one of the best articles I’ve read on resume writing and I’ve forwarded it to multiple friends who found it just as useful. Out An Essay! I have it bookmarked so for whenever I revamp my resume, I can look over your tips and list of words. Thank you! wow thats amazing.

I just wanted to notify you that I found your blog on technorati. com and though I appreciated looking at your article, it appears your blog acts up in a few web browsers. Anytime I look at king writes your page in Chrome, it looks fine. however, when opening in essay, Firefox, it has a bunch of overlapping difficulties. I just wanted to writes essay on guns, provide you with a little alert, that’s all. Thanks for the info. Setting Out An Essay! I’m sorry for the technical issue(s).

This is a free blog, one from which I do not earn an king essay on guns, income, and thus I do not put any time into advertising it or checking for how it displays on the various browsers. Perhaps I should, though! Thanks again for your comment, and I’m glad you liked the Buzz Words article. Thanks for this!! I was having such a hard time writing, and found what you say extremely valid!! You actually make it seem so easy with your presentation but I. find this matter to mexico, be actually something that I think I would.

never understand. It seems too complicated and very broad for me. I’m looking forward for your next post, I will try to get the stephen post-newtown hang of it! I hope I haven’t implied that there is anything “easy” about setting, writing an effective resume. In fact, if it were easy, my blog wouldn’t be necessary! I’m always willing to help anyone who needs it. All you have to do is send me an email. Glad you like the blog, and stephen writes post-newtown essay on guns thank you for student essays mexico your comment! PS: I see that you are a lawn mower repair person?

Gosh, I need YOUR help with a dead lawnmower. Writes Post-newtown! Send me an email! really, I mean really. Why is it that every applicant these days has to dance to out an essay, the every changing merry tune of what the ‘experts’ perceive to be the most important words in an application whilst they know sweet FA about the position being applied for or even what is required. The employers are in a position of authority and writes post-newtown on guns can make decisions on who gets employed and who doesn’t, and because of this, they dictate the tune to which that the applicants have to dance to, meaning that those who really want to get on in life have to dance to this ridiculous irrelevant tune. Its about essay on regionalism, time, that all these pathetic buzz words were scrapped and stop trying to stephen, make everyone conform to Analysis, these pathetic ‘ideals’ which we all know is fake and unachievable anyway. All these buzz words do is writes post-newtown, allow people to use more and more colourful ways to lie on beauty essay, their application and obscure who they really are, where in reality, we should be encouraging people to express their individuality rather than trying to convert them to a faceless corporate drones. People, wake up, take control of king writes your lives and Video Critical Analysis sea people for what and who they really are instead of what they are ‘expected’ to be. Writing a resume or a cover-letter can be overwhelming for some people. They know their histories and achievements and skills, but minds go blank when they try to stephen king writes post-newtown on guns, articulate their credentials in writing.

This list of 2003 ap us dbq student essay “buzz words” is meant to help people describe themselves more accurately. In no way is king post-newtown, it intended to be a way for setting out an essay anyone to ever lie about stephen essay on guns, their achievements. In fact, I repeatedly warn against being dishonest during the job submission process. On Regionalism! It’s like lying about your age on a dating site; it will come back to haunt you eventually. Business owners and their employees who have the authority to hire others almost always need a standard method to screen applicants. Not only is stephen on guns, it the essays mexico fairest and most efficient way to review candidates, there are employment laws to which employers must adhere.

The larger the essay on guns business, the on software testing less room there is for flexibility in stephen post-newtown essay on guns, the job submission process. Computers are often the ap us dbq student essay first stop along the stephen king writes hiring process; they read our resumes and look for specific buzz words that are job-relevant. Setting! If a resume lacks those words, it will be tossed. This isn’t about conformity. It’s about getting a job. There’s nothing irrelevant about putting one’s credentials down on paper so someone else can evaluate those credentials. For those people who desire to express their individuality, and/or who are anti-corporation — as many, many people are today — there are a multitude of ways to find employment that don’t involve writing a resume. (I recently hired a young man who didn’t submit a resume; I found him when he unloaded a moving truck for me and I was impressed with how hard he worked.

So, I offered him a job and he accepted.) But for most people who are competing in writes essay, a tough job market, doing one’s best and Critical Analysis following the submission rules is just part of the game. For final year students. Share this with your friends. I really like what you guys are up too. This type of clever work and exposure! Keep up the great works guys I’ve added you guys to blogroll. Glad you like it! By the way, “You guys” is just me. #128578; this is really useful; it helped me out much. I hope to give. something back and help others like you’ve aided me.

Greetings! Very helpful advice in stephen essay on guns, this article! Many thanks for sharing! Hey very nice blog! I am a recent non-traditional graduate with a BA degree. I have worked at several jobs, but have not had a major role in essays, any of my places of stephen writes post-newtown employment.

I read your articles about how to write resumes and use buzz words; but honestly, I am just a good ‘ole hard worker. The only things I’ve created is a facility-wide directory, a call-back roster for potential clients and thesis on software follow-up calls – both of which I have mentioned on my resume. I considered sending you a copy, but am thinking that you will just send it back tell me to read your links fix it, LoL, I have read your links I’m not sure how to fix it. Like I said, I am just kind of stephen king writes post-newtown essay generic, but a hard worker. I’m not really sure where to go from here. Thank you for your comment and your question, Loretta. Ap Us History! Here is what is missing from the information you provided in your comment: Reference to the type of work you are seeking. Stephen King Writes! Without knowing what kind of job you are trying to 2003 ap us dbq student essay, find, it’s difficult to provide you with specific advice.

I think a lot of people misunderstand and/or under-value the purpose of resumes. Stephen King Writes Post-newtown On Guns! Resumes are not just a written summary of your work history. Real Essay! They are a intended to persuade someone that you are worth further inquiry, that you are capable of doing the job for stephen post-newtown essay which they seek an employee. In order to use a resume effectively, it has to be tailored to its audience — and THAT depends on the job you seek. Some people will say, “I don’t care what kind of job I get. I just need a job!” Though it’s easy to feel that way, it is detrimental to your job search. Though one might think that being open to “any” job will increase his or her chances of finding employment, it actually has the opposite effect. Unless you are an student essays mexico, entry-level worker who needs only to post-newtown on guns, walk into a fast food restaurant (or other similar minimum wage job) and fill out an student essays mexico, application, then you need a resume that is tailored to the type of employment you seek and/or tailored to a specific job notice.

Please send me your resume. Stephen King Post-newtown Essay! If you’ve followed my advice with regard to creating that resume, I will not simply refer you back to my website. When you send your email to essay on regionalism, me, please identify the type of work you are seeking. I’ll be able to give you specific, detailed advice at that point. I am really impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on stephen writes post-newtown essay on guns, your blog.

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A Trip to Holland: My Take on this Special Needs Poem. It is really hard to describe the range of emotions that a parent has when their child is diagnosed with Autism. For us, we had known that something was ‘off’ with S for some time- so the diagnosis was a bit of relief mixed with a ton hopelessness. Getting a formal diagnosis left me feeling so desperate and so out of control that I still can’t even accurately put it into words. During this time, a co-worker’s family member had a daughter that was unexpectedly born with Downs Syndrome. This came as a complete shock to the family and it took them a few weeks to settle into their new role as parents of a special needs child. Once they began to come to terms with their daughter’s diagnosis, they sent the following poem out to family to help describe where they were emotionally. My co-worker quickly relayed the poem to me, in hopes that it would offer some support. The poem is called “A Trip to stephen king post-newtown essay, Holland” by Emily Perl Kingsley and testing a version of the poem may be found here.

I have copied it below for those who can’t access the link: I am often asked to describe the experience of stephen post-newtown on guns, raising a child with a disability — to try to help people who have not shared that unique experience to understand it, to imagine how it would feel. It’s like this… When you’re going to have a baby, it’s like planning a fabulous vacation trip to Italy. You buy a bunch of student essays mexico, guide books and post-newtown essay make your wonderful plans… the dbq student essay, Coliseum, the Sistine Chapel, Gondolas.

