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Anna Laetitia Barbauld Critical Essays. Anna Laetitia Barbauld 1743-1825. English poet, essayist, editor, and essay ending, children's writer. An eminent literary figure of the late eighteenth and earlier nineteenth centuries, Barbauld was known and admired by many prominent writers of essay state, her time, among them William and Dorothy Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Frances Burney, Hannah More, and Elizabeth Montagu. Essay Ending! After her death she was remembered primarily for her writings for memoir personal children, but during the last quarter of the twentieth century, literary critics have begun to essay ending turn their attention to the essays, poems, and editorial work that helped secure her literary reputation among her contemporaries. Born Anna Laetitia Aikin in Leicestershire, Barbauld was the daughter of John Aikin, a Dissenting minister and headmaster of our town essay, a boys' school, and his wife, Jane Jennings. Educated at home by her father, she studied Latin and Greek as well as modern languages. In 1758, her father took up a teaching position at Warrington Academy for Dissenters.
Barbauld lived at Warrington for the next fifteen years, making the acquaintance of such prominent liberal intellectuals as Joseph Priestly, who also taught at the Academy, and ending, Josiah Wedgwood. In 1772 she published several of her poems in a collection of essays by her brother, the physician John Aikin. The first collection of her poetry appeared in 1773; the mphil relations, same year, she and John published a volume of their essays entitled Miscellaneous Pieces in Prose. In 1774 she married Rochemont Barbauld, a clergyman educated at Warrington, and ending, soon thereafter they adopted one of her nephews. Their marriage appears to have been one of considerable mutual affection and esteem, overshadowed in later years by Rochemont's increasing mental instability. Together they opened a successful academy for boys in essay for salem university, Sussex, where Barbauld taught language and science to the younger students. While continuing to write and publish poetry, she also published several immensely popular volumes of lessons and prose pieces for young children. In 1785, citing ill health, the Barbaulds closed the school; the following year, they settled in Hempstead, where Rochemont headed a small congregation. A number of Barbauld's political essays and ending question, poems were written here; she also undertook an increasing amount of our town essay, editorial and critical work. In 1802 the Barbaulds moved to essay Stoke Newington, where Anna Laetitia's brother also lived.
Rochemont's mental condition continued to worsen, and on several occasions he tried to attack his wife. In 1808 he drowned, an apparent suicide. Barbauld continued to write until her death, though she published little after the first decade of the hr cover salary, nineteenth century. She died in Stoke Newington in 1825. Barbauld's poetry represents a wide variety of subjects and modes, including odes, satires, riddles, and hymns. Many of her poems draw their subjects and themes from the everyday matters of ending, domestic life; these include To Mr.
Barbauld (1778), a celebration of love and friendship in marriage; the mock-heroic Washing Day (1797); and Life, a later poem that meditates on memoir essays life, old age, and encroaching death. She also wrote on political subjects, often emphasizing the essay ending, importance of personal and memoir personal essays, political freedom. Her early poem Corsica (1769) praises the spirit of question, Corsican nationalists in their long and ultimately unsuccessful battle for independence from oxford thesis France. The long poem Epistle to William Wilberforce (1791) expresses her firmly abolitionist stance, while Eighteen Hundred and Eleven (1812) predicts the decline of Great Britain as a world power. Her liberal political convictions were also expressed in a number of widely read pamphlets. In 1790 she published An Address to the Opposers of the Repeal of the Corporation and essay ending question, Test Acts, a spirited attack on Parliament's refusal to revoke laws that limited the rights of citizens who were not members of the Established Church. Sins of mphil thesis, Government, Sins of the Nation (1793), written in opposition to Britain's war with France, affirmed the duty of citizens to resist immoral acts by their government. Of her several collections of prose pieces for children, the most enduring was Hymns in essay ending question, Prose for Children (1781), which remained popular into state university, the early years of the twentieth century. Sentimental, didactic, but elegantly wrought, her works for children set a new standard of writing for young readers. In the final twenty-five years of her life, much of essay question, her work was editorial in nature.
She is particularly noted for letter with requirements editing Samuel Richardson's correspondence (1804) and a fifty-volume set of novels by British authors entitled The British Novelists (1810). Her introduction to the set and essay ending, her essays on individual authors represent significant early literary and historical criticism of the novel. Hr Cover! Barbauld's writing, particularly her poetry, was greatly admired by her contemporaries, and she was acknowledged throughout her lifetime as one of the leading intellectuals of her era. Yet by the late nineteenth century, she had come to be viewed as something of a footnote in literary history whose only lasting contribution was in the area of children's literature. Essay Question! Modern critics generally ascribe this rapid decline in essays, her literary reputation to late nineteenth and early twentieth century prejudices against the poetry of the essay ending, eighteenth century and against female authors. Critical interest in Barbauld began to revive in the 1970s, when scholars Paul Zall, Samuel Pickering, and Porter Williams suggested that many of the themes and images of the Romantic poets William Wordsworth and William Blake reflect their familiarity with Barbauld's writings for children. Since the mid-1980s, growing interest in writing by women has supported renewed attention to the larger canon of Barbauld's work.
Ann Messenger and Marlon Ross have investigated relationships between gender and writing in her poetry, while Catherine E. Moore and Katharine M. Rogers have examined her contributions to the history and theory of the novel. The first modern edition of Barbauld's poems appeared in 1994.
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nature writing essay A subtle chain of ending question, countless rings. The next unto the personal essays, farthest brings; The eye reads omens where it goes, And speaks all languages the ending, rose; And, striving to be man, the worm. Mounts through all the spires of form. Introduction Our age is retrospective. Racing Essay. It builds the ending question, sepulchres of the fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and criticism.
The foregoing generations beheld God and nature face to face; we, through their eyes. Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and our town essay, not of tradition, and a religion by revelation to us, and essay ending, not the history of theirs? Embosomed for a season in nature, whose floods of life stream around and through us, and invite us by the powers they supply, to action proportioned to nature, why should we grope among the dry bones of the past, or put the living generation into masquerade out of its faded wardrobe? The sun shines to-day also. There is more wool and flax in the fields. There are new lands, new men, new thoughts. Let us demand our own works and laws and worship.
Undoubtedly we have no questions to ask which are unanswerable. We must trust the perfection of the creation so far, as to believe that whatever curiosity the order of things has awakened in our minds, the order of things can satisfy. Every man's condition is a solution in hieroglyphic to those inquiries he would put. He acts it as life, before he apprehends it as truth. In like manner, nature is already, in racing essay its forms and essay ending question, tendencies, describing its own design. Let us interrogate the great apparition, that shines so peacefully around us. Let us inquire, to our town essay what end is ending nature?
All science has one aim, namely, to find a theory of nature. We have theories of races and of functions, but scarcely yet a remote approach to an idea of creation. We are now so far from the road to truth, that religious teachers dispute and hate each other, and with salary, speculative men are esteemed unsound and frivolous. But to essay a sound judgment, the most abstract truth is the most practical. Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is, that it will explain all phenomena. Now many are thought not only unexplained but inexplicable; as language, sleep, madness, dreams, beasts, sex. Philosophically considered, the universe is composed of Nature and the Soul. Strictly speaking, therefore, all that is separate from us, all which Philosophy distinguishes as the essay for salem state, NOT ME, that is, both nature and art, all other men andmy own body, must be ranked under this name, NATURE. In enumerating the values of nature and casting up their sum, I shall use the word in both senses; -- in its common and in its philosophical import. In inquiries so general as our present one, the inaccuracy is essay not material; no confusion of our town essay, thought will occur.
Nature, in the common sense, refers to essences unchanged by man; space, the air, the river, the essay ending, leaf. Art is applied to the mixture of his will with the same things, as in our town essay a house, a canal, a statue, a picture. But his operations taken together are so insignificant, a little chipping, baking, patching, and washing, that in an impression so grand as that of the world on ending question, the human mind, they do not vary the result. Chapter I NATURE To go into solitude, a man needs to retire as much from his chamber as from society. I am not solitary whilst I read and write, though nobody is with me. But if a man would be alone, let him look at the stars.
The rays that come from those heavenly worlds, will separate between him and what he touches. One might think the atmosphere was made transparent with this design, to give man, in the heavenly bodies, the perpetual presence of the sublime. Seen in personal essays the streets of cities, how great they are! If the stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how would men believe and adore; and preserve for many generations the remembrance of the city of God which had been shown! But every night come out these envoys of beauty, and question, light the universe with their admonishing smile.
The stars awaken a certain reverence, because though always present, they are inaccessible; but all natural objects make a kindred impression, when the mind is open to our town essay their influence. Nature never wears a mean appearance. Neither does the wisest man extort her secret, and lose his curiosity by finding out all her perfection. Nature never became a toy to a wise spirit. The flowers, the ending, animals, the mountains, reflected the wisdom of his best hour, as much as they had delighted the simplicity of his childhood.
When we speak of nature in this manner, we have a distinct but most poetical sense in the mind. We mean the integrity of impression made by mphil international relations manifold natural objects. It is essay this which distinguishes the stick of timber of the wood-cutter, from the tree of the poet. The charming landscape which I saw this morning, is indubitably made up of some twenty or thirty farms. Racing Essay. Miller owns this field, Locke that, and Manning the woodland beyond. But none of them owns the landscape. There is a property in the horizon which no man has but he whose eye can integrate all the parts, that is, the poet. This is the best part of these men's farms, yet to this their warranty-deeds give no title. To speak truly, few adult persons can see nature.
Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. The sun illuminates only the eye of the man, but shines into the eye and the heart of the child. The lover of nature is he whose inward and outward senses are still truly adjusted to each other; who has retained the ending question, spirit of racing essay, infancy even into the era of manhood. His intercourse with heaven and earth, becomes part of his daily food. In the presence of nature, a wild delight runs through the man, in spite of essay, real sorrows. Nature says, -- he is my creature, and maugre all his impertinent griefs, he shall be glad with me.
Not the sun or the summer alone, but every hour and essay state university, season yields its tribute of delight; for essay question every hour and change corresponds to and authorizes a different state of the mind, from breathless noon to memoir personal essays grimmest midnight. Nature is a setting that fits equally well a comic or a mourning piece. In good health, the air is a cordial of incredible virtue. Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. Essay Ending. I am glad to the brink of fear.
In the woods too, a man casts off his years, as the snake his slough, and at what period soever of life, is always a child. Our Town Essay. In the woods, is perpetual youth. Within these plantations of God, a decorum and sanctity reign, a perennial festival is dressed, and the guest sees not how he should tire of them in a thousand years. In the woods, we return to essay ending question reason and faith. Hr Cover Letter With. There I feel that nothing can befall me in life, -- no disgrace, no calamity, (leaving me my eyes,) which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, -- my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space, -- all mean egotism vanishes.
I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God. The name of the nearest friend sounds then foreign and essay, accidental: to be brothers, to be acquaintances, -- master or servant, is then a trifle and a disturbance. I am the lover of uncontained and immortal beauty. In the wilderness, I find something more dear and racing essay, connate than in streets or villages. In the ending question, tranquil landscape, and international relations thesis, especially in ending question the distant line of the horizon, man beholds somewhat as beautiful as his own nature. The greatest delight which the fields and woods minister, is the suggestion of an our town essay occult relation between man and the vegetable. I am not alone and unacknowledged. They nod to me, and I to essay them. Our Town Essay. The waving of the boughs in the storm, is new to me and essay, old. It takes me by surprise, and yet is hr cover letter salary not unknown.
Its effect is like that of a higher thought or a better emotion coming over me, when I deemed I was thinking justly or doing right. Yet it is ending certain that the essay state university, power to produce this delight, does not reside in nature, but in man, or in a harmony of both. It is necessary to use these pleasures with great temperance. For, nature is ending question not always tricked in holiday attire, but the same scene which yesterday breathed perfume and glittered as for the frolic of the nymphs, is overspread with melancholy today. Nature always wears the colors of the spirit. To a man laboring under calamity, the heat of his own fire hath sadness in it. Then, there is a kind of memoir essays, contempt of the landscape felt by him who has just lost by death a dear friend. The sky is less grand as it shuts down over less worth in the population.
Chapter II COMMODITY Whoever considers the essay ending question, final cause of the racing essay, world, will discern a multitude of usesthat result. They all admit of being thrown into one of the following classes; Commodity; Beauty; Language; and Discipline. Under the general name of ending, Commodity, I rank all those advantages which our senses owe to nature. This, of course, is a benefit which is temporary and mediate, not ultimate, like its service to the soul. Yet although low, it is perfect in with salary requirements its kind, and is the only use of nature which all men apprehend. The misery of essay, man appears like childish petulance, when we explore the steady and prodigal provision that has been made for his support and delight on this green ball which floats him through the heavens. What angels invented these splendid ornaments, these rich conveniences, this ocean of air above, this ocean of water beneath, this firmament of earth between? this zodiac of lights, this tent of dropping clouds, this striped coat of climates, this fourfold year? Beasts, fire, water, stones, and corn serve him. The field is at letter with salary requirements once his floor, his work-yard, his play-ground, his garden, and his bed. More servants wait on essay, man. Than he 'll take notice of. ------ Nature, in its ministry to man, is not only the material, but is our town essay also the process and the result.
All the ending question, parts incessantly work into each other's hands for the profit of man. Essay For Salem State. The wind sows the seed; the sun evaporates the sea; the wind blows the vapor to the field; the ice, on the other side of the planet, condenses rain on this; the rain feeds the plant; the plant feeds the ending, animal; and thus the endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man. The useful arts are reproductions or new combinations by the wit of man, of the same natural benefactors. He no longer waits for our town essay favoring gales, but by means of steam, he realizes the fable of Aeolus's bag, and essay ending question, carries the two and thirty winds in the boiler of his boat. To diminish friction, he paves the letter requirements, road with iron bars, and, mounting a coach with a ship-load of men, animals, and merchandise behind him, he darts through the essay ending question, country, from hr cover requirements town to town, like an eagle or a swallow through the air. By the aggregate of these aids, how is the face of the world changed, from the era of Noah to that of Napoleon! The private poor man hath cities, ships, canals, bridges, built for him. He goes to the post-office, and the human race run on his errands; to the book-shop, and the human race read and write of all that happens, for essay ending question him; to the court-house, and nations repair his wrongs.
He sets his house upon the road, and the human race go forth every morning, and shovel out the snow, and cut a path for him. But there is no need of specifying particulars in this class of hr cover, uses. The catalogue is endless, and the examples so obvious, that I shall leave them to ending question the reader's reflection, with the general remark, that this mercenary benefit is one which has respect to a farther good. A man is fed, not that he may be fed, but that he may work. Chapter III BEAUTY A nobler want of man is served by nature, namely, the love of Beauty.
The ancient Greeks called the world , beauty. Such is the constitution of all things, or such the plastic power of the human eye, that the primary forms, as the sky, the mountain, the tree, the animal, give us a delight in and for themselves; a pleasure arising from outline, color, motion, and grouping. This seems partly owing to the eye itself. Hr Cover Salary. The eye is the best of artists. By the mutual action of its structure and of the laws of light, perspective is produced, which integrates every mass of objects, of what character soever, into a well colored and shaded globe, so that where the essay, particular objects are mean and state, unaffecting, the landscape which they compose, is round and symmetrical. And as the eye is the best composer, so light is the first of question, painters. There is no object so foul that intense light will not make beautiful. Essay For Salem. And the stimulus it affords to the sense, and a sort of infinitude which it hath, like space and time, make all matter gay. Even the corpse has its own beauty. But besides this general grace diffused over nature, almost all the individual forms are agreeable to the eye, as is proved by our endless imitations of some of them, as the acorn, the grape, the pine-cone, the wheat-ear, the egg, the wings and forms of most birds, the lion's claw, the serpent, the butterfly, sea-shells, flames, clouds, buds, leaves, and the forms of ending, many trees, as the palm.
For better consideration, we may distribute the university, aspects of essay ending question, Beauty in essay university a threefold manner. 1. First, the essay, simple perception of natural forms is a delight. The influence of the forms and actions in nature, is so needful to man, that, in its lowest functions, it seems to lie on the confines of memoir personal, commodity and beauty. To the body and mind which have been cramped by noxious work or company, nature is medicinal and restores their tone. Ending Question. The tradesman, the attorney comes out of the din and our town essay, craft of the street, and sees the sky and the woods, and ending question, is a man again. In their eternal calm, he finds himself. The health of the eye seems to demand a horizon. We are never tired, so long as we can see far enough. But in other hours, Nature satisfies by essay for salem university its loveliness, and without any mixture of corporeal benefit. I see the question, spectacle of morning from the personal, hill-top over against my house, from ending question day-break to sun-rise, with emotions which an angel might share.
The long slender bars of cloud float like fishes in the sea of crimson light. With. From the earth, as a shore, I look out into that silent sea. I seem to partake its rapid transformations: the active enchantment reaches my dust, and I dilate and conspire with the morning wind. How does Nature deify us with a few and cheap elements! Give me health and a day, and I will make the pomp of emperors ridiculous. The dawn is my Assyria; the sun-set and ending, moon-rise my Paphos, and unimaginable realms of faerie; broad noon shall be my England of the senses and the understanding; the night shall be my Germany of oxford mphil thesis, mystic philosophy and dreams. Not less excellent, except for our less susceptibility in question the afternoon, was the charm, last evening, of a January sunset. The western clouds divided and subdivided themselves into pink flakes modulated with tints of unspeakable softness; and oxford thesis, the air had so much life and sweetness, that it was a pain to come within doors.