You may learn some handy phrases in Italian. Stephen King Writes Essay On Guns? It’s all very exciting. After several months of eager anticipation, the day finally arrives. You pack your bags and off you go. Several hours later, the beauty is on, plane lands.

The stewardess comes in and says, “Welcome to Holland!” “Holland?” you say. “What do you mean, Holland? I signed up for Italy. I’m supposed to be in Italy. All my life I’ve dreamed of going to Italy.” But there’s been a change in stephen king writes essay the flight plan. They’ve landed in Holland and there you must stay. The important thing is that they haven’t taken you to Critical, a horrible, disgusting, filthy place full of pestilence, famine, and stephen post-newtown disease. It’s just a different place. So, you must go out and buy new guidebooks. And you must learn a whole new language. And you will meet a whole new group of essays, people you would never have met. It’s just a different place.

It’s slower paced than Italy, less flashy than Italy. But after you’ve been there for a while and you catch your breath, you look around. You begin to stephen king on guns, notice that Holland has windmills. Holland has tulips. And Holland even has Rembrandts. Real Beauty? But everyone you know is busy coming and going from Italy, and they’re all bragging about what a wonderful time they had there.

And for the rest of your life you will say, ” Yes, that’s where I was supposed to go. That’s what I had planned.” And the pain of that experience will never, ever, ever, go away. The loss of that dream is a very significant loss. But if you spend your life mourning the fact that you didn’t get to stephen king writes essay, Italy, you may never be free to enjoy the beauty the inside, very special, the very lovely things about Holland. Now, initially, this poem made a great deal of sense to king writes, me and really helped me through that first week of coming to terms with S’s diagnosis. Thesis Testing? After all, S is still the same little boy that I have adored since I first held him in my arms. He hasn’t changed, we just now know why he is the way he is.

I embraced the idea that S’s diagnosis was just a little detour in life, an post-newtown on guns, unexpected journey into new territory… I bought this poem… hook. line. sinker. Ap Us Dbq Student Essay? After all, it is a very logical poem that really makes coming to terms with this diagnosis seem very straight forward and simple. What was not to like? But, what this poem doesn’t touch on, is the reality of this detour. This is not as simple as leaving for Italy and landing in stephen writes post-newtown essay Holland and not even realizing you were headed in the wrong direction in the first place. When your child is going through the process of an autism diagnosis, you know that it is coming.

You know your plane is essay on regionalism, heading off course. But, you tell yourself that you must have remembered the route wrong, or that each pilot has his own flight path, but that your final destination will be the stephen king on guns, same. Once you realize that no, your pilot is student, most certainly taking you somewhere else, you will desperately do everything in your power to stop him- but, there is nothing you can do- because you are trapped in the plane and stephen writes there is no. way. out. In fact, you may have to fight a million battles just to get him to land. Then, once you land, not only are you forced abruptly off the plane- but you are left alone to figure it all out on your own. 2003 Dbq Student? Maybe one well-meaning person will point you in the direction of a visitor’s center.

But, I can assure you that all of the information you will need is in stephen king writes on guns another language and will cost you twice as much as you have brought for your trip. On Software? Sure, you will learn the language and the land, but how will you survive in stephen king post-newtown the meantime? How will you ensure that you don’t lose the little that you have while you find your way? Let’s not forget to mention that all of the ‘best’ information changes daily and most of it conflicts with each other. On Software Testing? How do you know what to believe? Once you have decided to make the best of stephen king writes post-newtown, your trip to Holland, you will find that in order to actually see any of the sights, you will need to take a seemingly impossible to navigate travel system. Thesis Testing? 75% of the time, that system will not take you to the sight you want to see. Stephen King Essay? You will constantly have to transfer cars in an attempt to get where you are going… when one fails, you move on to the on regionalism, next. Except, each transfer costs you thousands of dollars and days of your time and before you can transfer, there is a ton of paperwork to fill out and stephen king on guns applications that need to be approved.

And, there is student essays, no guarantee any of this will get you closer to stephen essay, where you want to go. Sometimes one car will get you close, only to have another one spin you in an opposite direction. All the while, well meaning friends and family try to assure you that you are, indeed, in Italy. Overall, “A Trip to Holland” is a good way of explaining the basic emotional process that you go through to friends and family. On Regionalism? The ultimate message that I received from stephen post-newtown essay, this poem is that you need to beauty essay, accept that things are going to be the way they are and that you might as well enjoy them.

After all, the only other option is to post-newtown, be miserable… and that is Critical Analysis, no way to live life. I have accepted that my son has autism and writes post-newtown essay I am doing my best to enjoy every day that I have with him; after all, there are many mommies out there who won’t get to tuck their children in tonight. I am so very grateful for all that our family has in life. However, it doesn’t mean that S’s autism has just caused a simple little detour in essay our lives. Post-newtown Essay On Guns? It is not like taking a wrong turn and being delighted to real, find a new awesome coffee shop around the corner. It is like everything you need or want to do in Holland is ten times more difficult and costly than in Italy. Writes? No matter what you do in Holland, you feel completely alone and like you stand out like a sore thumb… and you just know you would have blended right in in Italy.

Not to mention, this is NOT a vacation. You do not get to leave and go back home one day… the life you knew before the essay on regionalism, diagnosis and the one you had always envisioned for your family in the future is post-newtown, gone. Your child will deal with this detour forever. When you are raising an autistic child, your Holland is filled with a lot of additional, and very difficult, obstacles… and everyone around is sipping coffee in Venice. Hi J! I’m also the setting essay, mother of a July 2010 LO. I’m so glad you started a blog to post-newtown on guns, share your journey! Here is a little story I wanted to share with you: My mother is the inside, a Special Education teacher. She has had the privilege of working one-on-one with a boy who has Down Syndrome for writes post-newtown, the past 8 years. He graduated this year, and in honor of my mom, he gave her the poem ‘A Trip to Holland’ along with a necklace with a windmill charm on it. Although the journey can seem long and bumpy, know that you are not alone! Our children are our children, and no matter their differences, all they truly need is our love and support.

Holli- Thanks so much for your story! That is very touching and thesis testing gives a lot of hope for stephen writes essay on guns, our little man. Although it looks like you blogged about this some time ago, I just ran across this today. I am a practicing speech language pathologist (SLP) who also teaches at the University level. I have used this poem in the past to try to describe to my students what parents go through when confronted with a diagnosis.

However, I really like your take on it. I work with children with disabilities every day and I have a sibling with a disability…so maybe I “get it” a little more than the “average bear”…but I have never been directly in your shoes. I think you have done a very nice job extending the 2003 ap us history, analogy so that others may understand the frustration and sadness you experience every day. Thank you. I will be sharing your take on king essay on guns this poem with my students. I am one of Dr. Becker’s students, and I find your blog a unique and very personal way to describe your reality. Essay? I am going to writes essay on guns, send it to essays mexico, a friend whose son was recently diagnosed with Autism. King? By posting this, you have made a difference in lives of people you will never meet. God bless you.

I am so glad to 2003 ap us dbq student, hear that you found this post helpful! It is interesting to re-read it now, over a year later, and to remember those feelings and to reflect on how far we have come in stephen king writes post-newtown essay on guns our emotional process. Perhaps I will write a follow up post! I too am one of Dr Becker’s students, Your take on the situation is 2003 ap us history dbq student essay, very inspiring – I work as an stephen writes on guns, ABA therapist for children diagnosed with Autism spectrum disorder – often times we serve as a support system for parents and families. I service a child that was recently diagnosed with ASD; the ap us dbq student, parents are at post-newtown, a complete loss and sad.. I believe this article will be of dbq student essay, great interest and post-newtown essay inspiration. Thinking I’ll have your article delivered with a cup of coffee and fresh cake.

Thanks an ap us, looking forward to reading the follow up. Hi Jenny, we have a 32 yrold with neurologic impairment. Stephen Essay? What i wish that some one had told me, was to embrace the wonderful attributes that your son has, take one day at on software testing, a time. We allowed our so. To move into his own apt, he lives alone and is under the stephen king writes post-newtown essay, umbrella of thesis on software testing, Vista vocational program for writes essay, i dependence in madison Ct. Once we let him go, the maturity we have seen is incredible. It takes a lot of work, but the opportunities are endless, it is our attitude and expectations that need alterting. I certainly can identify with your “detours” in student mexico Holland but think about king essay it…If your child was “typical”, then you would not have the ap us history, child you have, know and essay love. I’m left a bit unsettled by 2003 history essay your blog.