What was it that nature would say? Was there no meaning in the live repose of the valley behind the mill, and which Homer or Shakspeare could not reform for me in essay words? The leafless trees become spires of flame in the sunset, with the blue east for their back-ground, and the stars of the dead calices of essay state, flowers, and every withered stem and stubble rimed with frost, contribute something to the mute music. The inhabitants of essay ending question, cities suppose that the country landscape is pleasant only half the mphil thesis, year. I please myself with the graces of the winter scenery, and essay ending question, believe that we are as much touched by it as by the genial influences of summer. To the international thesis, attentive eye, each moment of the ending, year has its own beauty, and in our town essay the same field, it beholds, every hour, a picture which was never seen before, and which shall never be seen again. Essay Ending. The heavens change every moment, and reflect their glory or gloom on the plains beneath. The state of the crop in the surrounding farms alters the expression of the our town essay, earth from week to week. The succession of native plants in the pastures and roadsides, which makes the silent clock by which time tells the summer hours, will make even the divisions of the day sensible to a keen observer. The tribes of essay ending question, birds and insects, like the plants punctual to their time, follow each other, and the year has room for our town essay all. By water-courses, the variety is greater.
In July, the blue pontederia or pickerel-weed blooms in large beds in the shallow parts of our pleasant river, and swarms with yellow butterflies in continual motion. Art cannot rival this pomp of purple and gold. Indeed the essay, river is a perpetual gala, and boasts each month a new ornament. But this beauty of Nature which is seen and felt as beauty, is the least part. The shows of day, the dewy morning, the rainbow, mountains, orchards in about blossom, stars, moonlight, shadows in still water, and the like, if too eagerly hunted, become shows merely, and mock us with their unreality. Go out of the house to see the moon, and ending, 't is mere tinsel; it will not please as when its light shines upon your necessary journey. The beauty that shimmers in the yellow afternoons of October, who ever could clutch it?
Go forth to find it, and it is gone: 't is only a mirage as you look from the windows of diligence. 2. The presence of a higher, namely, of the spiritual element is letter requirements essential to its perfection. The high and divine beauty which can be loved without effeminacy, is that which is found in question combination with the human will. Racing Essay. Beauty is the mark God sets upon essay question virtue. Every natural action is graceful. Every heroic act is also decent, and causes the place and the bystanders to shine. We are taught by great actions that the universe is the property of every individual in it. Every rational creature has all nature for his dowry and estate. It is his, if he will.
He may divest himself of it; he may creep into a corner, and abdicate his kingdom, as most men do, but he is salary requirements entitled to the world by his constitution. In proportion to the energy of his thought and will, he takes up the world into himself. All those things for which men plough, build, or sail, obey virtue; said Sallust. The winds and essay question, waves, said Gibbon, are always on the side of the ablest navigators. So are the hr cover with, sun and moon and all the stars of heaven. When a noble act is done, -- perchance in a scene of great natural beauty; when Leonidas and his three hundred martyrs consume one day in dying, and the sun and moon come each and essay question, look at racing essay them once in question the steep defile of for salem university, Thermopylae; when Arnold Winkelried, in the high Alps, under the shadow of the avalanche, gathers in his side a sheaf of Austrian spears to break the line for his comrades; are not these heroes entitled to add the question, beauty of the essays, scene to the beauty of the deed? When the bark of Columbus nears the shore of America; -- before it, the beach lined with savages, fleeing out of all their huts of cane; the sea behind; and the purple mountains of the Indian Archipelago around, can we separate the man from the living picture? Does not the New World clothe his form with her palm-groves and savannahs as fit drapery? Ever does natural beauty steal in like air, and essay question, envelope great actions.
When Sir Harry Vane was dragged up the Tower-hill, sitting on a sled, to suffer death, as the champion of the mphil international relations thesis, English laws, one of the ending, multitude cried out to him, You never sate on so glorious a seat. Charles II., to intimidate the citizens of London, caused the mphil, patriot Lord Russel to be drawn in an open coach, through the principal streets of the city, on ending question, his way to the scaffold. But, his biographer says, the multitude imagined they saw liberty and virtue sitting by memoir personal his side. In private places, among sordid objects, an ending act of truth or heroism seems at once to draw to hr cover with itself the sky as its temple, the sun as its candle. Nature stretcheth out her arms to embrace man, only essay ending, let his thoughts be of equal greatness. Willingly does she follow his steps with the racing essay, rose and the violet, and bend her lines of grandeur and grace to the decoration of her darling child. Only let his thoughts be of ending question, equal scope, and racing essay, the frame will suit the picture. A virtuous man is in unison with her works, and makes the essay ending, central figure of the visible sphere.
Homer, Pindar, Socrates, Phocion, associate themselves fitly in our memory with the thesis, geography and climate of Greece. The visible heavens and earth sympathize with Jesus. Essay Question. And in common life, whosoever has seen a person of powerful character and happy genius, will have remarked how easily he took all things along with him, -- the persons, the opinions, and the day, and nature became ancillary to essays education a man. 3. There is still another aspect under which the beauty of the world may be viewed, namely, as it become s an object of the intellect. Essay Question. Beside the relation of things to virtue, they have a relation to racing essay thought. The intellect searches out the absolute order of things as they stand in the mind of God, and without the colors of affection. The intellectual and the active powers seem to succeed each other, and the exclusive activity of the one, generates the question, exclusive activity of the other. There is something unfriendly in each to the other, but they are like the alternate periods of feeding and working in animals; each prepares and will be followed by the other. Therefore does beauty, which, in relation to actions, as we have seen, comes unsought, and comes because it is unsought, remain for the apprehension and our town essay, pursuit of the intellect; and then again, in its turn, of the active power. Nothing divine dies.
All good is eternally reproductive. The beauty of nature reforms itself in the mind, and not for ending barren contemplation, but for new creation. All men are in some degree impressed by the face of the world; some men even to essay for salem state university delight. This love of beauty is Taste. Others have the same love in such excess, that, not content with admiring, they seek to embody it in essay ending new forms. The creation of hr cover letter requirements, beauty is Art. The production of a work of art throws a light upon the mystery of humanity. A work of art is an abstract or epitome of the world. It is the result or expression of nature, in miniature. For, although the works of nature are innumerable and all different, the result or the expression of them all is similar and single. Nature is a sea of forms radically alike and essay ending question, even unique.
A leaf, a sun-beam, a landscape, the ocean, make an analogous impression on the mind. What is common to them all, -- that perfectness and harmony, is beauty. The standard of beauty is the entire circuit of natural forms, -- the totality of nature; which the Italians expressed by defining beauty il piu nell' uno. Nothing is quite beautiful alone: nothing but is beautiful in the whole. A single object is only so far beautiful as it suggests this universal grace. The poet, the painter, the sculptor, the musician, the essays about indian, architect, seek each to concentrate this radiance of the world on one point, and question, each in his several work to satisfy the love of beauty which stimulates him to produce. Thus is Art, a nature passed through the alembic of man. Thus in art, does nature work through the will of a man filled with the beauty of her first works. The world thus exists to oxford mphil international thesis the soul to satisfy the desire of ending question, beauty. This element I call an ultimate end. No reason can be asked or given why the soul seeks beauty.
Beauty, in its largest and profoundest sense, is one expression for essays about the universe. Ending. God is the all-fair. Truth, and goodness, and state university, beauty, are but different faces of the same All. But beauty in nature is not ultimate. It is the herald of inward and essay ending question, eternal beauty, and is not alone a solid and satisfactory good. Memoir Personal Essays. It must stand as a part, and not as yet the essay, last or highest expression of the final cause of Nature. Chapter IV LANGUAGE Language is a third use which Nature subserves to man.
Nature is the vehble, and threefold degree. 1. Words are signs of about, natural facts. 2. Particular natural facts are symbols of ending, particular spiritual facts. 3. Nature is the symbol of spirit. 1. Words are signs of natural facts. The use of natural history is to give us aid in supernatural history: the use of the outer creation, to give us language for memoir personal the beings and changes of the inward creation. Every word which is used to essay question express a moral or intellectual fact, if traced to its root, is found to be borrowed from some material appearance. Right means straight ; wrong means twisted . Spirit primarily means wind ; transgression , the crossing of a line ; supercilious , the raising of the racing essay, eyebrow . We say the heart to express emotion, the head to denote thought; and essay question, thought and emotion a re words borrowed from sensible things, and now appropriated to spiritual nature.
Most of the process by which this transformation is hr cover letter with requirements made, is hidden from us in the remote time when language was framed; but the same tendency may be daily observed in children. Children and savages use only nouns or names of things, which they convert into verbs, and apply to analogous mental acts. 2. But this origin of all words that convey a spiritual import, -- so conspicuous a fact in the history of language, -- is our least debt to nature. It is not words only ending, that are emblematic; it is things which are emblematic. Every natural fact is a symbol of some spiritual fact.
Every appearance in nature corresponds to some state of the mind, and that state of the racing essay, mind can only be described by presenting that natural appearance as its picture. An enraged man is a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is a rock, a learned man is a torch. A lamb is ending innocence; a snake is subtle spite; flowers express to us the delicate affections. Light and darkness are our familiar expression for knowledge and ignorance; and our town essay, heat for love. Visible distance behind and essay, before us, is respectively our image of memory and hope. Who looks upon a river in our town essay a meditative hour, and is not reminded of the flux of all things? Throw a stone into the stream, and the circles that propagate themselves are the beautiful type of all influence. Man is conscious of a universal soul within or behind his individual life, wherein, as in a firmament, the natures of Justice, Truth, Love, Freedom, arise and shine. This universal soul, he calls Reason: it is not mine, or thine, or his, but we are its; we are its property and men. And the blue sky in which the private earth is buried, the sky with its eternal calm, and full of everlasting orbs, is the type of Reason. That which, intellectually considered, we call Reason, considered in relation to nature, we call Spirit.
Spirit is the Creator. Spirit hath life in itself. And man in all ages and essay ending question, countries, embodies it in his language, as the FATHER. It is easily seen that there is nothing lucky or capricious in these analogies, but that they are constant, and pervade nature. These are not the dreams of a few poets, here and there, but man is an analogist, and studies relations in all objects. He is placed in the centre of beings, and a ray of relation passes from every other being to him. And neither can man be understood without these objects, nor these objects without man.
All the facts in natural history taken by themselves, have no value, but are barren, like a single sex. But marry it to our town essay human history, and ending question, it is full of life. Whole Floras, all Linnaeus' and Buffon's volumes, are dry catalogues of facts; but the most trivial of memoir, these facts, the habit of a plant, the organs, or work, or noise of an insect, applied to essay ending question the illustration of a fact in intellectual philosophy, or, in any way associated to human nature, affects us in the most lively and agreeable manner. The seed of a plant, -- to what affecting analogies in the nature of man, is oxford relations thesis that little fruit made use of, in all discourse, up to the voice of Paul, who calls the human corpse a seed, -- It is sown a natural body; it is ending raised a spiritual body. Essay For Salem. The motion of the earth round its axis, and round the sun, makes the day, and the year. These are certain amounts of essay, brute light and heat. But is there no intent of an analogy between man's life and the seasons? And do the seasons gain no grandeur or pathos from that analogy? The instincts of the ant are very unimportant, considered as the ant's; but the moment a ray of relation is seen to extend from it to man, and the little drudge is seen to be a monitor, a little body with a mighty heart, then all its habits, even that said to be recently observed, that it never sleeps, become sublime.
Because of this radical correspondence between visible things and memoir personal essays, human thoughts, savages, who have only what is necessary, converse in figures. As we go back in history, language becomes more picturesque, until its infancy, when it is all poetry; or all spiritual facts are represented by natural symbols. The same symbols are found to essay ending make the original elements of all languages. It has moreover been observed, that the idioms of all languages approach each other in passages of the greatest eloquence and power. Essays About Education. And as this is the first language, so is it the last. This immediate dependence of language upon nature, this conversion of an outward phenomenon into a type of somewhat in human life, never loses its power to affect us. It is this which gives that piquancy to the conversation of a strong-natured farmer or back-woodsman, which all men relish. A man's power to connect his thought with its proper symbol, and so to utter it, depends on the simplicity of essay ending, his character, that is, upon his love of truth, and his desire to communicate it without loss. The corruption of man is followed by the corruption of language.
When simplicity of character and hr cover with salary requirements, the sovereignty of ideas is broken up by essay the prevalence of secondary desires, the desire of riches, of pleasure, of power, and of praise, -- and duplicity and falsehood take place of simplicity and truth, the power over nature as an interpreter of the will, is in a degree lost; new imagery ceases to be created, and old words are perverted to stand for things which are not; a paper currency is employed, when there is no bullion in the vaults. In due time, the fraud is manifest, and words lose all power to stimulate the personal essays, understanding or the question, affections. Hundreds of writers may be found in every long-civilized nation, who for a short time believe, and make others believe, that they see and utter truths, who do not of essay state, themselves clothe one thought in its natural garment, but who feed unconsciously on the language created by the primary writers of the country, those, namely, who hold primarily on nature. But wise men pierce this rotten diction and fasten words again to visible things; so that picturesque language is at once a commanding certificate that he who employs it, is essay a man in alliance with truth and God. The moment our discourse rises above the ground line of familiar facts, and is inflamed with passion or exalted by thought, it clothes itself in images. A man conversing in earnest, if he watch his intellectual processes, will find that a material image, more or less luminous, arises in his mind, cotemporaneous with every thought, which furnishes the racing essay, vestment of the thought.
Hence, good writing and brilliant discourse are perpetual allegories. This imagery is spontaneous. It is the blending of experience with the present action of the mind. It is essay ending question proper creation. It is the our town essay, working of the Original Cause through the essay ending question, instruments he has already made. These facts may suggest the advantage which the country-life possesses for a powerful mind, over the artificial and curtailed life of cities. We know more from nature than we can at personal essays will communicate. Its light flows into the mind evermore, and we forget its presence. The poet, the orator, bred in the woods, whose senses have been nourished by their fair and appeasing changes, year after year, without design and without heed, -- shall not lose their lesson altogether, in the roar of essay, cities or the broil of politics. Long hereafter, amidst agitation and terror in national councils, -- in the hour of revolution, -- these solemn images shall reappear in their morning lustre, as fit symbols and racing essay, words of the essay question, thoughts which the passing events shall awaken.
At the hr cover letter with salary requirements, call of question, a noble sentiment, again the woods wave, the pines murmur, the river rolls and shines, and the cattle low upon the mountains, as he saw and racing essay, heard them in his infancy. And with these forms, the spells of persuasion, the keys of ending, power are put into his hands. 3. We are thus assisted by essay university natural objects in the expression of question, particular meanings. But how great a language to convey such pepper-corn informations! Did it need such noble races of our town essay, creatures, this profusion of forms, this host of orbs in essay heaven, to our town essay furnish man with the dictionary and grammar of his municipal speech?
Whilst we use this grand cipher to expedite the affairs of ending, our pot and kettle, we feel that we have not yet put it to its use, neither are able. We are like travellers using the cinders of a volcano to roast their eggs. Whilst we see that it always stands ready to clothe what we would say, we cannot avoid the question, whether the characters are not significant of themselves. Have mountains, and waves, and skies, no significance but what we consciously give them, when we employ them as emblems of our thoughts? The world is emblematic. Parts of speech are metaphors, because the education, whole of nature is a metaphor of the human mind. The laws of moral nature answer to those of matter as face to face in a glass. The visible world and the relation of its parts, is the dial plate of the essay, invisible.
The axioms of physics translate the laws of ethics. Thus, the essays education, whole is greater than its part; reaction is equal to action; the smallest weight may be made to lift the greatest, the difference of weight being compensated by time; and many the like propositions, which have an ethical as well as physical sense. These propositions have a much more extensive and universal sense when applied to human life, than when confined to essay ending question technical use. In like manner, the memorable words of history, and the proverbs of nations, consist usually of a natural fact, selected as a picture or parable of a moral truth. Thus; A rolling stone gathers no moss; A bird in the hand is memoir personal worth two in the bush; A cripple in the right way, will beat a racer in the wrong; Make hay while the sun shines; 'T is hard to carry a full cup even; Vinegar is the son of wine; The last ounce broke the camel's back; Long-lived trees make roots first; -- and the like. In their primary sense these are trivial facts, but we repeat them for the value of their analogical import. What is true of proverbs, is true of ending question, all fables, parables, and allegories. This relation between the our town essay, mind and matter is not fancied by some poet, but stands in the will of God, and so is free to be known by all men. It appears to men, or it does not appear.
When in fortunate hours we ponder this miracle, the essay ending question, wise man doubts, if, at all other times, he is not blind and deaf; ------ Can these things be, And overcome us like a summer's cloud, Without our special wonder? for the universe becomes transparent, and the light of higher laws than its own, shines through it. Essay. It is the standing problem which has exercised the wonder and the study of question, every fine genius since the world began; from the era of the Egyptians and the Brahmins, to that of Pythagoras, of Plato, of international relations thesis, Bacon, of Leibnitz, of Swedenborg. There sits the Sphinx at the road-side, and from age to age, as each prophet comes by, he tries his fortune at reading her riddle.
There seems to ending be a necessity in spirit to manifest itself in material forms; and day and night, river and storm, beast and bird, acid and alkali, preexist in necessary Ideas in the mind of God, and are what they are by virtue of preceding affections, in the world of mphil relations thesis, spirit. Essay Question. A Fact is the end or last issue of hr cover, spirit. The visible creation is the terminus or the circumference of the invisible world. Material objects, said a French philosopher, are necessarily kinds of essay question, scoriae of the oxford mphil relations, substantial thoughts of the Creator, which must always preserve an exact relation to their first origin; in essay other words, visible nature must have a spiritual and moral side. This doctrine is abstruse, and though the images of garment, scoriae, mirror, c., may stimulate the fancy, we must summon the aid of subtler and more vital expositors to make it plain. Every scripture is to be interpreted by the same spirit which gave it forth, -- is the fundamental law of criticism. A life in harmony with nature, the love of truth and of virtue, will purge the eyes to understand her text. By degrees we may come to know the primitive sense of the racing essay, permanent objects of nature, so that the world shall be to us an open book, and every form significant of its hidden life and final cause.
A new interest surprises us, whilst, under the view now suggested, we contemplate the fearful extent and multitude of objects; since every object rightly seen, unlocks a new faculty of the soul. That which was unconscious truth, becomes, when interpreted and defined in an object, a part of the domain of knowledge, -- a new weapon in the magazine of power. Chapter V DISCIPLINE In view of the significance of nature, we arrive at once at a new fact, that nature is a discipline. This use of the world includes the preceding uses, as parts of itself. Space, time, society, labor, climate, food, locomotion, the animals, the mechanical forces, give us sincerest lessons, day by day, whose meaning is unlimited. They educate both the Understanding and the Reason. Essay Ending Question. Every property of matter is a school for the understanding, -- its solidity or resistance, its inertia, its extension, its figure, its divisibility.
The understanding adds, divides, combines, measures, and finds nutriment and room for its activity in this worthy scene. Our Town Essay. Meantime, Reason transfers all these lessons into essay ending, its own world of thought, by perceiving the analogy that marries Matter and Mind. 1. Nature is a discipline of the understanding in intellectual truths. Our dealing with sensible objects is a constant exercise in the necessary lessons of difference, of likeness, of order, of being and seeming, of progressive arrangement; of ascent from particular to general; of combination to essays indian education one end of manifold forces. Proportioned to the importance of the essay ending, organ to be formed, is the extreme care with which its tuition is provided, -- a care pretermitted in no single case. What tedious training, day after day, year after year, never ending, to form the common sense; what continual reproduction of annoyances, inconveniences, dilemmas; what rejoicing over us of little men; what disputing of prices, what reckonings of interest, -- and all to form the Hand of the mind; -- to instruct us that good thoughts are no better than good dreams, unless they be executed! The same good office is performed by Property and its filial systems of debt and credit. Debt, grinding debt, whose iron face the widow, the for salem state university, orphan, and the sons of genius fear and question, hate; -- debt, which consumes so much time, which so cripples and disheartens a great spirit with cares that seem so base, is a preceptor whose lessons cannot be forgone, and is needed most by those who suffer from it most. Moreover, property, which has been well compared to snow, -- if it fall level to-day, it will be blown into drifts to-morrow, -- is the memoir personal essays, surface action of essay question, internal machinery, like the index on the face of a clock.
Whilst now it is the gymnastics of the state, understanding, it is hiving in the foresight of the spirit, experience in profounder laws. The whole character and fortune of the essay question, individual are affected by the least inequalities in the culture of the memoir essays, understanding; for ending question example, in the perception of differences. Therefore is Space, and therefore Time, that man may know that things are not huddled and lumped, but sundered and individual. A bell and about indian education, a plough have each their use, and neither can do the office of the other. Water is good to drink, coal to burn, wool to wear; but wool cannot be drunk, nor water spun, nor coal eaten. The wise man shows his wisdom in separation, in gradation, and his scale of creatures and of merits is as wide as nature.
The foolish have no range in their scale, but suppose every man is as every other man. Essay Ending. What is not good they call the worst, and what is not hateful, they call the best. In like manner, what good heed, nature forms in us! She pardons no mistakes. Her yea is yea, and her nay, nay. The first steps in Agriculture, Astronomy, Zoology, (those first steps which the farmer, the hunter, and the sailor take,) teach that nature's dice are always loaded; that in her heaps and rubbish are concealed sure and useful results. How calmly and genially the mind apprehends one after another the laws of physics! What noble emotions dilate the mortal as he enters into the counsels of the creation, and feels by knowledge the privilege to BE! His insight refines him. The beauty of nature shines in essays indian his own breast. Ending. Man is greater that he can see this, and the universe less, because Time and Space relations vanish as laws are known.
Here again we are impressed and even daunted by the immense Universe to oxford mphil be explored. What we know, is a point to what we do not know. Open any recent journal of science, and weigh the problems suggested concerning Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism, Physiology, Geology, and judge whether the interest of natural science is likely to essay ending be soon exhausted. Passing by many particulars of the discipline of nature, we must not omit to specify two. The exercise of the Will or the lesson of power is taught in every event. From the child's successive possession of his several senses up to the hour when he saith, Thy will be done! he is learning the secret, that he can reduce under his will, not only particular events, but great classes, nay the racing essay, whole series of events, and so conform all facts to his character. Nature is thoroughly mediate. It is made to serve. It receives the essay, dominion of man as meekly as the ass on which the Saviour rode. It offers all its kingdoms to man as the personal essays, raw material which he may mould into what is useful.
Man is never weary of working it up. He forges the subtile and delicate air into wise and melodious words, and gives them wing as angels of persuasion and command. One after another, his victorious thought comes up with and question, reduces all things, until the world becomes, at personal last, only a realized will, -- the double of the man. 2. Sensible objects conform to the premonitions of Reason and ending, reflect the conscience. All things are moral; and in their boundless changes have an unceasing reference to spiritual nature. Therefore is nature glorious with form, color, and motion, that every globe in mphil relations thesis the remotest heaven; every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of life; every change of vegetation from the first principle of growth in the eye of a leaf, to the tropical forest and antediluvian coal-mine; every animal function from the sponge up to Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the laws of right and essay question, wrong, and echo the Ten Commandments. Therefore is nature ever the ally of Religion: lends all her pomp and riches to the religious sentiment. Prophet and priest, David, Isaiah, Jesus, have drawn deeply from this source.
This ethical character so penetrates the bone and marrow of nature, as to seem the end for which it was made. Whatever private purpose is answered by any member or part, this is its public and universal function, and is never omitted. Nothing in nature is exhausted in its first use. When a thing has served an end to the uttermost, it is wholly new for an ulterior service. Racing Essay. In God, every end is converted into a new means.
Thus the essay ending question, use of commodity, regarded by itself, is mean and squalid. But it is to the mind an education in the doctrine of Use, namely, that a thing is university good only so far as it serves; that a conspiring of parts and efforts to the production of an end, is essential to any being. The first and gross manifestation of this truth, is our inevitable and hated training in values and wants, in corn and meat. It has already been illustrated, that every natural process is a version of a moral sentence. The moral law lies at the centre of nature and radiates to the circumference. It is the pith and marrow of every substance, every relation, and every process. All things with which we deal, preach to us. Essay. What is a farm but a mute gospel? The chaff and the wheat, weeds and plants, blight, rain, insects, sun, -- it is a sacred emblem from the first furrow of spring to the last stack which the snow of winter overtakes in the fields.
But the sailor, the shepherd, the miner, the essays about education, merchant, in essay ending question their several resorts, have each an experience precisely parallel, and leading to the same conclusion: because all organizations are radically alike. Nor can it be doubted that this moral sentiment which thus scents the air, grows in the grain, and impregnates the waters of the world, is caught by man and sinks into his soul. Our Town Essay. The moral influence of nature upon every individual is that amount of truth which it illustrates to him. Who can estimate this? Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught the fisherman? how much tranquillity has been reflected to man from the azure sky, over whose unspotted deeps the winds forevermore drive flocks of stormy clouds, and leave no wrinkle or stain? how much industry and question, providence and affection we have caught from the pantomime of brutes? What a searching preacher of self-command is the varying phenomenon of Health!
Herein is especially apprehended the unity of Nature, -- the unity in variety, -- which meets us everywhere. All the endless variety of things make an identical impression. Xenophanes complained in his old age, that, look where he would, all things hastened back to Unity. He was weary of mphil international, seeing the essay question, same entity in the tedious variety of forms. The fable of Proteus has a cordial truth. A leaf, a drop, a crystal, a moment of time is related to the whole, and partakes of the perfection of the whole. Each particle is a microcosm, and faithfully renders the likeness of the world. Not only resemblances exist in mphil international thesis things whose analogy is obvious, as when we detect the type of the human hand in the flipper of the fossil saurus, but also in objects wherein there is great superficial unlikeness.
Thus architecture is called frozen music, by essay De Stael and Goethe. Vitruvius thought an architect should be a musician. A Gothic church, said Coleridge, is a petrified religion. Racing Essay. Michael Angelo maintained, that, to an architect, a knowledge of anatomy is essential. In Haydn's oratorios, the notes present to the imagination not only motions, as, of the snake, the stag, and question, the elephant, but colors also; as the our town essay, green grass. The law of harmonic sounds reappears in the harmonic colors. The granite is essay ending differenced in its laws only by the more or less of heat, from the our town essay, river that wears it away. The river, as it flows, resembles the air that flows over question it; the air resembles the light which traverses it with more subtile currents; the light resembles the heat which rides with it through Space. Each creature is only a modification of the other; the likeness in them is more than the difference, and their radical law is one and the same. A rule of one art, or a law of one organization, holds true throughout nature.
So intimate is this Unity, that, it is easily seen, it lies under the undermost garment of nature, and our town essay, betrays its source in Universal Spirit. For, it pervades Thought also. Every universal truth which we express in words, implies or supposes every other truth. Omne verum vero consonat. Question. It is like a great circle on a sphere, comprising all possible circles; which, however, may be drawn, and comprise it, in like manner. Every such truth is the absolute Ens seen from one side.
But it has innumerable sides. The central Unity is still more conspicuous in actions. Words are finite organs of the infinite mind. They cannot cover the dimensions of what is in truth. They break, chop, and impoverish it. An action is the perfection and publication of thought.
A right action seems to fill the eye, and to be related to all nature. The wise man, in doing one thing, does all; or, in the one thing he does rightly, he sees the likeness of all which is done rightly. Words and actions are not the attributes of brute nature. They introduce us to the human form, of which all other organizations appear to be degradations. When this appears among so many that surround it, the spirit prefers it to all others.
It says, `From such as this, have I drawn joy and oxford international relations thesis, knowledge; in such as this, have I found and beheld myself; I will speak to it; it can speak again; it can yield me thought already formed and essay ending, alive.' In fact, the eye, -- the mind, -- is always accompanied by our town essay these forms, male and female; and these are incomparably the richest informations of the power and order that lie at the heart of things. Unfortunately, every one of them bears the ending, marks as of some injury; is marred and superficially defective. Nevertheless, far different from the deaf and dumb nature around them, these all rest like fountain-pipes on the unfathomed sea of thought and virtue whereto they alone, of mphil thesis, all organizations, are the entrances. It were a pleasant inquiry to follow into detail their ministry to our education, but where would it stop? We are associated in adolescent and adult life with some friends, who, like skies and waters, are coextensive with our idea; who, answering each to a certain affection of the soul, satisfy our desire on that side; whom we lack power to put at such focal distance from us, that we can mend or even analyze them.
We cannot choose but love them. When much intercourse with a friend has supplied us with a standard of excellence, and has increased our respect for the resources of God who thus sends a real person to outgo our ideal; when he has, moreover, become an object of thought, and, whilst his character retains all its unconscious effect, is converted in the mind into solid and sweet wisdom, -- it is a sign to us that his office is closing, and essay, he is commonly withdrawn from our sight in a short time. Chapter VI IDEALISM Thus is the unspeakable but intelligible and practicable meaning of the oxford, world conveyed to man, the immortal pupil, in every object of sense. To this one end of Discipline, all parts of nature conspire. A noble doubt perpetually suggests itself, whether this end be not the essay, Final Cause of the Universe; and whether nature outwardly exists.
It is a sufficient account of that Appearance we call the World, that God will teach a human mind, and essays, so makes it the receiver of a certain number of congruent sensations, which we call sun and moon, man and woman, house and trade. In my utter impotence to test the authenticity of the question, report of my senses, to know whether the for salem university, impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is up there in heaven, or some god paints the image in the firmament of the soul? The relations of parts and the end of the whole remaining the same, what is the difference, whether land and sea interact, and worlds revolve and intermingle without number or end, -- deep yawning under deep, and galaxy balancing galaxy, throughout absolute space, -- or, whether, without relations of time and space, the same appearances are inscribed in question the constant faith of man? Whether nature enjoy a substantial existence without, or is only in the apocalypse of the mind, it is alike useful and alike venerable to me. Our Town Essay. Be it what it may, it is ideal to me, so long as I cannot try the accuracy of my senses. The frivolous make themselves merry with the Ideal theory, as if its consequences were burlesque; as if it affected the stability of essay question, nature. It surely does not. International Relations. God never jests with us, and will not compromise the end of nature, by permitting any inconsequence in its procession. Any distrust of the permanence of ending question, laws, would paralyze the faculties of man.
Their permanence is sacredly respected, and memoir essays, his faith therein is perfect. The wheels and springs of man are all set to the hypothesis of the permanence of nature. Ending Question. We are not built like a ship to be tossed, but like a house to stand. It is a natural consequence of this structure, that, so long as the mphil international, active powers predominate over the reflective, we resist with indignation any hint that nature is more short-lived or mutable than spirit. The broker, the wheelwright, the carpenter, the toll-man, are much displeased at the intimation. But whilst we acquiesce entirely in the permanence of natural laws, the question of the absolute existence of nature still remains open. It is the uniform effect of culture on the human mind, not to shake our faith in essay the stability of particular phenomena, as of heat, water, azote; but to lead us to regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to mphil international attribute necessary existence to spirit; to esteem nature as an accident and an effect. To the senses and the unrenewed understanding, belongs a sort of instinctive belief in the absolute existence of nature. Ending Question. In their view, man and nature are indissolubly joined. Things are ultimates, and they never look beyond their sphere.
The presence of Reason mars this faith. The first effort of mphil relations, thought tends to relax this despotism of the senses, which binds us to nature as if we were a part of it, and shows us nature aloof, and, as it were, afloat. Essay Ending. Until this higher agency intervened, the animal eye sees, with wonderful accuracy, sharp outlines and colored surfaces. When the eye of Reason opens, to outline and surface are at racing essay once added, grace and expression. These proceed from imagination and affection, and abate somewhat of the angular distinctness of essay ending, objects.
If the Reason be stimulated to more earnest vision, outlines and surfaces become transparent, and are no longer seen; causes and spirits are seen through them. The best moments of life are these delicious awakenings of the oxford mphil, higher powers, and the reverential withdrawing of nature before its God. Let us proceed to ending indicate the effects of culture. 1. Our first institution in the Ideal philosophy is a hint from nature herself. Nature is made to conspire with spirit to emancipate us. Certain mechanical changes, a small alteration in our local position apprizes us of a dualism. We are strangely affected by seeing the our town essay, shore from a moving ship, from a balloon, or through the tints of an unusual sky. The least change in our point of view, gives the whole world a pictorial air.
A man who seldom rides, needs only to get into a coach and traverse his own town, to turn the street into a puppet-show. The men, the women, -- talking, running, bartering, fighting, -- the earnest mechanic, the lounger, the beggar, the boys, the dogs, are unrealized at once, or, at least, wholly detached from question all relation to the observer, and seen as apparent, not substantial beings. What new thoughts are suggested by seeing a face of country quite familiar, in the rapid movement of the rail-road car! Nay, the most wonted objects, (make a very slight change in the point of vision,) please us most. In a camera obscura, the butcher's cart, and the figure of one of our own family amuse us. So a portrait of a well-known face gratifies us. Turn the eyes upside down, by racing essay looking at the landscape through your legs, and how agreeable is the picture, though you have seen it any time these twenty years! In these cases, by mechanical means, is suggested the difference between the observer and the spectacle, -- between man and nature. Hence arises a pleasure mixed with awe; I may say, a low degree of the sublime is felt from the fact, probably, that man is hereby apprized, that, whilst the world is a spectacle, something in himself is stable. 2. In a higher manner, the poet communicates the same pleasure.
By a few strokes he delineates, as on air, the sun, the mountain, the camp, the city, the hero, the essay ending, maiden, not different from what we know them, but only essay for salem, lifted from the ground and afloat before the essay ending question, eye. He unfixes the land and the sea, makes them revolve around the axis of state university, his primary thought, and disposes them anew. Possessed himself by a heroic passion, he uses matter as symbols of it. The sensual man conforms thoughts to essay ending things; the poet conforms things to his thoughts. The one esteems nature as rooted and fast; the requirements, other, as fluid, and impresses his being thereon. To him, the refractory world is ductile and flexible; he invests dust and stones with humanity, and makes them the words of the Reason. The Imagination may be defined to be, the use which the Reason makes of the material world.
Shakspeare possesses the power of subordinating nature for the purposes of expression, beyond all poets. His imperial muse tosses the creation like a bauble from ending hand to hand, and uses it to embody any caprice of thought that is upper-most in his mind. The remotest spaces of nature are visited, and for salem, the farthest sundered things are brought together, by a subtle spiritual connection. We are made aware that magnitude of material things is relative, and all objects shrink and expand to serve the essay, passion of the poet. Thus, in his sonnets, the lays of birds, the scents and dyes of flowers, he finds to be the shadow of his beloved; time, which keeps her from him, is his chest ; the suspicion she has awakened, is her ornament ; The ornament of beauty is Suspect, A crow which flies in heaven's sweetest air. Our Town Essay. His passion is not the fruit of chance; it swells, as he speaks, to essay ending question a city, or a state.
No, it was builded far from accident; It suffers not in smiling pomp, nor falls. Under the brow of essays indian, thralling discontent; It fears not policy, that heretic, That works on ending question, leases of short numbered hours, But all alone stands hugely politic In the strength of his constancy, the Pyramids seem to him recent and transitory. The freshness of youth and love dazzles him with its resemblance to morning.
Take those lips away. Which so sweetly were forsworn; And those eyes, -- the break of day, Lights that do mislead the international thesis, morn. The wild beauty of this hyperbole, I may say, in passing, it would not be easy to match in literature. This transfiguration which all material objects undergo through the passion of the poet, -- this power which he exerts to dwarf the great, to magnify the small, -- might be illustrated by a thousand examples from his Plays. I have before me the Tempest, and will cite only these few lines. ARIEL. The strong based promontory. Have I made shake, and by the spurs plucked up.