Maybe it will come to you some day. In the meantime, hang in. Stephen Post-newtown Essay? Their is always someone worse off. (Parent of a severely handicapped child who is Analysis, a love and 22) My son was diagnosed at age 3 with autism and at age 8 with Tourettes Syndrome. He is now 17 and is graduating highschool this year with a NYS Regents Diploma and is a member of the honor society. King Essay On Guns? He is ap us essay, vey involved in two local support groups for teens/young adults with autism. He is completing his 6th year on his school’s wrestling team (winning many of his matches and well liked by all his team), is on post-newtown essay the prom committee, and will be mentoring another young man like himself for the first time the testing, final 4 months of stephen post-newtown, his high school years!

These are all FIRSTS for his high school as well! These unprecedented events have all been possible because of my son’s determination and the wonderful support people around him! I have always “uped the setting, ante” and king writes post-newtown essay on guns put the supports in place to help him be as successful as him can be. He has become an amazing and responsible young man and the possibilities are endless for him. It really is our attitudes and essays expectations that need altering!

Reblogged this on stephen writes essay on guns Adventures in Warrenland and commented: A kind of depressing, yet more realistic take on thesis on software testing this poem, that I can’t help but reblog… I blogged about your post and king post-newtown essay on guns linked to it on my son’s Caring Bridge Site. Thank you for sharing your journey. Each child/parent/diagnosis is different. Real Is On Essay? Not once did i feel that her take on the poem meant she didnt embrace her child or love him less the poem is perfect and the take on king essay on guns the poem is perfect for different reasons I have been asking for help for 7 years for my amazing daughter I have spent thousands and thousands of dollars My attitude has always been to help my daughter to realize her potential but every emotion and thought and concern and everything was described in both the Video, poem and the take on it i plan on on guns sharing both with many many people. Yes, a lot of beauty the inside, what you’ve said I find true with our experiences with N., our son with autism. King Essay? He is 23 now…….and it’s really tough sometimes.

I find myself mourning what might have been…….the young men that would have been his peers are starting new lives with exciting new opportunities, while N. is left behind. Hello, I attended a funeral of one of my handicapble daughters friends to day and I was introdused to your poem. I thought how wonderful. It realy does explain to outsiders how our lives are. M y daughter is 43 and 2003 ap us dbq student mentally changled, I also have a 6 yearold I care for who has asd.but my life is king writes post-newtown essay, full and I would not have it any other way.

Susan. (Mother of a Spina Bifida child Gramma of a SPD child) The anger is natural and should not be denied. People that tell you you are so lucky, blah blah blah, yes, you are, and yes, we love our special children; but we also have to essay, acknowledge our anger over stephen king essay not getting to go to Italy. There is nothing wrong with that. We have to look at both sides of the on software, coin here. King Writes On Guns? That is healthy and real well adjusted. That, people, is the life of a special needs parent.

If you cannot admit and deal with that, you are not truly honest with yourselves. We were financially ruined and will never recover. People do not ever consider that side of things. I would never trade my child for anything; but the healthcare system? Don’t even get me started…we are financially ruined for the rest of our lives. liked your piece. Stephen Post-newtown? I always hated that F’ing poem. I used to say, it’s like going to out an essay, Italy and your plane crashes in the Atlantic. Your floating in a lifeboat getting bashed about by rough seas and after a long and torturous journey you wash ashore in Holland. And at that point, you know, Holland ain’t that bad! Scott, THIS is so incredibly accurate.

Yes, this. You nailed it. I think your entire entry loses the point you’re trying to make because you seem a little preoccupied with proving the stephen writes post-newtown, Holland poem wrong. I think this comes across as resentful. I think the writer of the Holland poem has processed things in a healthier way and can see the joys in her child. Ashley, thank you so much for your comment.

If I am being honest- I was, and still am, a bit resentful that my son has autism. But know that does not mean that I find any less joy in real beauty is on him (if anything, I think I may find more joy than your average “typical” parent) or that I have not processed his diagnosis in a healthy way. The early stages of autism are hard. Those years are filled with so much anxiety and fear- and on guns not without reason. My son is almost six and he is doing fantastically well. I would not trade him for the world. He is real essay, smart, funny, kind, loving and just an all around great kid.

But if I could take away his struggles that come with autism, I would in a heartbeat. Seeing him struggle breaks my heart and I will never feel bad for writes essay on guns, not wanting my son to not struggle. So know that I love my son. I love his quirks and he brings me so much joy that there isn’t a bucket big enough to hold it all. And while I have come to appreciate Holland a bit more than I did 4 years ago, it is still not the trip I would’ve chosen.

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Copying Machines Used to stephen writes post-newtown, Make One or a Few Copies of New Documents, Mainly Outgoing Letters. Letter Copying Presses. Squeezed Out, Gov. Tilden's Message to the Legislature, Albany, NY, Mar. 19, 1875, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , April 1875. James Watt copying press, 1780 patent diagram. Dolphin Arch Copying Press. A number of essay, US manufacturers, including E.W.

Frost, New York, NY, and John Alexander, New York, NY, offered Dolphin letter copying presses in 1866-68. Prices at that time were $6.50 for 9x12 to $105 for 10.5x16. Plates 4 - 6 show letter copying presses that were displayed at the 1851 Industrial Exhibition in London. Along with typewriters, letter copying presses are the most common machines found in photographs of king writes post-newtown essay on guns, late 19 th century and very early 20 th century offices. Student! Yates (Ch. 4-5) reports that the Illinois Central Railroad used copying presses to stephen writes post-newtown essay on guns, make copies of outgoing letters in press books at least from the late 1850s to 1896, that the Repauno Chemical Co. stopped using press books in setting, 1901 (p. 226), that the king essay on guns Scoville Manufacturing Co. was still using copy presses and press books for outgoing letters in 1913 (p. 181), and testing that the Hagley Museum and Library has press books that were used in the 1930s (p.

283). The last U.S. President whose official correspondence was copied on a copying press was Calvin Coolidge (1923-29). (David Owen, Making Copies, Smithsonian , Aug. 2004, p. 92) Screw model letter copying presses were still marketed in 1950, and Proudfoot reports that an organization in London, England, was still using press books in king on guns, the late 1950s. On Regionalism! (W. B. Proudfoot, The Origin of writes essay on guns, Stencil Duplicating , 1972, p. 32) Because of the size and essay on regionalism weight of stephen writes, letter copying presses, numerous portable methods for pressing loose copies and setting copy books were also marketed during the 19th century. In a review of office equipment at the 1851 Industrial Exhibition, Granville Sharp recommended that when an office was selecting a press like those in Plates 1-3, it should make sure that the stephen writes essay handle was heavily weighted at the ends to insure proper spinning. On Software! “This is post-newtown essay on guns, essential to a screw copy press; for Analysis, unless one pull will serve to raise or to depress the plate, much time is lost.” In addition to the press, offices needed to buy copying books that contained up to a thousand pages of tough tissue paper, copying ink, copying paper dampers, oiled paper, and blotting paper. Sharp explained that before using the new press, the office had to decide how to organize its letters. Stephen King Writes On Guns! Production of copies was easiest if the 2003 dbq student user copied its letters into a single letter book in writes post-newtown essay, chronological order. In that case, the user needed to student essays, make an index so that letters of interest could later be retrieved.

Alternatively, the office could organize its correspondence by client, which avoided indexing but made it necessary to use numerous copying books on a given day. Although copies could be made up to twenty-four hours after a letter was written, copies made within a few hours were best. A copying clerk would begin by counting the number of letters to be written during the next few hours and by preparing the copying book. Suppose the clerk wanted to copy 20 one-page letters. In that case, he (copying clerks were men) would insert a sheet of oiled paper into the copying book in front of the writes post-newtown essay first tissue on which he wanted to setting essay, make a copy of a letter. He would then turn 20 sheets of tissue paper and insert a second oiled paper. Sharp advised that “Success in post-newtown, copying letters depends almost entirely upon the damping of the paper. The paper should be saturated and damp, not wet.” To dampen the tissue paper, the clerk used a brush or copying paper damper. The damper had a reservoir for water that wet a cloth, and the clerk wiped the thesis on software testing cloth over the tissues on which copies were to be made. (See Plate 5A ) As an alternative method of stephen post-newtown on guns, dampening the tissue paper, in thesis on software testing, 1860 Cutter, Tower Co., Boston, advertised Lynch's patent paper moistener ( Plate 5B ) with the claim that it does away with the stephen use of the beauty is on essay brush, wet cloths and dipping bowls, and dampens the paper sufficiently by a single roll of the machine.

Next, letters were written with special copying ink, which was not blotted. On Guns! The copying clerk arranged the portion of the letter book to be used in essays mexico, the following sequence starting from the stephen king writes front: a sheet of oiled paper, then a sheet of letter book tissue, then a letter placed face up against the back of the tissue on which the copy was to be made, then another oiled paper, et cetera , “oiled paper being in all cases placed next the damp paper, to prevent the ink forcing beyond the paper intended to receive it.” Finally, “Close the book, put it into the press, and thesis screw tightly down, letting it remain a minute or two under pressure, when the copy will be properly taken, and post-newtown on guns may be dried with blotting paper, or held near the fire.” Based on experience, the clerk could adjust the press time. Video Critical Analysis! If he made a copy soon after a letter was written, only stephen king post-newtown a second or two was needed to Critical Analysis, make a good impression. When the king post-newtown essay on guns letter book was pressed, some of the thesis testing ink transferred from the letters to the moist tissues in king writes post-newtown, the book. Because the ink penetrated the essay on regionalism tissues, copies could be read from the front sides of the tissues. Prior to the introduction of inks made with aniline dyes, the quality of essay, copies made on letter copying presses was limited by the properties of the available copying inks. The first aniline dye was invented in 1856, and numerous aniline dyes were invented in the following two decades. Bedini (p. 193) reports that The growth of the aniline dye and ink manufacturing industries in Germany, which coincided with the earliest importation in student mexico, 1868 of thin papers manufactured in on guns, Japan, brought a new popularity to the bound letter book. Plates 6AB and AC, Racine Automatic Copying Press, Racine Mall and Wrought Iron Co., Racine, WI, advertised 1901-05.

On the Racine press, the screw wheel was used only to adjust for the thickness of the book. Pressure was applied with the lever. Plate 6B , Wells Fargo Co. Copying Press. On Regionalism! Wells Fargo Museum, San Francisco, CA. Plate 4, Coalbrookdale Press 1851. Plate 5, Imperial Press 1851.

Plate 5A , Shriver's Copying Brush with Reservoir Handle holding water enough to dampen one hundred leaves of letter paper, T. Shriver Co., New York, NY, patented 1867, advertised 1868-86. Plate 5B , Lynch's Patent Paper Moistener, Cutter, Tower Co., Boston, 1860. Plate 6, Barrett Co. Press 1851. Plate 6A, Lightning Copying Press, R E Kidder, Worcester, MA, patented Nov 4,1884, advertised 1887. Plate 6AA , Very Large Copying Press, Standard Oil of stephen post-newtown essay, Ohio, c. 1900. By the late 1870s, an improved method for student mexico, moistening pages in copying books had been invented, and by the late 1880s it had been widely adopted. Rather than using a brush or damper to wet the tissues, the clerk inserted a thin moist cloth or pad between each oil paper and the following tissue. A supply of stephen king writes post-newtown essay, moist pads was prepared in advance using a copying bath, such as Hill's Blotter Bath, patented in 1879 ( Plate 6B ), or Tatum's Ideal Copying Pad Bath, patented in 1887 ( Plate 7 ). Tatum also produced larger copying tanks that included wringers to student mexico, remove excess water from stephen, copying pads.

The Globe Roller Copying Bath ( Plate 8 ), which was marketed by essay on regionalism Globe-Wernicke Co. in the early 1900s, is an example of a copying tank. To prepare a supply of moist pads using the stephen writes essay Ideal bath, the clerk removed the testing tray from the stephen king post-newtown essay bath, poured water into the pan, and replaced the tray. Also, the ap us history essay clerk sprinkled a set of pads, let them stand overnight, and then placed them in stephen king writes essay on guns, the tray. “The evaporation from the water underneath will generally be sufficient to on regionalism, keep pads damp enough for ordinary work.” Plate 8A shows an 1886 Bailey's Letter Copying Machine with a Moistening Attachment on top. King Post-newtown On Guns! Plate 8D shows a Little Giant Copying Tank, which was priced at Critical $9. Plate 8A , Bailey's Letter Copying Machine with Moistening Attachment, 1886 ad. Plate 8B , Office with Copying Pad Bath in stephen king post-newtown, front of Letter Copying Press.

Plate 8C , Office with Large Letter Copying Press and Sink with Wringer for Preparing Moist Pads. Plate 6B, Hill's Blotter Bath, B.B.Hill, Springfield, MA, patented 1879. See U.S. Patent No. 216,738. Plate 7, Ideal Copying Bath and essay Instructions, Samuel C. Tatum Co., patented and advertised in 1887. Plate 7A, Williams Copying Bath, Williams Typewriter Co., patented 1891, advertisement with instructions. Courtesy of the Museum of writes essay on guns, Business History and Technology. Plate 8, Globe Copying Bath 1909 ad.

Plate 8D , Little Giant Copying Tank, The Sam'l C. Tatum Co., Cincinnati, OH, 1898 ad. Plate 9 , Letter Copying Book, 1905. Plate 10 , Atmospheric Letter Copying Press, 1881. Plate 10A , Bushnell's Perfect Letter Copying Books, 1895 ad. Plate 10A2, Bushnell's Perfect Letter Copying Book, copyright 1885, cover and instructions. Courtesy of the Museum of Business History and Technology. Plate 10B , Cylindrical Copying Press, 1888. Plate 10C , Patent Simplex Copying Press,

John Morris Co., Chicago, IL. Plate 10G , Book Copying Press, advertised c. 1920s, Germany. Plate 11A , Rapid Roller Damp-Leaf Copier, Office Specialty Manufacturing Co., Rochester, NY, c. 1889 ad. Plate 11B , Rapid Duplicator, Rapid Duplicating Copying Machine Co., NY., NY, 1887 ad. The Process Letter Machine Co., Muncie, IN, offered the 2003 ap us history dbq student New Rotary Copying Press, a loose-leaf copier, in stephen king on guns, 1902. This machine was similar to roller copiers but copied onto loose-leaf paper . The Cylinder Letter Press Co., Chicago, IL, and The Easy Machine Co., Marion, IN, offered different loose-leaf copier, the essay on regionalism Cylinder Letter Press and the Quick Easy Copying Press, respectively, in 1903 and 1905, respectively. Plate 11E , Cylinder Letter Press, Cylinder Letter Press, Co., Chicago, IL, 1903 ad. Plate 11C , The New Rotary Copying Press, Plate 11D , Quick Easy Copying Press,

Plate 12A , Polygraph 1803, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, on loan from the Franklin Institute. Carbon Paper, Manifold Books and Typewriters. Nevertheless, use of carbon paper was modest until the 1870s. Early carbon paper was messy, carbon paper did not make a satisfactory copy when the original was written with a pen, there was concern that carbon copies could be altered or forged, and carbon copies were not admissible in king writes post-newtown essay, court. Carbon paper became more important after the late 1870s because of the introduction of the typewriter and greaseless carbon paper. Essays! Unlike the earlier carbon papers, the new ones were coated on only one side.

Typewriters were able to produce up to ten carbon copies along with an original. Writes Post-newtown Essay On Guns! Carbon paper for the inside, use with typewriters, available from John Underwood Co. among others, was advertised in 1886 (A.C. Farley Co., The Purchaser , Philadelphia, PA, Feb. 1886. King Writes! Hagley Museum and Library). Yates reports that in 1912 a government report stated that by the almost universal practice of business concerns, the carbon copy has supplanted the setting out an essay press copy as a record of outgoing correspondence.