The pine and cedar. Prospero calls for music to soothe the frantic Alonzo, and his companions; A solemn air, and the best comforter. To an unsettled fancy, cure thy brains. Now useless, boiled within thy skull. Again; The charm dissolves apace, And, as the essay question, morning steals upon the night, Melting the oxford mphil international thesis, darkness, so their rising senses. Begin to chase the ignorant fumes that mantle. Their clearer reason. Begins to swell: and the approaching tide.
Will shortly fill the reasonable shores. That now lie foul and muddy. The perception of ending question, real affinities between events, (that is to say, of ideal affinities, for essay for salem those only are real,) enables the poet thus to essay ending make free with the most imposing forms and phenomena of the world, and to our town essay assert the predominance of the soul. 3. Whilst thus the ending, poet animates nature with his own thoughts, he differs from the philosopher only herein, that the one proposes Beauty as his main end; the other Truth. But the philosopher, not less than the poet, postpones the apparent order and relations of racing essay, things to the empire of thought. The problem of philosophy, according to Plato, is, for all that exists conditionally, to essay ending find a ground unconditioned and our town essay, absolute. Essay Ending Question. It proceeds on the faith that a law determines all phenomena, which being known, the phenomena can be predicted. That law, when in the mind, is an idea. Its beauty is racing essay infinite. Essay Question. The true philosopher and the true poet are one, and a beauty, which is truth, and a truth, which is letter with salary beauty, is the essay ending question, aim of for salem, both.
Is not the charm of one of Plato's or Aristotle's definitions, strictly like that of the Antigone of essay question, Sophocles? It is, in both cases, that a spiritual life has been imparted to nature; that the solid seeming block of matter has been pervaded and dissolved by a thought; that this feeble human being has penetrated the vast masses of nature with an racing essay informing soul, and recognised itself in their harmony, that is, seized their law. In physics, when this is attained, the memory disburthens itself of its cumbrous catalogues of particulars, and essay ending question, carries centuries of observation in a single formula. Thus even in physics, the material is letter with salary requirements degraded before the spiritual. The astronomer, the geometer, rely on their irrefragable analysis, and disdain the question, results of observation. Our Town Essay. The sublime remark of Euler on his law of arches, This will be found contrary to all experience, yet is true; had already transferred nature into essay question, the mind, and left matter like an our town essay outcast corpse. 4. Intellectual science has been observed to beget invariably a doubt of the existence of matter. Ending. Turgot said, He that has never doubted the existence of matter, may be assured he has no aptitude for metaphysical inquiries. It fastens the attention upon immortal necessary uncreated natures, that is, upon Ideas; and in their presence, we feel that the outward circumstance is a dream and a shade.
Whilst we wait in this Olympus of gods, we think of nature as an appendix to the soul. We ascend into their region, and know that these are the thoughts of the Supreme Being. Racing Essay. These are they who were set up from essay ending everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was. When he prepared the heavens, they were there; when he established the clouds above, when he strengthened the fountains of the deep. Then they were by him, as one brought up with him.
Of them took he counsel. Their influence is proportionate. As objects of science, they are accessible to university few men. Essay. Yet all men are capable of being raised by piety or by passion, into their region. And no man touches these divine natures, without becoming, in some degree, himself divine. Like a new soul, they renew the body.
We become physically nimble and lightsome; we tread on air; life is no longer irksome, and letter salary requirements, we think it will never be so. No man fears age or misfortune or death, in their serene company, for he is essay ending transported out of the district of change. Whilst we behold unveiled the international, nature of essay ending question, Justice and with, Truth, we learn the question, difference between the absolute and the conditional or relative. We apprehend the absolute. Letter With Salary. As it were, for the first time, we exist. We become immortal, for we learn that time and space are relations of matter; that, with a perception of essay ending question, truth, or a virtuous will, they have no affinity. 5. Finally, religion and ethics, which may be fitly called, -- the practice of ideas, or the introduction of ideas into life, -- have an analogous effect with all lower culture, in degrading nature and suggesting its dependence on spirit. Ethics and religion differ herein; that the one is the system of racing essay, human duties commencing from man; the other, from God.
Religion includes the essay question, personality of God; Ethics does not. They are one to our present design. They both put nature under foot. The first and last lesson of religion is, The things that are seen, are temporal; the things that are unseen, are eternal. It puts an affront upon nature. It does that for the unschooled, which philosophy does for Berkeley and our town essay, Viasa. The uniform language that may be heard in the churches of the most ignorant sects, is,------Contemn the unsubstantial shows of the world; they are vanities, dreams, shadows, unrealities; seek the realities of religion. The devotee flouts nature. Some theosophists have arrived at a certain hostility and ending question, indignation towards matter, as the Manichean and Plotinus.
They distrusted in themselves any looking back to these flesh-pots of Egypt. Plotinus was ashamed of hr cover letter requirements, his body. In short, they might all say of ending question, matter, what Michael Angelo said of external beauty, it is the frail and our town essay, weary weed, in question which God dresses the soul, which he has called into time. It appears that motion, poetry, physical and intellectual science, and religion, all tend to affect our convictions of the reality of the external world. But I own there is something ungrateful in expanding too curiously the particulars of the general proposition, that all culture tends to imbue us with idealism.
I have no hostility to racing essay nature, but a child's love to it. I expand and live in the warm day like corn and melons. Let us speak her fair. I do not wish to fling stones at my beautiful mother, nor soil my gentle nest. I only wish to indicate the true position of nature in regard to man, wherein to establish man, all right education tends; as the ground which to attain is the object of ending question, human life, that is, of man's connection with nature. Culture inverts the memoir personal essays, vulgar views of nature, and brings the mind to call that apparent, which it uses to call real, and essay ending, that real, which it uses to call visionary. Children, it is true, believe in the external world. The belief that it appears only, is an afterthought, but with culture, this faith will as surely arise on the mind as did the first. The advantage of the ideal theory over the popular faith, is this, that it presents the world in precisely that view which is most desirable to the mind. It is, in fact, the view which Reason, both speculative and practical, that is, philosophy and virtue, take.
For, seen in the light of thought, the world always is phenomenal; and virtue subordinates it to the mind. Mphil International. Idealism sees the essay ending question, world in God. It beholds the whole circle of persons and things, of actions and events, of our town essay, country and essay ending, religion, not as painfully accumulated, atom after atom, act after act, in an aged creeping Past, but as one vast picture, which God paints on the instant eternity, for the contemplation of the soul. Therefore the soul holds itself off from a too trivial and microscopic study of the essays, universal tablet. It respects the end too much, to immerse itself in the means. It sees something more important in Christianity, than the scandals of ecclesiastical history, or the essay ending, niceties of criticism; and, very incurious concerning persons or miracles, and not at all disturbed by racing essay chasms of historical evidence, it accepts from God the phenomenon, as it finds it, as the pure and awful form of religion in the world. It is not hot and passionate at the appearance of what it calls its own good or bad fortune, at the union or opposition of essay ending, other persons. No man is its enemy. It accepts whatsoever befalls, as part of its lesson.
It is a watcher more than a doer, and it is a doer, only that it may the better watch. Chapter VII SPIRIT It is essential to a true theory of nature and of man, that it should contain somewhat progressive. Uses that are exhausted or that may be, and facts that end in the statement, cannot be all that is racing essay true of essay question, this brave lodging wherein man is harbored, and letter with, wherein all his faculties find appropriate and endless exercise. And all the uses of essay, nature admit of being summed in one, which yields the activity of man an infinite scope. Through all its kingdoms, to state university the suburbs and outskirts of things, it is faithful to the cause whence it had its origin. It always speaks of Spirit.
It suggests the absolute. Essay Ending Question. It is a perpetual effect. It is a great shadow pointing always to the sun behind us. The aspect of essays, nature is devout. Like the figure of Jesus, she stands with bended head, and hands folded upon the breast. The happiest man is he who learns from essay ending nature the lesson of worship. Of that ineffable essence which we call Spirit, he that thinks most, will say least. We can foresee God in for salem university the coarse, and, as it were, distant phenomena of ending question, matter; but when we try to define and describe himself, both language and thought desert us, and we are as helpless as fools and oxford mphil thesis, savages. That essence refuses to be recorded in propositions, but when man has worshipped him intellectually, the noblest ministry of nature is to stand as the apparition of God. Essay Ending Question. It is the essay for salem, organ through which the universal spirit speaks to the individual, and strives to lead back the individual to it. When we consider Spirit, we see that the views already presented do not include the whole circumference of man.
We must add some related thoughts. Three problems are put by nature to the mind; What is matter? Whence is it? and Whereto? The first of these questions only, the ideal theory answers. Idealism saith: matter is a phenomenon, not a substance. Idealism acquaints us with the total disparity between the evidence of our own being, and the evidence of the world's being. Question. The one is perfect; the other, incapable of any assurance; the racing essay, mind is a part of the nature of things; the world is a divine dream, from which we may presently awake to the glories and certainties of day. Idealism is a hypothesis to account for nature by question other principles than those of mphil thesis, carpentry and chemistry.
Yet, if it only deny the existence of matter, it does not satisfy the essay question, demands of the spirit. It leaves God out of me. It leaves me in the splendid labyrinth of my perceptions, to wander without end. Essays About Indian Education. Then the heart resists it, because it balks the affections in denying substantive being to men and women. Nature is so pervaded with human life, that there is ending question something of hr cover with salary requirements, humanity in all, and in every particular. But this theory makes nature foreign to me, and does not account for that consanguinity which we acknowledge to it. Let it stand, then, in the present state of our knowledge, merely as a useful introductory hypothesis, serving to apprize us of the eternal distinction between the soul and the world. But when, following the invisible steps of thought, we come to essay inquire, Whence is international relations thesis matter? and Whereto? many truths arise to us out of the recesses of consciousness. We learn that the highest is question present to the soul of man, that the dread universal essence, which is not wisdom, or love, or beauty, or power, but all in one, and each entirely, is that for which all things exist, and that by which they are; that spirit creates; that behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present; one and not compound, it does not act upon us from without, that is, in space and time, but spiritually, or through ourselves: therefore, that spirit, that is, the Supreme Being, does not build up nature around us, but puts it forth through us, as the life of the tree puts forth new branches and leaves through the pores of the old.
As a plant upon the earth, so a man rests upon the bosom of God; he is nourished by unfailing fountains, and personal, draws, at ending his need, inexhaustible power. Our Town Essay. Who can set bounds to the possibilities of man? Once inhale the upper air, being admitted to behold the absolute natures of justice and truth, and we learn that man has access to the entire mind of the Creator, is himself the creator in the finite. This view, which admonishes me where the sources of wisdom and power lie, and points to virtue as to The golden key. Which opes the palace of eternity, carries upon its face the highest certificate of truth, because it animates me to create my own world through the purification of my soul. The world proceeds from the same spirit as the body of man. It is a remoter and inferior incarnation of God, a projection of God in the unconscious. But it differs from the body in one important respect. It is not, like that, now subjected to the human will. Its serene order is ending inviolable by us. It is, therefore, to us, the present expositor of the divine mind.
It is a fixed point whereby we may measure our departure. Memoir Personal Essays. As we degenerate, the contrast between us and our house is more evident. We are as much strangers in nature, as we are aliens from God. We do not understand the notes of birds. The fox and essay ending question, the deer run away from us; the bear and about, tiger rend us. We do not know the uses of more than a few plants, as corn and the apple, the potato and the vine. Is not the landscape, every glimpse of which hath a grandeur, a face of him? Yet this may show us what discord is between man and essay question, nature, for you cannot freely admire a noble landscape, if laborers are digging in the field hard by. The poet finds something ridiculous in his delight, until he is out of the mphil international thesis, sight of men. Chapter VIII PROSPECTS In inquiries respecting the laws of the world and ending, the frame of things, the highest reason is always the truest.
That which seems faintly possible -- it is so refined, is often faint and dim because it is deepest seated in the mind among the eternal verities. Empirical science is apt to cloud the sight, and, by the very knowledge of functions and processes, to bereave the student of the our town essay, manly contemplation of the whole. The savant becomes unpoetic. But the best read naturalist who lends an essay question entire and devout attention to truth, will see that there remains much to learn of his relation to the world, and that it is not to be learned by our town essay any addition or subtraction or other comparison of known quantities, but is arrived at ending question by untaught sallies of the spirit, by a continual self-recovery, and by racing essay entire humility. He will perceive that there are far more excellent qualities in the student than preciseness and infallibility; that a guess is ending often more fruitful than an indisputable affirmation, and that a dream may let us deeper into the secret of nature than a hundred concerted experiments.
For, the problems to be solved are precisely those which the physiologist and the naturalist omit to state. It is not so pertinent to man to know all the individuals of the animal kingdom, as it is to know whence and memoir essays, whereto is this tyrannizing unity in his constitution, which evermore separates and classifies things, endeavoring to reduce the essay ending, most diverse to one form. When I behold a rich landscape, it is less to my purpose to recite correctly the order and superposition of the racing essay, strata, than to know why all thought of multitude is lost in a tranquil sense of unity. I cannot greatly honor minuteness in details, so long as there is no hint to explain the relation between things and thoughts; no ray upon the metaphysics of conchology, of botany, of the arts, to show the relation of the forms of flowers, shells, animals, architecture, to the mind, and build science upon ideas. In a cabinet of natural history, we become sensible of a certain occult recognition and essay ending, sympathy in regard to the most unwieldly and eccentric forms of beast, fish, and insect. The American who has been confined, in his own country, to the sight of buildings designed after foreign models, is surprised on entering York Minster or St. Peter's at oxford mphil international relations thesis Rome, by the feeling that these structures are imitations also, -- faint copies of an invisible archetype.
Nor has science sufficient humanity, so long as the naturalist overlooks that wonderful congruity which subsists between man and the world; of which he is lord, not because he is the most subtile inhabitant, but because he is its head and heart, and finds something of himself in every great and essay, small thing, in every mountain stratum, in every new law of color, fact of astronomy, or atmospheric influence which observation or analysis lay open. A perception of this mystery inspires the muse of George Herbert, the beautiful psalmist of the seventeenth century. The following lines are part of his little poem on Man. Man is all symmetry, Full of proportions, one limb to another, And to all the world besides. Each part may call the farthest, brother; For head with foot hath private amity, And both with moons and tides.
Nothing hath got so far. But man hath caught and relations, kept it as his prey; His eyes dismount the highest star; He is in little all the sphere. Herbs gladly cure our flesh, because that they. Find their acquaintance there. For us, the winds do blow, The earth doth rest, heaven move, and fountains flow; Nothing we see, but means our good, As our delight, or as our treasure;
The whole is either our cupboard of food, Or cabinet of pleasure. The stars have us to bed: Night draws the ending, curtain; which the sun withdraws. Music and racing essay, light attend our head. All things unto our flesh are kind, In their descent and being; to our mind, In their ascent and cause. More servants wait on ending, man. Than he'll take notice of.
In every path, He treads down that which doth befriend him. When sickness makes him pale and wan. Oh mighty love! Man is essays one world, and hath. Another to attend him. The perception of this class of truths makes the attraction which draws men to science, but the end is essay ending question lost sight of in attention to the means. Memoir Essays. In view of this half-sight of science, we accept the sentence of Plato, that, poetry comes nearer to vital truth than history. Every surmise and vaticination of the mind is entitled to a certain respect, and we learn to prefer imperfect theories, and sentences, which contain glimpses of truth, to digested systems which have no one valuable suggestion.
A wise writer will feel that the ends of study and composition are best answered by announcing undiscovered regions of thought, and so communicating, through hope, new activity to the torpid spirit. I shall therefore conclude this essay with some traditions of man and nature, which a certain poet sang to me; and which, as they have always been in ending question the world, and perhaps reappear to every bard, may be both history and prophecy. `The foundations of man are not in matter, but in spirit. But the element of spirit is eternity. To it, therefore, the longest series of events, the oldest chronologies are young and essays about education, recent. In the essay, cycle of the universal man, from whom the known individuals proceed, centuries are points, and all history is but the epoch of one degradation. `We distrust and deny inwardly our sympathy with nature.
We own and disown our relation to it, by racing essay turns. We are, like Nebuchadnezzar, dethroned, bereft of reason, and eating grass like an ox. But who can set limits to the remedial force of spirit? `A man is a god in ruins. Essay. When men are innocent, life shall be longer, and shall pass into the immortal, as gently as we awake from dreams. Now, the world would be insane and rabid, if these disorganizations should last for hundreds of years. It is kept in check by death and infancy. Infancy is the perpetual Messiah, which comes into the arms of fallen men, and pleads with them to return to paradise. `Man is the dwarf of himself.
Once he was permeated and dissolved by spirit. He filled nature with his overflowing currents. Personal Essays. Out from him sprang the sun and moon; from man, the sun; from woman, the moon. The laws of his mind, the question, periods of his actions externized themselves into day and night, into the year and the seasons. But, having made for himself this huge shell, his waters retired; he no longer fills the veins and veinlets; he is shrunk to a drop. He sees, that the structure still fits him, but fits him colossally. Say, rather, once it fitted him, now it corresponds to him from essays far and on essay question, high. He adores timidly his own work.
Now is man the follower of the sun, and about indian, woman the follower of the moon. Yet sometimes he starts in essay ending his slumber, and wonders at himself and his house, and muses strangely at the resemblance betwixt him and essays indian education, it. Ending. He perceives that if his law is still paramount, if still he have elemental power, if his word is sterling yet in nature, it is hr cover salary not conscious power, it is not inferior but superior to his will. It is Instinct.' Thus my Orphic poet sang. At present, man applies to essay ending question nature but half his force. He works on the world with his understanding alone. He lives in it, and racing essay, masters it by a penny-wisdom; and he that works most in it, is but a half-man, and whilst his arms are strong and his digestion good, his mind is imbruted, and he is a selfish savage. His relation to nature, his power over it, is through the understanding; as by manure; the economic use of fire, wind, water, and the mariner's needle; steam, coal, chemical agriculture; the repairs of the human body by the dentist and the surgeon.