According to Yates (p. 48), This statement was based primarily on large businesses: many smaller companies continued to use the rolling copier and even press books for some years. Plate 13 , Agate-Tipped Stylus. Plate 13A , Lightning Copying Book and Lightning Pen, 1879. Plate 13B , Stylograph or Rapid Letter Copying Book, 1883 ad. Machines Used to Make Many Duplicates.

Neither letter copying presses nor carbon paper could be used to make numerous copies of a document. Until the mid-1870s, offices had two options for making many copies. Stephen Writes Essay! They could go to a commercial printer, or they could buy a small printing press. In the 19th century, commercial printers used platen presses for job work such as business cards, envelopes, billheads, and circulars. (Harold E. Student Mexico! Sterne, Catalogue of stephen writes post-newtown, Nineteenth Century Printing Presses , 1978, p. 217) Yates (Ch. 4) indicates that until 1876 the Illinois Central Railroad used commercial printers when it needed large numbers of copies of items such as circulars, and that it continued to use commercial printers after 1876 when it needed multiple copies of documents to be distributed to the public rather than for internal use. The online Briar Press reports that small table top printing presses were made in the US as early as the 1830s. In the 19th century, commercial printers used lithographic presses to print such things as labels, stock certificates, bank notes, maps, insurance policies, and beauty the inside business stationery. Sterne (p.

203) reports that The fine detail and unusual calligraphy needed in king essay, this work was beautifully reproduced through the lithographic technique. In lithography, an image is created on or transferred to a flat polished stone, which serves as a printing plate. The image is created on the stone using a greasy crayon, or alternatively is created on a sheet of paper using greasy lithographic ink and then transferred to the stone. Next, printers ink is applied to the stone. Ap Us History Dbq Student Essay! This ink adheres only to writes essay on guns, the crayon or lithographic ink. The stone is then covered with a sheet of paper, and the stone and paper are run through a press to make a lithograph. In England, small lithographic presses were marketed to offices in the 1850s. One example that was exhibited in 1851 is the S. Out An! Mordan Co. Combined Lithographic and king writes post-newtown on guns Copying Press ( Plate 14 ). To use this as a lithographic press, it was necessary to transfer a document image to a smooth limestone block. A second example that was exhibited in 1855 and described as suitable for the Counting House, Office, or Library was exhibited by the inside essay Waterlow and Son of London in 1855 ( Plate 14AAA ). Waterlow's advertisement stated: Nearly One Thousand of these Presses have now been sold, and are being successfully used in essay, all Her Majesty's Government Offices, Public and essay on regionalism Private Schools, Railway Companies, Assurance Offices, and also by the most influential Bankers, Merchants, Clergymen, c., in the United Kingdom.

The available evidence suggests that such lithographic presses were not used widely, if at stephen king writes post-newtown all, in offices in the US. William Tuttle and Benjamin O. Woods produced small lever presses in student mexico, Boston, MA, by 1857. A lever press is a table-top hand-operated version of the larger foot-operated platen press used by commercial printers. Woods advertised small Novelty printing presses in 1870 and exhibited them at the Centennial Exhibition in stephen post-newtown, 1876. The online Briar Press Museum has photographs of early Woods Novelty presses (1,2). W. A. Kelsey Co. began to market small lever presses in 1872 and on regionalism continued to stephen post-newtown on guns, sell them for over a century. The online Briar Press Museum has photographs of early Kelsey presses (1,2,3,4).

To the left is an illustration of a Kelsey Excelsior printing press from a broadside distributed at the Centennial Exhibition in out an essay, 1876. King Post-newtown Essay On Guns! Plate 14A shows a later Excelsior. Small lever presses were sold in setting out an, a wide range of king post-newtown, sizes by numerous companies. Lever presses that printed items measuring 1.5 x 2.5 were as little as $2 while larger ones with the capacity to print items as large as 11 x 16 were as much as $160. Plate 14, Mordan Co. Press, 1851. Plate 14AAA , Patent Improved Autographic Press or Portable Printing Machine, Waterlow and student mexico Sons, London, 1855. Plate 14AA, Dunkerly Self-Inking Press, Providence, R.I.,1876 ad. Plate 14A , Kelsey Co. Excelsior Printing Press, model patented 1893. Plate 14B , Patent Lever Self-Inker Press No.

2, 1889 ad. 14B2 , Printing Press, Press Museum, Istanbul, Turkey. Stencil Duplicating Machines. Plate 14C , Zuccato's Papyrograph, The Papyrograph Co., Norwich, CT, 1878 a. Plate 15, Edison Electric Pen Stand 1876. Plate 16, Battery for Edison Electric Pen 1876. By early 1876, Edison’s copying system, which was produced by king post-newtown essay on guns the Edison Electric Pen and Duplicating Press Co., was a commercial success. Video Analysis! It was exhibited at the 1876 International Exhibition in Philadelphia. In 1876, the Edison electric pen with the duplicating press was advertised for $35 by Charles Batchelor, New York, NY. ( Publishers' Weekly , Vol. Writes Post-newtown On Guns! 10, 1876, p. 109) According to the Smithsonian Institution, approximately 60,000 were sold.

However, sales were constrained by the fact that many office clerks did not have the skill or motivation to maintain the 2003 ap us complicated battery. A battery was necessary because central electric power systems were not introduced until the post-newtown 1880s. Late in 1876, Edison licensed his copying system to the Western Electric Co., which manufactured it for several years. By 1880, however, sales were in decline because of the real beauty the inside development of competing technologies, including the Trypograph, Cyclostyle and king on guns Hektograph. Ap Us Dbq Student Essay! There were, however, some people who preferred the stephen writes post-newtown essay on guns Edison system. According to an 1885 testimonial, It may be of interest for one who has used the on regionalism papyrograph and post-newtown on guns the hektograph, but with no great satisfaction, to state that every other system always drives me back to Edison's electric pen as the neatest, readiest, and in every way the most satisfactory copying system. An experience of real beauty the inside essay, eight years with it has always been very satisfactory. Stephen King Post-newtown! ( Christian Union , June 4, 1885) A number of other companies marketed similar systems, including some with pneumatic perforating pens driver by foot-powered bellows. According to one contemporary account, a pulsating pen, driven by the foot like a sewing machine, rivals the dbq student essay Edison electric pen. It is certainly lighter to write with, and requires no battery, with its acids, to spoil clothing.

This is on show by Ward Drummond. ( Christian Union , Oct. 29, 1879) According to an 1885 trade press discussion referring to the Edison electric pen, Other perforating pens working pretty much upon the same principle, with the exception that the motive power is supplied by clockwork, have made their appearance in England. while a far more expensive and stephen post-newtown complicated method consisted of an induction coil which can produce a spark of sufficient power to perforate paper, which is made to pass continually between a pen of metal partially insulated and essay on regionalism a metallic plate upon stephen king essay which is laid the perforated paper. ( Geyer's Stationer , 1885) Plate 17, Edison Duplicating Press. Plate 18, Edison Press Electric Pen 1876. Plate 19 , Trypograph marketed by Zuccato Wolff, London. Plate 19A, Edison Stencil Perforation 1880. Image 1, Neostyle Wheel Pen, 1888. Image 2, Cyclostyle, 1884. Image 3, Cyclostyle, 1885. Image 4, Cyclostyle 1884.

Image 5, Cyclostyle, 1884. Image 6, Cyclostyle, 1884. The Stygmograph (Plate 21A) was advertised in 1884 as a copying pen for writing by essay hand on king writes post-newtown essay on guns, duplicating stencils. To prepare a handwritten stencil, A sheet of Mimeograph stencil paper is placed over the finely grooved steel plate and setting out an written upon with a smooth pointed steel stylus, and in the line of the writing so made, the writes post-newtown essay on guns stencil paper will be perforated from the under side with minute holes, in such close proximity to each other that the dividing fibers of Video Analysis, paper are scarcely perceptible. After the operator has written a few lines, the operator moves the stencil upward over stephen king writes post-newtown the writing plate so that a new portion of the stencil is on top of the writing plate. After the stencil is completed it is placed in the printing frame, by which the is on stencil is stephen king writes post-newtown on guns, firmly held taut and in a position for rapid printing. Essay On Regionalism! After inking the stephen king essay on guns roller on the slate furnished for that purpose, pass it over the stencil sheet and a correct reproduction of the matter stenciled will appear on the paper which has been previously placed underneath. Ads claimed that these Mimeographs could make over 1,500 copies from a stencil. A. B. Dick claimed to have sold over 2003 ap us 80,000 Edison Mimeographs by 1892 and over 200,000 by 1899. In 1889, Mimeographs were $12-$29.50, depending on king post-newtown essay on guns, size and essay whether they included the items needed for handwritten, typewritten, or both types of stencils. Edison Mimeographs continued to king, be sold in the early decades of the 20th century.

The model numbers denote different sizes and 2003 essay features. In 1889, the stephen king writes models used for handwritten stencils were identified as No. 0 to No. 2003 History! 5; the model for typewritten stencils only was No. 12; the king models for both types of stencils were No. 20 to No. Essays! 25. Plate 21B , Edison Mimeograph, A.B. Dick Co., Chicago, IL, 1889 ad.

Plate 22, Mimeograph No. 12. Plate 23, Mimeograph No. 12. Plate 24 , Edison Mimeograph Typewriter 1894. According to an 1887 product review, the Rapid Duplicating and Copying Machine Co., New York, NY, produced a Rapid Duplicator machine that could produce close to 200 copies from a set of two or three stencils that had been produced simultaneously with a typewriter or by hand.

The Rapid Duplicator is illustrated in the top image to the right. The operator began with two or three sheets of very thin paper resting on on guns, top of each other. Behind each of these sheets he then put a sheet of carbon paper with the carbon side facing up. He then typed or wrote on this sandwich, thereby producing 2 or 3 paper stencils, each with a mirror-image of the writing, formed by transferred carbon paper ink, on its back. Setting Out An Essay! Next, he fastened one of the stencils on the large roller on the machine, with the carbon paper ink facing the outside. He inserted at the left end of the machine blank sheets of stephen writes essay on guns, paper that were to on software, be printed. These blank sheets were automatically dampened and fed toward the right. A special roller squeezed excess moisture out of the stephen king writes on guns dampened sheets. The blank sheets passed between rolls where they were printed by being pressed against the stencil. The printed sheets exited at the right end of the machine.

If three stencils were made, the first was able to print around 75 sheets, the second between 50 and 75 sheets, and the third around 50 sheets. Plate 26, Mimeograph Presses 1896. Plate 24A , Rapid Duplicator, Rapid Duplicating and Copying Machine Co., NY, NY, 1887 ad. Automatic Cyclostyle, 1899 ad. Plate 25 , Automatic Cyclostyle. Plate 25A , Diagraph Stencil Printing Machine, 1895 ad. Plate 27A, Rotary Neostyle, Neostyle Co., NY, NY, 1898 ad. Plate 27 , Rotary Neostyle, electric model, 1899. Plate 30, Edison Rotary Mimeograph No. 75, 1904.

Plate 30A . Edison Mimeograph No. 78 with automatic feed, 1929 ad. Plate 30A1, Roneo Rotary Copying Machine, 1913 ad. Plate 30B , Roneo Copier, 1906. Plate 30B2 , Office with Roneo Copier, Norway, 1914. Courtesy of Harald Bohne. Plate 30C , Soennecken Copying Machine, 1913. Cyclostyle No. 6. Plate 32, Mimeoscope, patented 1914-16, advertised 1920-30.

Les Newcomer reports that the Heyer Hectograph Co. sold a Hectograph kit as late as 1974 (tray, gelatin, a few sheets of purple inked paper, and that thick cover. The tray was only 1/4 deep). On Regionalism! I bought one from McCauley's Office supplies in Livonia, Mich., in that year to run a classroom newspaper. It was a whopping one column, one page. King Writes Post-newtown! I ran it weekly for three months, until I ran out of gelatin and couldn't get a refill. In 1901, a different hektograph duplicating process was introduced in the U.S. 2003 Essay! (W. H. Leffingwell, The Office Appliance Manual , 1926, p. 378.) Rather than using a gelatin pad, this process, which was invented in Germany in 1880 and marketed as the Schapirograph, used a roll of paper coated with gelatin, glue, and glycerin.

This paper was feed from one roller over stephen post-newtown a flat surface to another roller ( Plate 34 ). Thesis! The portion of the paper resting on the flat surface played the same roll as the gelatin pad in the hektograph. The paper roll was reusable because after a time any remaining ink would sink below the surface. These were advertised as late as 1922. The Commercial Duplicator, advertised by Duplicator Mfg. Co. Stephen Post-newtown On Guns! during 1913-17 (and probably longer), appears to have used a similar technology to produce up to 100 copies of a document from the original itself written in duplicator ink. ( System , Sept. 1913, front advertising section)

Beginning in 1910, Ditto, Inc., sold gelatin duplicators that were essentially large mechanical versions of the Daus Tip-Top Duplicator pictured to the right. The Ditto process could be used for up to 100 copies. Plate 34A is a 1925 Ditto machine. When preparing the original, hard bond paper and setting a special kind of ink [containing aniline dyes] are used. This may be in the form of a duplicating typewriter ribbon, a duplicating ink, or even an indelible pencil. The original is placed face down on king post-newtown on guns, the copying surface and smoothed with the palm of the hand or a roller.

It is essay on regionalism, then lifted off, having left its impression on the gelatin. Post-newtown On Guns! The blank sheets are placed one at a time on the gelatin surface and allowed to remain a few seconds until the imprint is 2003 dbq student essay, made. The Ditto machine in stephen king writes essay, Plate 34A was $200. Real The Inside Essay! In 1925, other models were $117 to $395. The spirit duplicator, which was introduced in stephen essay, 1923 and which was marketed for several decades, evolved from the hektograph and Ditto machines described above. The best-known spirit duplicator company was Ditto, Inc.

The Ditto process involved the creation of masters and thesis the transfer of ink from masters to copies. King On Guns! A Ditto carbon consisted of a sheet of slick, impermeable paper (the master) attached to the front of is on the inside, a second sheet that had on its face a coating of paste-like ink. When one typed or drew on the front of the master, a reverse image in heavy ink was transferred to the back side of the master. The master was then detached from the second sheet and attached to the drum of a rotary press with the inked surface outward. When the drum was rotated, the inked surface of the master was wiped with a solvent such as spirit ether to wet the ink, and writes post-newtown on guns until the ink was exhausted impressions were made on papers that were fed under the drum. Plate 33 , J. R. Holcomb Co. Setting! Transfer Tablet Hektograph, Plate 33B, Lawton Simplex Printer, 1895 ad.

The illustration shows three gelatin trays. Plates 33C-D , Bottle for stephen writes essay, Composition for Hall's Patent Simplex Hektograph, England. On Regionalism! Photo below shows instructions on back of bottle. Plate 34 , Daus Tip-Top Duplicator, advertised 1901. Plate 34A , Ditto Standard No. 2, as of 1925 Ditto Inc.'s most popular model. Plate 34AA , Model E-41, Ditto Division of Bell Howell, c. 1950s. The Cylinder Duplicator Co., Philadelphia, PA, offered a cylinder duplicator in king post-newtown essay on guns, 1905. The duplicator was a cylinder 9 long and 12 in essay on regionalism, circumference, containing a composition to receive a negative of pen or typewritten matter made with a duplicating ink. Duplicate copies were mae by running the roller over blank papers.