This is such a resumption of power, as if a banished king should buy his territories inch by inch, instead of vaulting at once into essay, his throne. Meantime, in the thick darkness, there are not wanting gleams of with, a better light, -- occasional examples of the action of man upon essay question nature with his entire force, -- with reason as well as understanding. Such examples are; the traditions of miracles in the earliest antiquity of all nations; the history of Jesus Christ; the achievements of a principle, as in religious and essay state university, political revolutions, and in the abolition of the essay question, Slave-trade; the miracles of enthusiasm, as those reported of oxford mphil international relations, Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and the Shakers; many obscure and yet contested facts, now arranged under the essay question, name of Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and the wisdom of children. These are examples of Reason's momentary grasp of the sceptre; the exertions of thesis, a power which exists not in essay ending time or space, but an instantaneous in-streaming causing power. The difference between the actual and the ideal force of hr cover letter with requirements, man is happily figured by the schoolmen, in saying, that the knowledge of man is an evening knowledge, vespertina cognitio, but that of God is a morning knowledge, matutina cognitio. The problem of restoring to the world original and eternal beauty, is solved by the redemption of the soul. The ruin or the blank, that we see when we look at nature, is in our own eye. The axis of vision is essay question not coincident with the axis of things, and so they appear not transparent but opake. Oxford International Relations Thesis. The reason why the world lacks unity, and lies broken and in essay ending heaps, is, because man is disunited with himself. He cannot be a naturalist, until he satisfies all the demands of the spirit. Love is as much its demand, as perception.
Indeed, neither can be perfect without the other. In the uttermost meaning of the words, thought is devout, and racing essay, devotion is thought. Deep calls unto deep. But in actual life, the marriage is not celebrated. There are innocent men who worship God after the tradition of their fathers, but their sense of duty has not yet extended to the use of all their faculties. And there are patient naturalists, but they freeze their subject under the wintry light of the ending, understanding. Is not prayer also a study of truth, -- a sally of the soul into the unfound infinite? No man ever prayed heartily, without learning something. But when a faithful thinker, resolute to detach every object from personal relations, and see it in the light of thought, shall, at the same time, kindle science with the fire of the holiest affections, then will God go forth anew into the creation. It will not need, when the mind is prepared for state university study, to question search for objects. The invariable mark of wisdom is to see the miraculous in the common.
What is a day? What is a year? What is summer? What is woman? What is a child? What is sleep? To our blindness, these things seem unaffecting. We make fables to racing essay hide the baldness of the fact and conform it, as we say, to the higher law of the mind. But when the fact is seen under the light of an idea, the gaudy fable fades and shrivels. Question. We behold the real higher law. To the wise, therefore, a fact is true poetry, and the most beautiful of fables.
These wonders are brought to our own door. You also are a man. Man and woman, and their social life, poverty, labor, sleep, fear, fortune, are known to you. Learn that none of these things is superficial, but that each phenomenon has its roots in the faculties and affections of the mind. Whilst the abstract question occupies your intellect, nature brings it in the concrete to be solved by your hands. It were a wise inquiry for essay for salem the closet, to essay ending compare, point by point, especially at remarkable crises in life, our daily history, with the rise and progress of ideas in the mind.
So shall we come to look at the world with new eyes. Oxford Mphil International Relations Thesis. It shall answer the endless inquiry of the intellect, -- What is truth? and of the affections, -- What is good? by yielding itself passive to the educated Will. Then shall come to pass what my poet said; `Nature is not fixed but fluid. Spirit alters, moulds, makes it. The immobility or bruteness of nature, is the absence of spirit; to pure spirit, it is fluid, it is volatile, it is obedient. Every spirit builds itself a house; and beyond its house a world; and beyond its world, a heaven. Know then, that the question, world exists for you.
For you is the phenomenon perfect. What we are, that only can we see. Personal Essays. All that Adam had, all that Caesar could, you have and can do. Adam called his house, heaven and earth; Caesar called his house, Rome; you perhaps call yours, a cobler's trade; a hundred acres of ploughed land; or a scholar's garret. Yet line for line and point for point, your dominion is as great as theirs, though without fine names. Build, therefore, your own world. As fast as you conform your life to the pure idea in your mind, that will unfold its great proportions. A correspondent revolution in things will attend the influx of the spirit. So fast will disagreeable appearances, swine, spiders, snakes, pests, madhouses, prisons, enemies, vanish; they are temporary and shall be no more seen.
The sordor and essay question, filths of nature, the sun shall dry up, and the wind exhale. Racing Essay. As when the summer comes from the question, south; the snow-banks melt, and letter, the face of the earth becomes green before it, so shall the advancing spirit create its ornaments along its path, and carry with it the beauty it visits, and the song which enchants it; it shall draw beautiful faces, warm hearts, wise discourse, and heroic acts, around its way, until evil is no more seen. The kingdom of man over nature, which cometh not with observation, -- a dominion such as now is beyond his dream of God, -- he shall enter without more wonder than the blind man feels who is gradually restored to perfect sight.'
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The Complete Guide to MLA Citations. This page provides an in-depth overview of MLA format. It includes information related to MLA citations, plagiarism, proper formatting for in-text and regular citations, and question, examples of citations for many different types of sources. Looking for APA? Check out Citation Machine’s guide on APA format. How to Be a Responsible Researcher or Scholar: Putting together a research project involves searching for information, disseminating and analyzing information, collecting information, and repurposing information.
Being a responsible researcher requires keeping track of the sources that were used to help develop your research project, sharing the information you borrowed in an ethical way, and giving credit to the authors of the racing essay, sources you used. Essay! Doing all of these things prevents plagiarism. Plagiarism is the act of using others’ information without giving credit or acknowledging them. There are many examples of plagiarism. Completely copying another individual’s work without providing credit to the original author is a very blatant example of plagiarism.
Plagiarism also occurs when another individual’s idea or concept is passed off as your own. Changing or modifying quotes, text, or any work of another individual is also plagiarism. Believe it or not, you can even plagiarize yourself! Re-using a project or paper from another class or time and saying that it is racing essay new is plagiarism. Essay Question! One way to prevent plagiarism is to add citations in your project where appropriate. A citation shows the reader or viewer of your project where you found your information. Citations are included in the body of a project when you add a quote into your project. Citations are also included in the body when you’re paraphrasing another individual’s information. These citations that are found in the body of racing essay a research paper are called in-text, or parenthetical citations. These citations are found directly after the information that was borrowed and are very brief in order to avoid becoming distracted while reading a project.
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Scroll down to find directions on how to create citations. How the Modern Language Association Helps You Become a Responsible Researcher. The Modern Language Association is an organization that was created to develop guidelines on essay everything language and literature related. They have guidelines on proper grammar usage and research paper layouts. In addition, they have English and foreign language committees, numerous books and journal publications, and an annual conference. The Modern Language Association is responsible for creating standards and guidelines on how to properly cite sources to prevent plagiarism. Their style is most often used when writing papers and citing sources in the liberal arts and for salem state university, humanities fields. Liberal arts is a broad term used to describe a range of subjects including the humanities, formal sciences such as mathematics and statistics, natural sciences such as biology and astronomy, and social science such as geography, economics, history, and others. The humanities specifically focuses on subjects related to languages, art, philosophy, religion, music, theater, literature, and ethics.
Believe it or not, there are thousands of other types of citation styles. While this citation style is most often used for the liberal arts and humanities fields, many other subjects, professors, and schools prefer citations and papers to essay be styled in MLA format. These specific guidelines and standards for creating citations was developed for numerous reasons. When scholars and researchers in the literature, language, and about indian, numerous other fields all cite their sources in the same manner, it makes it easier for readers to look at a citation and recognize and understand the different components of question a source. Oxford Mphil International Thesis! From looking at a citation, we can see who the author is, the title of the source, when it was published, and other identifiable pieces of information. Imagine how difficult it would be to understand the various components of a source if we didn’t all follow the same guidelines! Not only would it make it difficult to understand the source that was used, but it would also make it difficult for readers to locate it themselves. This streamlined process that was created aides us in understanding a researcher’s sources. How is the new version different than previous versions?
This citation style has changed dramatically over the past couple of years. Currently in its 8th edition, the 8th version is a citation style that is essay much different than the previous formatting style. In the 7th version, which is the format, or structure, that was previously used, researchers and scholars found it grueling to put their citations together. Why? Each source used a different citation structure. Researchers and scholars were required to look up the memoir personal, citation format that matched the type of ending question source they used. Our Town Essay! So, if a person used a book, a website, a journal article, a newspaper article, and essay ending, an e-book, all in one research project, they were required to look up how to cite each one of those sources because each was structured differently. Now, with the new version of MLA formatting, which is version 8, all source types use the same citation structure. The Modern Language Association enacted this new format due to the many new and memoir personal essays, innovative ways of essay ending question obtaining information. We are no longer receiving information through traditional means, such as books, websites, and articles. We can now obtain information through apps, advertisements, Tweets, other social media posts, and many other creative ways.
To make the process of creating citations easier for researchers and scholars, the Modern Language Association decided to have one MLA citing format, which works for all source types. Other changes were made as well. This includes: removing http:// and https:// from URLs. not including the city where a source was published or the name of the publisher from some source types (such as newspapers). the ability to use a screen name or username in place of an author’s full name. For Salem State! using the ending question, abbreviations vol. and no., for volume and number, when including information from a periodical. There are two types of indian citations. There are regular or complete citations, which are found at the end of research projects. These citations are usually listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names and include all of the essay ending, information necessary for readers to be able to locate the source themselves. Regular citations are generally placed in hr cover salary requirements this MLA citation format: Last name of the author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of essay question any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the date the personal, source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). There are times when additional information is added into the regular citation. Not sure how to transfer the information from your source into your citation?
Confused about the term, “containers?” See below for information and complete explanations of each component of the essay ending question, citation. The other type of citation, called an “in text citation,” is university included in the main part, or body, of a project when a researcher uses a quote or paraphrases information from another source. Essay Question! See the next section to find out how to memoir create in text citations. What are in text and parenthetical citations? As stated above, in text citations, also called parenthetical citations, are included in the main part of a project when using a quote or paraphrasing a piece of ending question information from another source. We include these types of citations in the body of a project for readers to racing essay quickly gain an idea as to where we found the information. These in text citations are found immediately after the quote or paraphrased information. Question! They contain a small tidbit of the information found in the regular citation. The regular, or complete, citation is located at the end of a project. Here’s what a typical in text or parenthetical citation looks like:
Throughout the novel, the mother uses a vast amount of Chinese wisdom to racing essay explain the world and people’s temperaments. She states, “each person is essay ending made of five elements….Too much fire and you have a bad temper. too little wood and essay for salem university, you bent too quickly. too much water and you flowed in too many directions” (Tan 31). This specific in essay ending question text citation, (Tan 31), is included so that the reader sees that we are quoting something from page 31 in oxford international Tan’s book. The complete, regular citation isn’t included in the main part of the project because it would be too distracting for essay question the reader. We want them to about education focus on ending our work and research, not necessarily our sources.
If the reader would like to see the memoir essays, source’s full information, and essay ending, possibly locate the about indian education, source themselves, they can refer to the last part of the project to find the regular citation. The regular citation, at the end of the project looks like this: Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club . Penguin, 1989, p. 31. If your direct quote or paraphrase comes from a source that does not have page numbers, it is acceptable to place a paragraph number (use the ending question, abbreviation par. Thesis! or pars.), sections (sec. or secs.), or chapters (ch. Essay! or chs.). Memoir Personal! If there are absolutely no numbers to help readers locate the exact point in the source, only include the essay ending, author’s last name. More About Quotations and How to Cite a Quote: Use quotes from outside sources to help illustrate and expand on your own points, but the majority of your paper should be your own writing and ideas. Include the quote exactly as you found it.
It is oxford thesis okay to pull and use only certain words or phrases from the ending, quote, but keep the words (spelling and capitalization) and punctuation the same. It is acceptable to break up a direct quote with your own writing The entire paper should be double spaced, including quotes. Example: Dorothy stated, “Toto,” then looked up and letter salary, took in her surroundings, “I’ve a feeling we’re not in ending question Kansas anymore“ ( Wizard of Oz ). If the quote is longer than four lines, it is necessary to make a block quote. Block quotes show the reader that they are about to read a lengthy amount of text from essay, another source. Start the essay ending question, quote on the next line, half an inch in from the memoir, left margin Do not use any indents at essay the beginning of the block quote Only use quotation marks if there are quotation marks present in the source If there is more than one paragraph in the block quote, start the next paragraph with the same half inch indent Add your in-text citation at racing essay the end of the block quote. While his parents sat there in surprise, Colton went onto say.
“Cause I could see you,” Colon said matter-of-factly. “I went up and essay ending question, out of my body and I was looking down and I could see the doctor working on my body. And I saw you and Mommy. You were in a little room by yourself, praying; and Mommy was in a different room, and oxford international, she was praying and talking on the phone” (Burpo xxi). Confused about whether footnotes and endnotes should be used? Footnotes and essay ending, endnotes are not used in this style.
Use in-text, or parenthetical citations, in the body of your work. In addition, create full, or regular citations, and place them at the end of your project on the Works Cited list. If you need help with in text and memoir personal essays, parenthetical citations, Citation Machine can help. Citation Machine’s MLA citation generator is simple and essay ending question, easy to personal essays use! Specific Components of a Citation. This section explains each individual component of the citation, with examples for each section. The author’s name is usually the first item listed in essay question the citation. Author names start with the last name, then a comma is oxford mphil international thesis added, and then the author’s first name (and middle name if applicable) is at the end. A period closes this information.
Here are two examples of how an author’s name can be listed in a citation: Poe, Edgar Allan. Wondering how to format the essay ending question, author’s name when there are two authors working jointly on a source? When there are two authors that work together on a source, the author names are placed in the order in for salem state university which they appear on the source. Place their names in this format: First listed author’s Last Name, First name, and Second author’s First Name Last Name. Here are two examples of how to essay question cite two authors:
Clifton, Mark, and Frank Riley. Paxton, Roberta J., and Michael Jacob Fox. There are many times when three or more authors work together on a source. This happens often with journal articles, edited books, and our town essay, textbooks. To cite a source with three or more authors, place the information in this format: First listed author’s Last name, First name, et al. As you can see, only essay ending include the first author’s name.
The other authors are accounted for by using et al. In Latin, et al. is translated to “and others.” If using Citation Machine’s citation generator, this abbreviation is automatically added for you. Here’s an example of racing essay a citation for three or more authors: Warner, Ralph, et al. How to Buy a House in ending question California . Edited by Alayna Schroeder, 12th ed., Nolo, 2009. Is there no author listed on your source? If so, in MLA formatting, exclude the author’s information from the citation and begin the citation with the title of the source. Was the source found on social media, such as a tweet, Reddit, or Instagram post? If this is the case, you are allowed to start the citation with the author’s handle, username, or screen name. Here is an example of how to cite a tweet:
@CarlaHayden. “I’m so honored to talk about digital access at about indian @UMBCHumanities. We want to share the @libraryofcongress collection.” Twitter , 13 Apr. Essay! 2017, 6:04 p.m., twitter.com/LibnOfCongress/status/852643691802091521. While most citations begin with the name of the memoir personal essays, author, they do not necessarily have to. Quite often, sources are compiled by editors. Essay! Or, your source may be done by a performer or composer. If your project focuses on oxford international relations someone other than the essay, author, it is acceptable to place that person’s name first in the citation. If you’re using Citation Machine’s citation generator, you will be able to choose the individual’s role from a drop down box. For example, let’s say that in your research project, you focus on Leonardo DiCaprio’s performances as an actor.
You’re quoting a line from the movie, Titanic , in your project, and you’re creating a complete citation for it in the Works Cited list. It is our town essay acceptable to show the reader that you’re focusing on essay ending Leonardo DiCaprio’s work by citing it like this in for salem state the MLA Works Cited list: DiCaprio, Leonardo, performer. Titanic . Directed by James Cameron. Paramount, 1997. Notice that when citing an individual other than the author, place the ending, individual’s role after their name. In this case, Leonardo DiCaprio is the performer. This is often done with edited books, too. Place the indian education, editor’s name first (in reverse order), add a comma, and then add the word editor.
If you’re still confused about essay how to place the authors together in a citation, Citation Machine can help! Our website is memoir easy to essay use and letter requirements, will create your citations in just a few clicks! The titles are written as they are found on the source, and in title form, meaning the ending question, important words start with a capital. Here’s an example of a title written properly: Practical Digital Libraries: Books, Bytes, and Bucks. Wondering whether to place your title in italics or quotation marks? It depends on whether the source sits by itself or not. If the source stands alone, meaning that it is an hr cover salary requirements, independent source, place the title in italics.
If the title is part of a larger whole, place the essay ending question, title of the source in quotation marks and the source it sits in, in with salary italics. When citing full books, movies, websites, or albums in their entirety, these titles are written in italics. However, when citing part of a source, such as an essay ending, article on oxford mphil thesis a website, a chapter in a book, a song on an album, or an article in a scholarly journal, the part is written with quotation marks and then the titles of the sources that they are found in are written in italics. Here are some examples to help you understand how to format titles and their containers. To cite Pink Floyd’s entire album, The Wall , cite it as this:
Pink Floyd. The Wall . Columbia, 1979. To cite one of the songs on Pink Floyd’s album, cite it as this: Pink Floyd. “Another Brick in the Wall (Part I).” The Wall , Columbia, 1979, track 3. To cite a fairy tale book in its entirety, cite it as this: Colfer, Chris.
The Land of Stories . Little Brown, 2016. To cite a specific story, or chapter, in the book, it would be cited as this: Colfer, Chris. “Little Red Riding Hood.” The Land of Stories , Little Brown, 2016, pp. 58-65. From the section above, you can see that titles can stand alone or they can sit in a container. Essay! Many times, sources can sit in more than one container. Wondering how?
When citing an article in a scholarly journal, the first container is the journal. The second container? It’s the database that the scholarly journal is found in. It is important to account for all containers, so that readers are able to locate the exact source themselves. When citing a television episode, the first container is the name of the show and the second container is the name of the our town essay, service that it could be streaming on, such as Netflix . If your source sits in question more than one container, the information about the second container is found at the end of the citation. Use the following format to cite your source with multiple containers : Last name of the author, First name of the author. Essay For Salem State University! “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and ending question, names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the essays about indian education, source, the question, name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). About! Title of essay ending question Second Container , roles and names of any other contributors, the version of the second container, any numbers associated with the personal, second container, the ending question, name of the second container’s publisher, the date the second container was published, location. If the source has more than two containers, add on another full other section at the end for with requirements each container.
Not all of the fields in the citation format above need to be included in essay your citation. In fact, many of these fields will most likely be omitted from your citations. Only include the elements that will help your readers locate the source themselves. Here is an example of a citation for a scholarly journal article found on a database. This source has two containers, the journal itself is one container, and the site it sits on is the other. Zanetti, Francois. “Curing with Machine: Medical Electricity in Eighteenth-Century Paris.” Technology and Culture , vol. International! 54, no. 3, July 2013, pp. 503-530.
Project Muse , muse.jhu.edu/article/520280. If you’re still confused about containers, Citation Machine’s MLA formatter, or MLA cite generator, can help! MLA citing is easier when using Citation Machine’s website. Many sources have people, besides the author, who contribute to the source. If your research project focuses on an additional individual besides the author, or you feel as though including other contributors will help the reader locate the source themselves, include their names in the citation. To include another individual in the citation, after the title, place the role of the individual, the word by, and then their name in essay ending question standard order.
If the name of the contributor comes after a period, capitalize the first letter in the role of the individual. If it comes after a comma, the essay state, first letter in the role of the individual is lowercased. Here’s an example of a citation for a children’s book with the name of the illustrator included. Rubin, Adam. Dragons Love Tacos . Illustrated by essay question Daniel Salmieri, Penguin, 2012. The names of editors, directors, performers, translators, illustrators, and letter with, narrators can often be found in this part of the citation. If the ending, source that you’re citing states that it is a specific version or edition, this information is placed in the “versions” section of the citation. When including a numbered edition, do not type out the number, use the numeral. Also, abbreviate the word edition to ed. Here is an example of a citation with a specific edition: Koger, Gregory. “Filibustering and Parties in essays the Modern State.” Congress Reconsidered , edited by Lawrence C. Dodd and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, 10th ed., CQ Press, 2013, pp.
221-236. Google Books , books.google.com/books?id=b7gkLlSEeqwClpg=PP1dq=10th%20editionpg=PR6#v=onepageq=10th%20editionf=false. Many sources have numbers associated with them. Essay Ending! If you see a number, different than the date, page numbers, or editions, include this information in the “numbers” section of the citation. This includes volume and/or issue numbers (use the abbreviations vol. and no.), episode numbers, track numbers, or any other numbers that will help readers identify the essays about education, specific source that you used. Do not include ISBN (International Standard Book Numbers) in the citation. In MLA format citing, it is important to essay ending include the name of the publisher (the organization that created or published the source), so that readers can locate the exact source themselves. Include publishers for all sources except for periodicals. Racing Essay! Also, for websites, exclude this information when the essay, name of the publisher matches the name of the website. Furthermore, the letter salary requirements, name of the publisher is often excluded from the citation for essay second containers, since the publisher of the letter with requirements, second container is not necessarily responsible for the creation or production of the source’s content. Publication dates are extremely important to include in citations.
They allow the reader to understand when sources were published. They are also used when readers are attempting to question locate the source themselves. Dates can be written in one of two ways. Researchers can write dates as: Whichever format you decide to use, use the same format for all of your citations. For Salem State! If using the Citation Machine’s citation generator, the date will be formatted in the same way for each citation. While it isn’t necessary to include the full date for all source citations, use the ending question, amount of information that makes the most sense to help your readers understand and locate the source themselves. Wondering what to do when your source has more than one date?
Use the date that is most applicable to your research. The location generally refers to the place where the readers can find the source. This includes page ranges, URLs, DOI numbers, track numbers, disc numbers, or even cities and about indian education, towns. When MLA citing websites, make sure to remove the beginning of the URL (http:// or https://) as it is not necessary to include this information. For page numbers, when citing a source that sits on ending only one page, use p. Example: p. 6. When citing a source that has a page range, use pp. and oxford relations, then add the page numbers. Example: pp. 24-38. Since the location is the final piece of the citation, place a period at essay the end.
Looking for an online tool to do the work for essays about you? Citation Machine can help! Our site is simple (and fun!) to use. ALL sources use this format: Last name of the author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and question, names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the for salem state, source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). Ending Question! * Title of with requirements Second Container , roles and names of any other contributors, the version of the essay ending question, second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the name of the second container’s publisher, the oxford mphil international relations, date the second container was published, location. *If the source does not have a second container, omit this last part of the citation. Remember, Citation Machine’s MLA formatter will help you save time and energy when creating your citations. Essay Ending Question! Check out our MLA Citation Machine page to learn more. Collins, Suzanne.
The Hunger Games . Scholastic, 2008. Khan, Maryam. “Co-branding in the Restaurant Industry.” Managing Tourism and Hospitality Services: Theory and International Application . Edited by B. Prideaux et al., CABI, 2005, pp. 73-82. Zak, Elizabeth. “Do You Believe in Magic? Exploring the oxford international, Conceptualization of Augmented Reality and its Implications for the User in the Field of Library and Information Science.” Information Technology Libraries , vol. 33, no. Ending Question! 3, 2014, pp. 23-50.
Online Scholarly Journal Articles: Kuzuhara, Kenji, et al. “Injuries in Japanese Mini-Basketball Players During Practices and Games.” Journal of Athletic Training , vol. 51. Mphil International Relations! no. 2, Dec. 2016, p. 1022. Gale Health Reference Center Academic , i.ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=HRCAsw=wu=nyplv=2.1id=GALE%7CA484460772it=rasid=91b1a34dda62a32f4cd82c768e8a6a97. When citing a website, individuals are often actually citing a specific page on a website. They’re not actually citing the entire website.
Here is the most common way to cite a page on ending a website: Start the citation with the name of the author who wrote the hr cover salary requirements, information on the page. If there isn’t an author listed, do not include this information in question the citation. Start the citation with the title. Memoir Essays! The title of the individual page is placed in quotation marks, followed by a period. Ending! Next, place the name of the website in italics, followed by a comma. If the name of the publisher matches the name of the author or the name of the title, do not include the racing essay, publisher’s information in the citation. The date the page or website was published comes next. Ending Question! End the citation with the URL. When including the URL, remove http:// and https:// from the URL. Since most websites begin with this prefix, it is not necessary to include it in racing essay the citation.
Last name, First name of author. “ Title of Web Page .” Title of Website, Publisher, Date published, URL. Rothfeld, Lindsay. “Smarter Education: The Rise of Big Data in the Classroom.” Mashable , 3 Sept. 2014, mashable.com/2014/09/03/education-data-video/#hViqdPbFbgqH. (When citing websites, remember to remove http:// and https:// from the essay question, URL.) Bloomgarden-Smoke, Kara. “Medium Cool.” New York Observer , 2 Mar.
2015, pp. 14-17. Skiba, Katherine. “Obama To Hold First Public Event Since Leaving Office in Chicago on Monday.” Los Angeles Times , 24 Apr. 2017, www.latimes.com/politics/la-na-obama-speech-20170424-story.html. “Three Turkeys.” Modern Family , produced by Steven Levitan and Christopher Lloyd, ABC, 19 Nov. 2014.
Home Alone . Performance by Macaulay Culkin, directed by mphil international thesis Chris Columbus, 20th Century Fox, 1990. DJ Mag. “Skream b2B Solardo Live from Claude VonStroke Presents The Birdhouse Miami.” YouTube , 29 Mar. 2017, youtu.be/4Q448x-LHGg. Gates, Melinda. “Today, Bill and I were deeply humbled to accept France’s Legion of Honour award on behalf of all our foundation’s partners and grantees.” Twitter , 21 Apr. Ending Question! 2017, 2:36 p.m., twitter.com/melindagates/status/855535625713459200. There are a variety of ways to cite an university, image.
This section will show how to ending question cite a digital image found on a website and an image in print. How to cite a digital image: Use this structure to cite a digital image: Last name, First name of the letter with salary requirements, creator (if available). “Title or Description of the essay, Image * . Education! Title of the question, Website , Publisher ** , Date published, URL. * if the digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description. Do not place the essays about, description in quotation marks or italics. In addition, only capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns. ** If the name of the publisher is the same as the author or the same name as the website, do not include the publisher in ending the citation. “NFL Red Zone Usage Sleepers: Identify Undervalued Players and Team Offenses.” RotoBaller , www.rotoballer.com/nfl-fantasy-football-cheat-sheet-draft-kit?src=bar.
Wondering how to racing essay cite an image found through a search engine, such as Google? Head to the site where the image “lives,” by clicking on the link that leads you to the website. Cite the image using the essay, information from the original site. How to cite an image in print: Last name, First name of the creator (if available). Memoir! Title or Description of the Image * . Title of the Container, such as a the ending question, Book Title, Magazine Title, etc ., Publisher ** , Date published, page or page range. * if the digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description. Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics.
In addition, only essays education capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns. ** If the name of the question, publisher is the same as the author or the same name as the website, do not include the publisher in the citation. Photograph of Kate Middleton. Metro New York , 19 July 2017, p.17. To cite a magazine in print, you’ll need the following pieces of information.
They can be found on the cover of the magazine and on the article itself: The name of the essay university, magazine The date the magazine was published The title of the magazine article The name of the author of the question, article The page or page range the article is found on. On the cover of most magazines, you can find the title of the magazine as well as the date the magazine was published. On the article itself, you can find the name of the article’s author(s), the title of the racing essay, article, and the page or page range that the article is ending question found on. If the article appears on for salem state university nonconsecutive pages, include the essay question, page number for the first page the article is racing essay found on, and then add a plus sign after it. Example: 61+ Place the information in this format: Last name, First name of the Article’s Author. “Title of the Article.” Title of the Magazine , Date published, page range. Example for the print magazine article above: Gopnik, Adam. “A New Man: Ernest Hemingway, Revised and Revisited.” The New Yorker , 3 July 2017, pp. 61-66.
An essay is an question, analytic writing piece that is generally short in length (compared to racing essay books and journal articles) and focuses on a specific topic or subject. Citing an essay is similar to citing a chapter in a book or a story in an anthology. Include the name of the individual author or the group of authors, the title of the essay (placed in quotation marks), the essay ending, title of the book, collection, or site the essay is found on international thesis (in italics), the name of the essay ending, editor (if there is essay for salem state one), the volume and issue number (if they are available), the publication date, and the location. The location can be either a page range or a URL. Here is an MLA formatting example of how to cite an essay: Hasen, Richard L. “Race or Party? How Courts Should Think About Republican Efforts to Make it Harder to Vote in North Carolina and Elsewhere.” Harvard Law Review Forum , vol. 125, no. 58, 7 Jan. 2014, harvardlawreview.org/2014/01/race-or-party-how-courts-should-think-about-republican-efforts-to-make-it-harder-to-vote-in-north-carolina-and-elsewhere/.
Place the name of the person being interviewed at essay ending the beginning of the citation, in the author’s position The title or description of the interview comes next. If there isn’t a formal title, only use the word Interview as the letter with, title and do not place it in essay ending question quotation marks or italics. If found online or in a book, include the title of the website or book after the title. After the university, title, it is acceptable to include the name of the ending question, interviewer. Include this information especially if it will help readers locate the interview themselves or if it’s relevant to the research paper. Include the publisher if it is a published interview and if it differs from any other information already found in the citation. Include the date that the interview was either published or the state university, date that the interview occurred. If found online, include the URL. Or, if found in a book, magazine, or other print source, include the ending, page range. Here are two examples:
Gutman, Dan. “Interview with Children’s Author Dan Gutman.” The Washington Post , 9 Mar. 2011, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/03/08/AR2011030805468.html. Lin, Brenda. Hr Cover! Interview. By Michele Kirschenbaum. 17 July 2017. Check to see if the the PDF is written by an individual, set of authors, or an organization or company. Essay Ending! If it is not written by an individual or a set of authors, use the name of the organization or company responsible for creating the PDF in personal essays place of the author’s name. Essay Question! Continue with the title of the PDF, version (if there are different versions available), the publisher (only include if the for salem state, name of the publisher is different than the name of the author or the title), the publication date, and the location (usually a URL if found online). Notice that in the example below, the name of the publisher (The American Podiatric Medical Association) is omitted since the name of the publisher is the essay ending question, same name as the author.
MLA format example: American Podiatric Medical Association. The Real Cost of Diabetes: Diabetic Foot Complications Are Common and Costly . apma.files.cms-plus.com/ProductPDFs/APMA_TodaysPodiatrist_Infographic_8.5x11.pdf. To cite a full textbook in print, you’ll need to find the memoir personal, following pieces of information: The name of the ending question, author(s) or editor(s) The title of the textbook, including any subtitles The version of the textbook (such as a numbered edition or revised edition) The name of the publisher The year the textbook was published.
Place the pieces of information in this format: Last name, First name of the author or Last name, First name, editor. Title of the Textbook . Racing Essay! Version, Publisher, Year published. If the essay, textbook was compiled by an editor, use this format at essay state the beginning of the citation: Last name, First name, editor. Examples of how to cite a textbook in print: Lilly, Leonard S. Braunwald’s Heart Disease: Review and Assessment . 9th ed., Elsevier Saunders, 2012. Cherny, Nathan, et al., editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine . 5th ed., Oxford UP, 2015. How to Cite a Chapter from a Textbook in Print: To cite an ending, individual chapter, you’ll need to find the following pieces of information:
The name of the author(s) of the individual chapter or section The title of the individual chapter or section The title of the textbook The name of the editors of the textbook The version of the racing essay, textbook (such as a numbered edition or a revised edition) The name of the publisher The year the textbook was published. Place the pieces of information in this format: Last name, First name of the chapter author. “Title of the essay ending, chapter or section.” Title of the Textbook , edited by First name Last name of editor, version, Publisher, Year published, page or page range. Example of essay for salem university how to cite a chapter from a textbook in print: Riley, Simon C., and essay question, Michael J. Murphy. “Student Choice in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Student-Selected Components.” Oxford Textbook of Medical Education , edited by hr cover with Kieran Walsh, Oxford UP, pp. 50-63.
Surveys can be found online or in print. Find the format below that matches the essay, type of survey you’re attempting to cite. To cite a survey found on a website, follow this structure: Last name, First name of survey’s creator(s) OR organization responsible for memoir personal its creation. “Title of the Survey.” Title of the Website , Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, URL. International Food Information Council Foundation. “Food Decision 2016: Food Health Survey.” Food Insight , International Center of Excelled in Food Risk Communication, 2016, www.foodinsight.org/sites/default/files/2016-Food-and-Health-Survey-Report_%20FINAL_0.pdf. To cite a survey found in print, follow this structure: Last name, First name of survey’s creator(s) OR organization responsible for its creation. “Title of Survey.” Title of ending Publication , Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, page or page range that survey is oxford mphil international thesis found on. Don’t see your source type on ending this guide? Citation Machine’s citation generator can create your citations for essays you!
Our website will help you develop your works cited page and in text and parenthetical citations in essay just a few clicks. Looking for APA? Check out Citation Machine’s guide on APA format. Check out this article to see it in essays about the news. When it comes to formatting your paper or essay for ending academic purposes, there are specific guidelines to hr cover with salary requirements follow. Ending Question! The section that follows will answer the following questions: How to format an MLA paper , How to create papers , and How to write in MLA format . If you’re trying to learn how to format your essay, this section will help you too. Use paper that is 8?-by-11 inch in size.
This is the standard size for copier and printer paper Use high quality paper Your research paper or essay should have a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, left, and memoir essays, right sides of the paper While most word processors automatically format your paper to have one-inch margins, you can check or modify the margins of your paper by going to the “Page setup” section of your word processor. Question! Click here for more on margins. Use an easily readable font, specifically one that allows readers to see the difference between regular and italicized letters. Times New Roman, Arial, and Helvetica are recommended options Use 12 point size font. Should I double space the paper, including citations?
Double space the entire paper There should be a double space between each piece of information in personal essays the heading Place a double space between the essay ending, heading and the title Place a double space between the title and personal, the beginning of the essay The Works Cited page should be double spaced as well. All citations are double spaced. Text should be left-justified, meaning that the text is aligned, or lies flush, against the left margin New paragraphs should be indented half an inch from the left margin Indents signal to the reader that a new concept or idea is about to begin Use the “tab” button on your keyboard to create an essay, indent Add one space after all punctuation marks. Include a proper heading and title The heading should include the following, on separate lines, starting one inch from the top and left margins: Your full name Your teacher or professor’s name The course number Date Dates in the heading and letter with salary requirements, the body of your essay should be consistent. Use the essay, same format, either Day Month Year or Month Day, Year throughout the entire paper Examples: 27 July 2017 or July 27, 2017 The title should be underneath the heading, centered in the middle of the page, without bold, underlined, italicized, or all capital letters. Number all pages, including the Works Cited page Place page numbers in the top right corner, half an inch from the top margin and one inch from the indian education, right margin.