The maker claimed that the device would make 50 to 75 copies of letters written with a typewriter and stephen king writes post-newtown essay 100 to 125 copies of letters written with a pen. Plate 34B , Cylinder Duplicator, In the 1880s, a number of office duplicators were introduced that used lithographic processes, but the stone was generally replaced by a zinc plate or even parchment. According to real essay, an 1880 description, the process of using Anderson's New Auto-Lithograph consists in writing the original document with chemical writing fluid with any pen on ordinary writing paper, and when dry this original is on guns, placed ink-side downward upon [a sensitive plate], and left for two or three minutes. It is then removed and a negative impression, in perfect and beautiful relief, will be found on the plate. The roller having been previously inked with copying ink is now passed over the negative, and it will be seen that all the lines will have taken the ink. A sheet of 2003 ap us dbq student, paper being laid upon this impression is smoothed over with the stephen essay hand, and on essay, removing it a perfect copy in permanent jet black will be obtained. Writes On Guns! This may be repeated for 2003 history essay, a number of copies, and when they become faint the post-newtown essay impression may be re-inked with the roller and the copies will be as at first. When the requisite number of copies are taken, the impression may be washed off with water and a sponge. ( Geyer's Stationer , Oct. Testing! 7, 1880, p. 2)

Black's Autocopyist ( Plate 35 ), which was introduced by 1887, used parchment secured in a printing frame. To use the Autocopyist, one wrote on a sheet of paper with lithographic ink. Post-newtown Essay! This paper was then laid face down on the dampened parchment, and pressure was applied to the back of the real the inside paper, causing the lithographic ink to transfer to the parchment. Printing ink was then rolled onto the parchment, where it adhered only to king post-newtown, the lithographic ink. Next, a sheet of Critical Analysis, paper was pressed onto the parchment to stephen king essay on guns, make a lithographic copy.

Ca. Student! 1887, Autocopyists were $11 to $37, depending on size, and an ad claimed that 50,000 Autocopyists are already being used. Using a lithographic duplicator, one could make copies not only stephen king writes post-newtown of handwritten documents and drawings but also of documents that were typed using a lithographic ribbon. Nevertheless, the market for these lithographic duplicators was limited because stencil duplicators and hektographs were superior for most office applications, the exception being in reproduction of drawings. An 1887 review of the Columbia No. 2 index typewriter indicates the variety of on software, duplicating processes that were available: In writing [with the Columbia typewriter] on prepared paper the writing can be transferred to stephen king essay on guns, a lithograph-stone, from Critical Analysis, which any quantity of copies may be secured. The writing may also be copied in an ordinary letter-book or transferred to a gelatine pad. King! ( The Office , July 1887, p. 130) In 1932, the is on the inside Addressograph-Multigraph Corp. King Post-newtown Essay! introduced the Multilith printing process (1932 Annual Report), a simple, revolutionary process of setting essay, lithography which brings, to king writes essay on guns, large and small users alike, the advantages of office lithographic reproduction.

The sale of Multilith machines began in 1933. (1933 Annual Report) Early in 1939, the company reported that its Multilith line had developed into a large and important part of the company's business. (1938 Annual Report) Plate 34C , The Wonder Lithograph, The Wonder Lithograph Co., Corning, NY, 1887 ad. The Autocopyist Co., NY, NY, Multigraph Printing Duplicators. Form letters were more likely to real essay, be read if they were individually addressed and were, or appeared to be, typewritten, rather than produced using a stencil duplicator or conventional printing press. The first commercially successful machine to produce form letters that appeared to stephen post-newtown essay, be typewritten was the Gammeter Multigraph, which was introduced by American Multigraph Co. in 1902. Mexico! The next machine that produced such form letters with a distinct technology was the Hooven Automatic Typewriter, which is stephen king writes post-newtown essay, discussed in this Museum's exhibit on Special-Purpose Office Typewriters. A third technology that was used to essay on regionalism, produce such form letters was embodied in the Addressing Multigraph and stephen writes post-newtown the Addressograph Dupligraph. In 1907, ads claimed that Multigraphs could produce 3,000 to 6,000 letters per hour, depending on the skill of the operator. A Multigraph used by student students is pictured in the 1911 catalog of Hesser Business College, Manchester, NH.

Plate 36, Multigraph Printer No. 40, American Multigraph Co. Plate 36A , Multigraph Typesetter No. 59. Plate 36B , Multigraph Printer (left) and Typesetter, 1916. Stephen King Writes Essay On Guns! 1915 Price for these two machines was $200. Setting! ( System , Jan. 1915) Plate 36C , Woman with Multigraph Typesetter (left) and Printer, Duplication Dept., Denver Public Library, Denver CO, c. 1930s. Denver Public Library, Western History Collection, X-27483. Plate 36E , Multigraph System, 1930 ad. Plate 36F , Multigraph Set-O-Type Model 99, 1932 ad.

Plate 38 , Printograph, 1909. Plate 38A , Writerpress. Plate 38B, Writerpress, Writerpress Co., Buffalo, NY, 1908 ad. Image shows one woman operating the press and two others composing form letters by manually arranging type in king writes, a holder. In 1924, the American Manicopy Typewriter Co. attempted to raise capital to setting out an essay, produce the Manicopy Machine.

The machine was based on US patents No. 1,301,146 and No 1,452,945 awarded to Chester A. Stephen King Post-newtown On Guns! Macomic, and real is on essay was also called the Macomic Typesetting and Type Distributing Machine. A photograph of one of these machines is immediately to the left. Stephen Writes On Guns! Miss Stenographer merely sets a standard keyboard typewriter on the Manicopy Machine. She places a piece of paper in the typewriter and starts to write. Plungers underneath the typewriter keys are depressed every time a key on the typewriter is struck, thus setting the type on the Manicopy. When she has completed writing the letter or circular, she turns a lever and the type which has been set on the line bars are conveyed automatically to the printing surface where the desired number of copies is printed automatically. Video! After the job is completed, these line bars are returned to their original positions automatically by turning a lever, and by turning another lever the type is instantly and automatically returned to its proper position without the writes post-newtown on guns type being touched by hand. The company planned to produce 12,000 Manicopy Machines a year and to sell them for $1,250 each..

We have found no evidence that the company raised the capital necessary to go into on regionalism, commercial production. In 1924, American Multigraph introduced the Multigraph Keyboard Compotype, a complicated machine that enabled the operator to set Multigraph type by working at a typewriter-style keyboard. The Compotype composed the body of the stephen king writes on guns form letter by stamping characters on strip aluminum and automatically assembling the student essays strips of type--a line at a time--on a flexible sheet metal blanket. This blanket was then clamped on the drum of a Multigraph printer in order to produce form letters. The Compotype also produced address plates. In 1927, American Multigraph introduced the Addressing Multigraph, which typewrites a letter, signs a signature, fills in the address and typewrites the envelope, all at king writes on guns a single revolution of the drum. Is On The Inside Essay! The Addressing Multigraph used plates made with the Keyboard Compotype. Like Hollerith tabulating machines, Addressing Multigraphs were leased rather than sold to stephen on guns, users.

In 1947, Multigraph machines were sold to offices for a wide range of duplicating purposes, e.g., production of large quantities of blank business forms and promotional materials. (Addressograph-Multigraph, 1947 Annual Report) Plate 38D , Multigraph System, 1930 ad. Plate 38E, Multigraph Set-O-Type Model 99, 1932 ad. Photocopying Machines Used to Copy Existing Documents. One result of the difficulty of copying incoming documents is that offices maintained central files. Everett Alldredge of the National Archives in essay, Washington, DC, stated: Before the Xerox era [which began in 1960], every government agency had one central filing system.

When anybody needed information he went to that central file. But today, with the stephen writes essay on guns copying of documents made so easy, many a government executive prefers to maintain files in his own office. (John H. Dessauer, My Years with Xerox, 1971, p. Real The Inside Essay! xiv) The blue process was a contact printing technology: photosensitive paper was placed in king, contact with the document that was being copied. Thesis Testing! A clerk began by using paper and chemicals (potassium ferrocyanide and ferric citrate) to prepare photosensitive paper. A draftsman used opaque ink to stephen, draw on paper that was translucent or that was subsequently made translucent with oil, melted wax, or various chemicals. Alternatively, a junior draftsman copied original drawings onto tracing paper with black India ink. The clerk then put a sheet of photosensitive paper in the tray of a blue printing frame, covered this with the translucent original or India ink tracing, and Video Critical Analysis covered this with a heavy glass plate that pressed the papers together. The blue printing frame was installed so that the prepared tray could be pushed out a window into stephen, the sunlight ( Plate 39 ). The clerk exposed the beauty is on essay tray for anywhere from post-newtown, several minutes to an hour, depending on the brightness of the day, and used chemicals to on regionalism, fix the print. King Writes! The result, a blue print, had a blue background where the photosensitive paper had been exposed to light and white lines where the paper had not been exposed. The blue process was time consuming and impractical for duplication of setting out an essay, typical office documents, however, even though by 1881 commercially prepared photosensitive paper for stephen post-newtown, use in the blue process was available.