Include your last name to the left of the page number. The Works Cited list should be at the end of the paper, on its own page. If a citation flows onto the second line, indent it in half an inch from the left margin (called a hanging indent). For more information on the Works Cited list, refer to essay question “How to Make a Works Cited Page,” which is found below. According to the Modern Language Associatin’s official guidelines for formatting a research paper, it is not necessary to create or include an about indian, individual title page at the beginning of a research project. Essay! Instead, follow the essays about indian, directions above, under “Heading Title,” to ending create a proper heading. This heading is featured at memoir the top of the first page of the research paper or research assignment. If your instructor or professor does in fact require or ask for a title page, follow the directions that you are given. They should provide you with the information needed to create a separate, individual title page.
If they do not provide you with instructions, and you are left to create it at your own discretion, use the header information above to help you develop your research paper title page. You may want to include other information, such as the essay question, name of your school or university. The MLA Works Cited page is generally found at the end of hr cover salary requirements a research paper or project. Essay Ending Question! It contains a list of all of the citations of sources used for the research project. Follow these directions to format the Works Cited list to match the Modern Language Association’s guidelines.
The Works Cited list has its own page, at the end of a research project Include the essays about indian, same running head as the rest of the essay, project (Your last name and then the page number). The Works Cited List has the final page number for the project. Name the personal essays, page “Works Cited,” unless your list only includes one citation. In that case, title it as “Work Cited.” The title of the page (either Works Cited or Work Cited) is placed one inch from the top of the page, centered in the middle of the document. Double space the entire document, even between the title of the page and the first citation. Ending Question! Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation (usually the last name of the author or the first word in the title if the about indian, citation does not include the author’s name. Essay Ending Question! Ignore A, An, and The if the title begins with these words.) All citations begin flush against the left margin. If the citation is long in length, and rolls onto a second or third line, the memoir, lines below the first line are indented half an inch from the left margin. This is called a “hanging indent.” The purpose of a hanging indent is to make the citations easier to read. Wai-Chung, Ho. “Political Influences on Curriculum Content and Musical Meaning: Hong Kong Secondary Music Education, 1949-1997.” Journal of Historical Research in ending question Music Education , vol.
22, no. 1, 1 Oct. 2000, pp. 5-25. Periodicals Index Online , search-proquest-com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/pio/docview/1297849364/citation/6B70D633F50C4EA0PQ/78?accountid=35635. Works Cited pages can be longer than one page. Use as many pages as necessary.
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essays etc This page is full of essays that I wrote at University and College. I didn't get 'A's on ending question all of them - just most of them - so steal at your own risk.This format is essay -of course - just temporary. History 339 Primary Documents Review Robert Jago 20015294 Document One: Debates on the Passage of the Quebec Act, House of Commons, 1774: Each party in the debate accepts that it is right and just that the newly conquered subjects of essay question, Canada should be assimilated with regards to religion and language. Where the oxford mphil relations thesis, parties differ is in the 'law-form' of the ending, country and the rights of English colonists and tradesmen therein.
The Attorney General, Lord Thurlow, proposes that it is unwise to create a democratic system of government in the new colony. He states that, 'humanity, justice, and wisdom equally conspire to advise you to with salary requirements, leave them [institutions] to the people just as they were'. With regard to the Englishman's right to carry his laws with him over to ending, the new colony, the Attorney General considers this to racing essay, be as absurd an essay ending expectation as if a Londoner expected the laws of relations thesis, his city to follow him to the Isle of Guernsey. On this latter point, the Solicitor General, Alexander Wedderburn, claims that the rights of Englishmen should be withheld from Canada so as to 'keep alive in their breasts this attachment to their native soil'. The contrary argument comes from Colonel Barre and Mr. Charles Fox, and Mr. Essay. Edmund Burke. The former argued from a jingoistic position, that the Attorney General should be more concerned with his English countrymen in Canada - who emigrated to the country in the expectation of enjoying the same rights and privileges as they had in our town essay their motherland. Furthermore, Colonel Barre claims that the imposition of the English constitution is not a punishment, but, due to ending, its liberal nature, it is a reward. Mr.
Fox expands upon the latter argument and suggests that whatever elements of English law that the local inhabitants may find disagreeable may be easily adjusted to better fit their temperament. Finally, Mr. Fox, foreshadowing the argument by Mr. Burke in the years to come, states that his opposition to the authoritarian constitution to be continued in Canada is based in his belief that, 'America is about indian education not to be governed by force, but by affection and question interest'. Mr. Burke partially digresses from the particular topic at hand and in stead makes the 'slippery slope' argument, that a tyrannical government in Canada will be used by our town essay unnamed forces at home as an example to show that 'stronger measures' are better suited for governing.
Finally, in another tangential argument, Lord North proclaims his support for ending the bill in order to prevent the establishment of a free assembly composed entirely of Roman Catholics. Document Two: Edmund Burke, Speech on Conciliation with America: In this document Mr. Edmund Burke seems to essays indian education, echo Mr. Fox's argument from the previous essay. Edmund Burke argues that America's bond to the British Empire rests solely on the feeling amongst the Americans that English Liberty and English rule are one and essay ending question indivisible. He argues that if Americans were shown that Liberty and English government were separable then the bond would be broken, because Americans could find 'tyranny anywhere'. Document Three: Edmund Burke, Speech on Fox's East India Bill: In this document Edmund Burke draws a distinction between a classical Charter, which may help enumerate some of the natural rights of men, and the East India Company's Charter, which illuminates the letter salary requirements, Company's rights over men. Mr.
Burke claims that all such political arrangements are artificial and essay are part of a social contract. While the East India Company has fairly, legally, and justly acquired its dominion in India for money, it must not disregard that in doing so it formed a social contract with the Indians and therefore it must run its lawful administration to their eventual benefit. Document Four: William Cobbett, Political Register: This document has a surprisingly twenty-first century view of the Raj . William Cobbett argues that the hr cover with salary, conquest of India is the essay ending question, greatest crime in the history of the world, it is without justification, and the unceasing wars which accompany it are a waste of English lives, and a slander of our town essay, English honor and glory. Essay Question. Document Five: William Wilberforce, Speech on the East India Company's Charter Bill: William Wilberforce fears that Britain is too easily sitting on its laurels with regards to India. He fears that the impressive edifice that is the British Raj has blinded England to how tenuous their rule is. The reason for this is that Britain has failed to win the affection of the Indians.
William Wilberforce's solution to the lack of affection the Indians may feel towards Britain is to recreate the Indians, as an for salem Asian race of essay, Englishmen. Document Number 6, Thomas Munro on the Employment of Natives in the Public Service: Thomas Munro proposes that the British are courting disaster if they continue to exclude Indians from high public office in India. He writes that the Empire's hold over them should be one of affection, and that that affection is personal won by allowing the Indians into the highest offices of the Empire. He writes that excluding Indians from essay ending question high office would remove the incentive for Indians to educate themselves along British standards. Without such an essay for salem education their civilization would sink still further. He concludes that British rule should be maintained permanently in India so that the essay ending, process of Anglicisation and civilisation may continue until Britain 'shall in time so far improve the state, character of our Indian subjects as to enable them to govern and protect themselves'. Document Number 7, Thomas Babington MacCaulay Sppech on ending question the Government of India: Thomas MacCaulay reiterates Thomas Munro's earlier argument that Indians should be admitted to all of the high offices of India so that this incentive might help raise the oxford mphil thesis, general character of the Indians. MacCaulay draws on divine providence in his explanation of the British object in India. He writes: 'we shall never consent to . Essay Question. stupify and paralyse a great people who God has committed to our charge '. MacCaulay considers that the racing essay, civilizing mission in India can only ending question add to Britain's honour. he concludes by epitomizing his and our town essay Thomas Munro's argument that the 'empire is the imperishable empire of our arts and ending our morals, our literature and our laws'.
Document 8, William Huskisson Speech on moving for a select committee on the civil government if Canada: William Huskisson attacks the feeling in Parliament that the empire must pay its own way and bring some material benefit to the Home Islands. He argues that Britain has a duty to her subjects and not the other way around; that Britain has formed numerous colonies in our town essay her own image and that abandoning these colonies of Englishmen [indistinguishable from ending question themselves] would be 'an indelible disgrace'. He attacks these men as 'Little Englanders' and appeals to their patriotism by invoking Britain's civlizing mission to the world. Document 9, Edward Gibbon Wakefield: In this document, Mr. Wakefiled describes the anarchic British settlement of New Zealand and the problem of dis-honourable settlers run riot over the natives. Our Town Essay. His solution is to send the islands a Bishop in order to supervise the essay ending, settlers. Memoir. Document Ten: Sir Thomas Foxwell Buxton, Report of the Parliamentary Select Committee on Aborigines (British Settlements): Sir Thomas first accepts that it is right and just for Britain to question, find new outlets for the surplus population of the Home Islands. However with this right comes the duty to supervise that colonisation in racing essay order to check an evil as great as slavery - the ending, oppression of the natives of 'barbarous countries'.
The chief reason for their oppression is the distance between the settlers that commit the crimes and the English courts fit to punish them. Document Eleven: John George Lambton, Earl of Durham, Report on the Affairs of British North America: In this document the Earl of memoir essays, Durham proposes the union of ending question, British America into a new nation which would allow the local population to have some say in the government. Personal Essays. The proximity of the United States has daily shown the British Americans that enjoy a poorer material life than their southern cousins and this creates a move for separation from the Empire. The only way that this can be countered is essay ending through the our town essay, fostering of national feeling which would give the essay ending, British Americans 'a country which they would be unwilling to international relations, see absorbed even into one more powerful'. The Earl of Durham also finds that many people in the metropole are too ready to ending question, leave the security of the British dominion over America to the common ties of affection. Document Twelve: Lord Edward Godffrey Smith Stanley, Speech in the House of Commons: Lord Edward Godffrey Smith Stanley, states that while Canada is a military liability to Britain, its commercial and political importance far outweigh this problem. He also writes that if certain Canadian parochials would wish to separate their country from Britain's nominal control, they must consider that while Britain does gain much from Canada, Canada gains far more materially from Britain and the Imperial connection. Education. Document Thirteen: John Stuart Mill, Principles of Political Economy: John Stuart Mill writes that nations have a duty to colonize the world in order open the resources of the ending, under developed nations to the world and to the benefit of all mankind. He notes that while the principle of comparative advantage is oxford generally accepted, a similar principle, applying to labour is rarely considered, 'the exportation of labourers and capital from essay question a place where their productive power is less to a place where it is greater, increases . the aggregate produce of the labour and capital of the world'.
Document Fourteen: Richard Cobden, Speech at Manchester: Richard Cobden opposes the military expenditures related to maintaining an empire. He writes that surely the English do not intend to maintain the empire by this force of racing essay, arms, and if as some argue, arms are needed to defend trade, then why is question a similar expenditure of the machines of war not needed to ensure the security of the requirements, transatlantic trade with the United States. He also argues that the solution to the frequent insurrections by the natives throughout the Empire is for 'civilised men [to] treat savages like men'. Document Fifteen: Richard Cobden, Letters on India: Richard Cobden expresses the fear that like Greece and Rome before her, Britain may be 'corrupted and demoralized' by her Asian Empire. He appears to want to hasten the end of the essay ending, Raj by removing the 'screen' of the British East India Company from the administration of India, so that Parliament could meditate on the awesome responsibility of governing and civilising more than one hundred million people. Document Sixteen: Earl of Rosebery, Speech to the Leeds Chamber of Commerce: The Earl of Rosebery introduces the term 'Imperial Federation'. The purpose of such a community is to ensure the continued connection between Britain and her dominions. The previous claims that Britain must shoulder the our town essay, burden of Empire, and that the colonies are a drain on her materially and spiritually have given way to the Earl's claim that it is solely because of the Empire that the trade with the essay, colonies is so high.
He notes that trade with Australia and its three million inhabitants is the same in real numbers as trade with the United States (a liberated colony) and its sixty million inhabitants. Mphil Relations. Document Seventeen: Benjamin Disraeli, Speech at the Crystal Palace: Disraeli attacks the 'Little Englanders' and ending the liberals for their attempts to undermine the Empire. Disraeli claims that if not for the devotion and loyalty of the colonies to England, the imperial ties would have been severed. Disraeli finds that the time is right for the consolidation of the our town essay, Empire into a federation with an Imperial Tariff, military, and parliament. Document Eighteen: W.E. Essay. Gladstone, England's Mission: Gladstone undermines the cause of Imperial federation by calling it a 'superstition equally gross and mischevious'. He again appeals to essays, divine providence and 'England's mission' which appears to be to create outlets for her surplus population.
The glory of founding these repositories of men is that they are also repositories of English liberty and culture and therefore are bound to her by 'moral and social sympathies' as opposed to the writ and fiat of Downing Street. Document Nineteen: John Bright, Speech on India: John Bright renews the call to administer to India with an eye for its eventual independence along a British model. However he does not appeal to a sense of future glory or 'England's mission' as justification, but instead writes that Britain should 'make amends for the original crime upon ending question, which much of our power in India is founded'. Document Twenty: John Robert Steeley, The Expansion of England: India for the moment excepted, John Robert Steeley finds that unique aspect of 'Greater Britain' is its shared nationality. He draws the distinction between the British Empire and this greater British nation which is an enormous agrandisement of the national estate and allows for an Englishmen to travel anywhere on earth and still find himself at home. On a separate point, Steeley writes that the racing essay, Raj has removed from the Indians the native Official class which is necessary for essay ending them to have self government. If Britain were to remove herself from our town essay India, she would be abandoning it to chaos; therefore, for the good of the ending question, Indians (and not for hr cover with the honour of ending, those Englishmen that conquered them) the Raj must continue until the eventual goal of self-government is at hand. Britain should not delude herself about having won the love of the Indians, because unlike the civilising mission of Rome in Iberia, Britain can offer the Indians only an austere 'cold daylight' to their previous 'warm gorgeous twilight'. Document Twenty-one: Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury, Speech in the House of Lords: The Marquess of Salisbury admonishes his fellow Lords for failing to take the racing essay, initiative in the expansion of the colonies.
He writes that the rising walls of protectionism and the advancing colonial frontiers of her competitors are putting Britain at a grave disadvantage. She must therefore act immediately at any chance to win a legacy for her grandchildren in fertile places such as Uganda lest such places become part of a German or French legacy. Document Twenty-two: Lord Curzon of Kedleston, Speech at Farewell Dinner, Byculla Club, Bombay: Lord Curzon describes the British civil servant in India as someone of the highest moral principles. He writes that these moral principles alone are the essay question, justification for the British presence in India. Document Twenty-three: Lord Milner, Speech to the Manchester Conservative Club: Lord Milner describes the innumerable benefits bestowed upon university, Britain by her dominions. These dominions alone will ensure that Britain will remain a great power, just as their absence will ensure her material impoverishment. His slogan, 'One throne, one flag, one citizenship' summarizes his position. Document Twenty-four: Sir Frederick Dealtry Lugard, The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa: The author enumerates the responsibility of British rulers to the native inhabitants of her colonies. This is the first part of the essay ending, dual mandate in the tropics. As part of that mandate the British must raise the about, moral stature of the natives and country that they rule; in order to do so the British themselves must maintain the highest of moral standards in order to ensure their prestige and authority. The second part of the mandate is the essay, development of the tropical economy so that its resources may be available to all of mankind.
Document Twenty-five: George Bernard Shaw, The Man of hr cover letter with salary requirements, Destiny: George Bernard Shaw, speaking through Napoleon expounds upon English hypocrisy. He writes that 'an Englishman does every thing on principle'. GB Shaw writes that an English man's morals are interpreted so as to justify his nation's necessity. Document Twenty-six: J.A. Hobson, Imperialism: A Study: Hobson's is a socialist interpretation of the support and expansion of the British Empire. The author quotes Cecil Rhodes when he said 'Her Majesty's Flag [is] the essay question, greatest commercial asset in essays education the world'. Document Twenty-seven: J. Ramsay MacDonald, Labor and the Empire: Ramsay MacDonald derides the character of the men of the colonial service. He complains that they have done their duty in the colonies with the essay ending, narrowest of minds and hr cover with requirements have refused to essay question, understand the minds of the natives. Our Town Essay. He lays the blame at a national pride which has degraded into racial chauvanism.
Document Twenty-eight: General Jan Christian Smuts, Speech at Banquet given in his honor by member of both Houses of Parliament: General Smuts describes the Empire as a world in itself, or a 'Commonwealth of Nations' rather than an Empire. He writes that while there may be Empires such as India and essay ending Egypt within this commonwealth, the bonds within it are not those of a traditional empire such as Russia or Rome, but rather ties of affection. For General Smuts, the hr cover requirements, British Empire, with its foundation in the Hereditary Monarchy, stands for 'a fuller, a richer, and more various life among all the nations that compose it'. Document Twenty-nine: Clement R. Atlee, The Labour Party in Perspective: Clement Atlee states that the two pillars of the essay ending question, Labour party's policy for hr cover letter with the Empire are 'self government' and essay ending 'socialisation'. Essays About Indian. The first pillar involves allowing for self-government where it is possible, and where it is ending not possible, formally recognizing the racing essay, colonies as mandates within the essay ending question, League of oxford mphil international thesis, nations structure. By opening the colonies for inspection by the League of Nations, the Labour Party intended to ensure that the ending question, League accepted some of the responsibility for defending the colonies, thus taking some of the pressure off of the British military. The second pillar is less defined. The only concrete proposal of Atlee's is to turn over our town essay the control of the 'means of production' in the colonies to the League of Nations.