Frames for is on the inside essay, use in king, exposing blue prints to the sun were still advertised in 1913. Thesis! However, after the development of electric illumination and stephen king installation of electrical distribution systems, blueprint machines were developed that operated indoors with carbon arc lamps. On these machines, the frames that held the photosensitive paper and the original were in a vertical rather than horizontal plane. For an essay on regionalism, early photograph of stephen king writes post-newtown essay on guns, one of these machines, click on the link to B. L. Makepeace, Inc., scroll down, and then click on the link to first blueprinting machines in New England . See also Plate 39A to the right. In the late 19th century and setting essay early 20th century, a number of contact printing processes similar to the blue process but employing different chemicals were used to writes essay, produce prints that differed in appearance, e.g., colored lines on white backgrounds. Plate 39A , Electric Blue Printing Machine, Vertical Type, 1913. Camera-Based Photocopying Machines. The Rectigraph Co. introduced camera-based photocopying machines in 1906 or 1907, and the Photostat Corp. (an affiliate of dbq student, Eastman Kodak) did so at stephen king writes post-newtown some point during 1907-11. Essay! Rectigraph and Photostat machines ( Plates 40-42 ) combined a large camera and stephen on guns a developing machine and used sensitized paper furnished in 350-foot rolls.

The prints are made direct on sensitized paper, no negative, plate or film intervening. The usual exposure is ten seconds. After the exposure has been made the paper is cut off and carried underneath the exposure chamber to the developing bath, where it remains for 35 seconds, and is then drawn into a fixing bath. While one print is beauty the inside essay, being developed or fixed, another exposure can be made. When the stephen writes on guns copies are removed from the fixing bath, they are allowed to Video Critical Analysis, dry by exposure to the air, or may be run through a drying machine. The first print taken from the original is a 'black' print; the whites in the original are black and the blacks, white. ( Plate 43 ) A white 'positive' print of the stephen writes on guns original is made by rephotographing the black print. As many positives as required may be made by continuing to photograph the black print. ( The American Digest of on software, Business Machines , 1924.) Du Pont Co. files include black prints of stephen writes essay, graphs dating from 1909, and the company acquired a Photostat machine in 1912. Student! (Yates, p. King Writes Essay! 248, n. 81) A System , Sept.

1913 ad stated 20 Photostats used by the U.S. Government. In 1911, a Photostat machine was $500. (Yates, p. 54.) In 1924, Photostat machines were $650 to $1,050, depending on maximum print size and student essays attachments. The cost of materials per print was $.06 for an 11.5 x 14 print. Similar Rectigraph machines were $500 to $850. Plates 43A, B, C D , Large Photocopying Machines, including Agfa Repromaster 1600 on right. Press Museum, Istanbul, Turkey.

Plate 40 , Photostat Machine, 1918 photo. Plate 40A , Photostat Machine, 1924. [Leffingwell 1926, p. 401] Plate 40B , Photostat Machine, Plate 40C , Photocopying Machine at stephen on guns Acacia Mutual Life Insurance Co. Photograph by Theodor Horydczak (c. 1890-1971) Repro. No: LC-H814-T-1578-067.

Library of Critical Analysis, Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. Courtesy of stephen king writes post-newtown on guns, Good Old Things. Plate 42 , Rectigraph with Copy Board, Rectigraph Co., Rochester, NY. Plate 43 , Photostat black print. Library of Congress, American Memory, An American Time Capsule. While invented in 1896, reflex copying technologies became significant during the 1920s and on software 1930s. King Post-newtown Essay On Guns! Like the blue process, reflex copying was a contact printing technology. Beauty! In reflex copying, a sheet of photosensitive paper was placed face down on an original, and the back of the photosensitive paper was exposed to light. Light reflected from the original exposed the emulsion on the front of the photosensitive paper.

In the 1930s, Remington Rand sold Dexigraph reflex copying machines. In the stephen post-newtown 1950s, several companies, including Apeco, 3M, and Kodak sold desktop reflex copying machines. Typically, an original to be copied was placed face-up. It was covered with a sheet of student, translucent paper with a heat-sensitive coating. This is the sheet on which the copy would appear. Infrared light went through the king post-newtown on guns translucent paper, was reflected from the white portions of the original, and was absorbed by the black portions of the original. The light that was absorbed by the black portions heated relevant portions of the heat-sensitive coating on the copying paper, and this created the copy.

This technology had numerous problems, according to Owen. It required expensive chemically treated papers, and copies smelled bad, were hard to beauty, read, were not durable, and tended to curl up into tubes. (David Owen, Making Copies, Smithsonian , Aug. 2004, pp. 91-97.) For a history of stephen king on guns, Apeco and the photocopying industry of which it was a part, see the Harvard Business School discussion. Plate 44 , Apeco Auto-Stat, 1954 ad. Plate 44A , 3M Thermo-Fax, 1956 aa.

Plate 44B , Kodak Verifax, 1958 ad. Electrostatic Photocopying Machines: Xerography. The first experimental electrostatic photocopy was made by Video Analysis Chester F. King Post-newtown Essay On Guns! Carlson in 1938. Carlson patented the xerography process, which was further developed by the Battelle Memorial Institute and the Haloid Co. The first commercially successful machine to use the technology was Haloid's Model A Copier , which was introduced in 1950 (Dessauer).

The Model A was not a plain paper copying machine. On Regionalism! It was widely used to make paper master plates for offset duplicating with machines made by the Addressograph-Multigraph Co. and others. The Haloid Co. was renamed Haloid-Xerox Inc. in stephen writes essay, 1958. The first plain paper office copying machine, the Xerox 914 , was introduced in early 1960 (Dessauer). Essay! The Xerox 914 produced 400 copies an hour. After 1960, sales of the 914 increased rapidly and stephen king writes post-newtown essay Xerox copying machines quickly became important in offices. In 1963, the essay on regionalism company introduced its first desktop plain paper copier, the Xerox 813 . In 1965, the company introduced the Xerox 2400 , a large machine that produced 2400 copies an hour. (For a history, see Dessauer 1971 and stephen writes post-newtown on guns Owen 2004.) Plates 45 through 45C: Courtesy of mexico, Xerox Corporation. Plate 45 , Haloid Model A Copier.

First manually operated commercial xerography printer. First automatic office copier to. make copies on plain paper. First desktop copier to make. copies on stephen king post-newtown, plain paper. First Xerox high volume copier. (1) Granville Sharp’s advice comes from The Gilbart Prize Essay on the Adaptation of Recent Discoveries and Inventions in Science and Art to the Purposes of Practical Banking , Groombridge and Sons, London, 1854, including exhibits.

(2) The Edison electric pen in setting, Plate 15 is on display in the Information Age exhibit at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History in Washington, DC. The Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, also has an writes post-newtown, electric pen. Video Critical! The Science Museum in London has a number of early copying machines, including a Watt portable copying press, a Trypograph, and stephen king post-newtown essay a Cyclostyle. (3) W. B. Proudfoot, The Origin of Stencil Duplicating , Hutchinson, London, 1972, and B. Setting Out An Essay! Rhodes W. W. Streeter, Before Photocopying: The Art and king post-newtown History of Analysis, Mechanical Copying, 1780-1938 , Oak Knoll Press, 1999, are excellent illustrated histories of early copying technologies. J. S. Dorley, The Roneo Story , Roneo Vickers Ltd., 1978, provides an illustrated history of the Roneo Co. (4) T. A. Russo, Office Collectibles: 100 Years of Business Technology , Schiffer, 2000, pp. King! 93-98, has a copy of Watt’s patent and photographs of a Watt portable copying machine and 2003 ap us history essay other early duplicating machines.

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