Criminology 135 Assignment Three Robert Jago 200015294 In his book, Multicultural Citizenship, Will Kymlicka expounds upon the basis of the collective rights of the several types of ending question, groups that make up Canada. He claims that there are first and foremost the two founding nations; This primary grouping is composed of the descendants of the colonizers who created the state in their image. This primary group founded the racing essay, state with their conceptions of rights and ending question privileges in mind. Kymlicka states that these two founding groups are rightfully afforded every chance at self-government. Together with the founders there are immigrants, or 'New Canadians'. Racing Essay. Immigrants and other non-primary (or non-founding) groups do not share in the primary groups' rights. These non-primary groups have no legitimate or just claims to have separate self-governing institutions. Most importantly, these non-primary groups have no moral right whatsoever to have their cultures or languages recognized in an official capacity. The reason that the non-primary groups do not hold the same types of nationality rights as the primary groups is because they voluntarily surrendered their rights as a distinct people by emigrating to an established state and society. Essay Question. The duty of New Canadians is to hr cover salary requirements, assimilate themselves into the dominant society.
The hundreds of Aboriginal peoples that inhabit Canada poses a different sort of rights than either the founders or the immigrants do. Because aboriginal or 'native' Canadians are part of in Canada because of force, they continue to essay, possess the same nationality rights that any other sovereign people posses. Native rights were never surrendered voluntarily, therefore they continue to exist. It is should be noted that all individuals, regardless of international thesis, their group affiliation [or lack thereof], have certain 'natural rights' such as the question, freedom of speech and assembly and of life, liberty and property. Our Town Essay. As sovereign peoples, aboriginals continue to have the right to their own justice system. They have a right to conscript people, they have a right to execute people and so on and so forth. They also have a right to essay ending, be un-democratic; the rights of peoples and nations have long been recognized as entirely separate from the natural rights of individuals. With it decided that aboriginal nations continue to posses a broad range of nationality rights, the main question at hand is whether or not they should exercise any of these rights. A further question is what is the duty of the Canadian state, if any, to aboriginal individuals, who have a legal status as native and, Canadian citizens. A further question is, should non-status natives, who in many respects are similar to new Canadians, be considered part of this equation. Racing Essay. To begin to answer these questions there needs first to be a summary of the ending question, state of indian, affairs for natives in ending question the criminal justice system.
It is commonly agreed that the central problem behind much native crime is substance abuse , whether that be heroin on the streets of Vancouver, Alcohol in the reserves of Saskatchewan, or gasoline and glue in the shanties of Labrador. Racing Essay. On some reserves, alcohol is essay responsible for hr cover letter 95% of crime, with nearly 100% of the adult population involved in some way or other. Furthermore, this alcohol abuse leads to a disproportionate amount of essay ending, violent crime including spousal and child abuse - both of which may lead to further cycles of family violence. Outside of reserves, natives are disproportionately represented in violent crime and drug related crime as well as domestic violence. Natives comprise between 8 and 68 percent of the provincial prison populations, well beyond their share of the population. There are numerous reasons why natives come into constant conflict with the law. One such reason for native conflict with the law is thesis what can be termed, 'a problem of policing'. Several studies have shown that white police officers are more likely to deal with a complaint involving white people without recourse to arrest. When these same white police officers come into similar conflicts with native or black individuals they are more likely to resort to arrest. One response to this problem of policing is to hire native police officers to serve in areas with large native populations.
However, by enlisting natives to police natives one can be said to be pandering to racial biases; it is not dissimilar from essay ending enlisting whites to police whites, blacks to police blacks, and so forth - it is at best an essay unsettling proposal. Furthermore, besides the task of making such a proposal socially acceptable there is a growing body of evidence which shows that the racial biases that native police officers would have may not necessarily benefit natives. In a study regarding the use of deadly force in the United States, it was found that black officers were just as likely to shoot black suspects as were white officers. It was hypothesized that there was both an institutional and meta-cultural bias against question, black men and many police officers had this bias, regardless of racing essay, their own colour. This may also hold true for natives. Natives have traditionally been under valued in white society and ending this view may have been internalized by natives. The internalization of colonialism and the affectations of it is apparent in Verdun-Jones and Griffiths' text.
They imply that there is a single native society with traditional communal values and that is based on consensus. Each of those assertions is absurd. For Salem University. Native societies are extremely diverse and any unifying aspects are the product of colonialism- something that the authors blame for the high rates of criminality amongst natives. Traditional native society in British Columbia was not based on ending question communal property in memoir personal the current sense, but was based on clan or familial property that was viciously guarded. There was no peace amongst the first nations of ending, British Columbia. Crime fighting in oxford mphil thesis pre-contact societies more often involved physical violence than consensus and 'community healing'. As for communities as they exist today, they are the direct products of colonialism.
Natives never had an egalitarian society with equal justice for ending all as each type of essay state university, criminal reform listed in the text holds as an axiom. Traditional native society in British Columbia was supported upon a superstructure of essay, slavery, violence and the absolute rights of racing essay, private and family property. In order to solve the problems of native communities there must be a whole hearted acceptance of some aspects of question, European culture. There must be a recognition of the pillars of common law. Racing Essay. There must be a recognition of the formal, legal equality of men ,women, and foreigners.
There must be a recognition of the essay ending question, right to confront accused, there must be a statute of limitations, a right of appeal, and all of the basic rights regarding the use of evidence. Before any major reforms can be undertaken there needs to be a recognition that each level of essay for salem state university, government has some specific responsibilities with regard to essay ending, natives. Racing Essay. The native governments themselves have a responsibility first and foremost for preserving native culture and civilization [the term is question here used loosely]. The federal governments under their fiduciary responsibility [held by the crown under section 22] have a duty to native individuals. These dual roles are enshrined in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. What these roles mean for essay for salem state justice reform is that each government holds a separate interest and must guard this interest in any decision regarding reforms. This does impinge upon essay ending, the inherent and moral right of sovereignty that the various native nations hold, but there are some political realities that supercede these rights and essay for salem state one of essay ending, them is that native Canadians are - in the least - the bearers of essay for salem state, dual loyalties , national or ethnic and political. The first loyalty is to their own racial government, and the second is to the civil government in Ottawa. Question. With regard to about indian education, justice reforms, these separate roles do come into essay, conflict. There has been at least one case brought before the courts on our town essay Vancouver Island regarding the excesses of community justice. One man who had become known for drinking and ending behaving irresponsibly while living in Victoria, was kidnapped under the order of about, his community's native elders, and with the consent of his family, conscripted into a traditional native healing ceremony.
If the interests of the community had prevailed we would have heard little of this case. However, the essay question, man in question exercised his rights as a Canadian citizen and invoked the charter against the community that unlawfully attacked him. The men that took him on community orders and beat him into sobriety were charged with kidnapping and assault, much to the consternation of his family and community. The federal government also has a duty to protect the racing essay, community at large - that is to question, say, white Canada from dangerous individuals regardless of race or nationality. Certain offenses such as forcible rape have recently been treated differently if they had been committed by a native. Hr Cover Letter With Salary Requirements. Because of the harsh realities of the residential schools, many natives were sexually abused and have begun to act this out on other people, through forcible rape, or child abuse et. al.. Any federal actions in justice reform must therefore take these many factors into consideration. First and foremost is the ending question, right of natives to have their own justice system. Second is the general issue of accountability and democracy enshrined in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Third, their is the fiduciary responsibility to native individuals, coupled with the Peace Order and Good Government related duties of the government to ensure public safety and the general welfare of the non-native populace.
The various native governments have one sole concern on this issue and personal essays that is advancing their national self interest. It is an affront to the dignity of a sovereign nation to have their nationals arrested, tried and essay ending imprisoned in essay state a foreign justice system. The most powerful regular exercise of state power is the ability of the state to essay ending, arrest, try , and essay for salem university detain its wayward citizens. The native governments, if they are to act as real nations do, need this 'big stick' in order to survive and rebuild. The nationalization of the justice system by ending question the Native governments is imperative if they are to legitimately exercise authority over their citizens.. The decision on whether or not there should be a native justice system lay entirely with the federal government. The question before the federal government is, should it devolve, delegate, or maintain its current responsibilities for the administration of justice on the native reserves. One option for the federal government is to create a parallel federal government of natives with the accompanying institutions such as a court and police system. Letter Requirements. This was proposed in the Royal Commission on Native Peoples. This option is the most contentious.
The rest of Canada is likely to balk at any form of consociational government between the races. Any new political arrangements with natives should be on ending a territorial basis, because of Canadian's familiarity with this form of racing essay, governmental responsibility. Another reason for the devolution of justice on a territorial basis is the sheer diversity of native nations. Essay. Some native peoples may not wish to racing essay, accept responsibility for the administration of their own justice system for one reason or another. Perhaps they do not trust the factions within their nations to be able to impartially administer a court and essay ending question police system. The record to memoir personal essays, date of native government and policing has shown that impartiality and essay the independence of the police are far from guaranteed. The purpose for with constructing a separate native justice system is to mitigate the harmful effects of colonialism which are responsible for the heightened criminality of natives. While the proposition that colonialism has hurt natives more than it has helped them is open to question, what must be dealt with here is whether or not a separate court and policing system for each native nation will 'heal the ending question, wounds' of a century or two of colonial rule. The answer is, yes and no. Essays. On some reserves or tribes with large enough populations and with the basic tenets of western-liberal justice and democracy established, a justice system would be a welcome step on the road to becoming full partners in essay the federation. On reserves here nepotism and our town essay ancient class and racial bigotry reign, the addition of the police would be half way towards creation of a police state.
The devolution of justice to some native nations would allow for the racialization or nationalization of many high paid and professional jobs. Ending. This would immediately give a boost to our town essay, the native societies. Beyond that, native civilians would benefit from having full access to people of their own race who share their cultural prejudices and traits. Essay Ending. However, it is unclear if these utopian reserves of our town essay, rights and democracy and brotherhood exist. The most likely and most beneficial choice the federal government could make for natives is to delegate the responsibility for the court system to them. This would mean the stationing of federal officers on the basis of their race and national origin [presumably native - or more specifically Salish, Tsipsian or whatever] to reserves. Furthermore it would mean the creation of essay ending question, a separate system of circuit or county courts for the reserves that would remain part of the provincial or federal court system. Perhaps this new system could be adjunct to the federal court. A separate layer of the memoir personal, federal or provincial courts that would serve justice on reserves only would be halfway between an ending question autonomous paralell native federation, and a native archipelago of four or five hundred justice systems. This final option would have the with salary requirements, added benefit of maintaining control of the courts in the Department of Indian Affairs and or justice. The judges would be federally appointed from a separate native court bar [just as there is a Supreme Court bar].
Furthermore the essay, separate level of courts would be acceptable to many non-native Canadians. The court would have a specific territorial entity as its jurisdiction and this entity is not composed exclusively of the people of one race. Racing Essay. The court would administer justice on ending question the territory of the reserves. Oxford International Relations. Just as the ending question, supreme court of the united states refers to the laws of the states of essays, a cases origin when rendering their decisions, the new federal court could refer to the numerous reserve or national laws when rendering its decisions. A native court, a native bar, and native judges, administering local native laws do not necessarily prevent a native man for getting drunk and beating his wife.
The sense of essay ending, pride at having his own court system is likely to do little as well. What is wrong with the racing essay, reserves is a lack of economic opportunity and a lack of order. Question. Economic opportunity is for salem university not within the essay, scope of this paper, but order is. About Indian. If there cannot be a separate federal police force for natives, and if policing cannot be devolved to native governments for fear if giving too much power to too many corrupt regimes, then what is to be done with the police? A separate police division of the RCMP has been tried and has failed. What could work is a piece meal response that would have capable reserves with their own police forces and lesser reserves with a force of specially trained RCMP subject to local police boards. This would be coupled with a native court sensitive to ending question, coerced evidence, police prejudices and differential use of the arresting power. The separate layers of policing may cut down on many of the unnecessary arrest of natives as well as allow people to have more confidence in the police and memoir personal call them before a domestic disturbance turns violent. This would likely take care of many of the problems of order on ending the reserves. The courts would both serve as a support for the new policing system and act as a booster of essay state university, national pride. With the question of law and essay order on the reserves out of the way, there is the question of extra-territoriality and the Metis and non-status natives .The key component of any separate system of justice should be that it is based on territorial distinctions.
That is the only practical way of personal essays, administering justice and selling justice to a population of fair weather egalitarians like the Canadians . The Metis where they have their own territories should be allowed to be part of the native court and policing systems. Ending. Status natives living off reserve should have no recourse to the native courts if their crime was not committed on reserve. Mphil International Relations Thesis. Because the court are founded on a territorial basis they have a limited exclusive jurisdiction. Question. Non-status natives have voted with their feet in the same way that all immigrants have, and they have opted out of native national life, the our town essay, reserve police and court system should not apply to them. While natives should have no access to the reserve court system if they are not physically on a reserve they still will have problems with criminality. The only feasible solution for urban natives is to have regular police officers of native ancestry in areas with large native populations. Besides that, all that can be done is mandatory awareness campaigns for the police, crown counsel and judges. Such training would focus on the rules of evidence and the differential use of the discretionary power by police and by prosecutors which has resulted in discrimination against essay ending question, natives. The presence of native police officers on the 'native beat' might allow people of native ancestry to feel more comfortable with the officers and to come to them with problems earlier.
Native police officers may treat people of racing essay, their own race better than people of an ending other race and deal with the former's problems out of our town essay, court. While this beneficial racial is both unsettling and essay ending less than a certainty ,the presence of native police officers in disturbances amongst natives could in the least diffuse the situation and turn it from a racial confrontation to one merely of the indian education, police and a criminal. Essay Question. It is an uncomfortable conclusion to come to, however, it has been arrived at here. A separate Native court system, based on territory is the best means possible to correct the ill effects of the colonial experience. Because white-Canada has shown that it is essays unlikely to accept any system based solely on race and nationality - a separate native court system that would be open to all the natives of Canada is not politically feasible. A territorial division of power is common in Canada, and the extension of this division of powers to natives -while contentious- is not an impossibility. If such a court was kept as an adjunct to the federal court, and had a narrow jurisdiction over question the reserves only, it could correct some of the ill effects of the oxford international relations, colonial legacy - at least on the reserves.
However many Natives do not live on reserve, though they do share in the stigma of being native. Because white police officers, prosecutors, and judges, have been shown to ending, discriminate against natives. Essays About Indian Education. The evidence shows that native police officers may be as likely to ending question, discriminate against natives as are white police. Racing Essay. The best possible solution is the recruitment of native police officers for areas with high native populations in the hope that they would in essay the least encourage natives to report crime amongst themselves more readily than they do with white officers. In order to about, deal with some of the discrimination, there also needs to be a sensitivity program to include the police, judges, and prosecutors. While these solutions fall far short of what is needed to solve the ending question, problem of native criminality, it is the farthest one can politically go in Canada toward a solution. Crim201: Canada?s sexual assault laws were, until recently, based in the customary tradition of the United Kingdom. Racing Essay. That tradition in itself is question based on more ancient traditions. The common thread to most if not all sexual assault laws throughout history has been their exclusion of the martial relationship as a possible venue for sexual assault.
The first proposed laws on sexual assault in this study originate in classical Athens. This law was not specifically a rape law, but rather dealt with justifiable homicide. Drafted by Plato, it stated that: The man who forcibly violates a free woman or boy shall be slain with impunity by the person thus violently outraged, or by his father, or brother and sons . And should a man discover his wedded wife being violated, he shall be guiltless if he kills the violator (Cohen 1993, p.8). This law protects both men and women from sexual assault ? which is our town essay something that Canadian law did not achieve until 1983. This law still does not protect a spouse from ending question rape by his or her partner. It is also important to draw attention to whom the racing essay, offense is being committed against.
It is stated that if a man discovers ?his? wife being raped, he may respond with deadly force. Question. The act itself is not committed against the wife but against the husband?s possession. The next law comes from the Roman Empire. Unlike Athenian and Canadian law, this law provides for the possibility of a woman committing rape. Our Town Essay. Also, unlike Athenian and early American law, rape or ?lewd advances? could be committed against a slave(Russell 1975, p.13). If anyone makes lewd advances, be it a man or a woman, freeborn or freed, he will be liable for the outrage and even if an attempt is made on the chastity of ending, a slave, this too is deemed to be an outrage (Justinian ca 550, p. 166). This law is a codification of about, earlier Roman law. Among the key points to note about the law is that it falls within the realm of tort. Sexual assault at this early stage was only a concern for the state if it was committed by essay question a slave.
It is also important to note that the terms used in this law are not specifically inclusive of husbands and personal wives. No provision existed for the prosecution of rape within marriage. Marriage in the middle ages was, until 1180, an object of contention. Ending. While in Rome there were several ways in about indian education which one could be married, with different social and legal ramifications (Kolbert 1979, pp.54-57), in Europe Pope Alexander III decreed that there should be but one (Brundage 1993, pp.247-248). The Pope ruled that marriage began after an agreement to marry had been consummated (Ibid. p.248). In several cases involving leprosy, the Pope ruled that because the marriage had been consummated, one spouse had a duty to go with the stricken spouse to ending question, the leposarium where he will ?give her sexual solace on demand? or where she will provide him with ?marital affection? (Ibid. p.249). An emphasis should be put on the term ?consummated?. Hr Cover With Requirements. By the 13th century it had been generally agreed that two sorts of rights existed in ending question marriage(Ibid. p.251). The first set were created with the agreement to marry, and our town essay those involved the marital rights such as property. The second set of rights were sexual rights or ?implied consent?.
These second rights were created when the couple consummated their marriage. A 14th century court ruling shows that, while the marital rights could be dissolved by separation, these sexual rights were permanent: We hold the defendant bound to pay the conjugal debt to question, the plaintiff in her father?s house one night each week and to keep this obligation faithfully, until we shall order otherwise (Brundage, p.252). The marital debt was a very real and memoir essays enforceable debt throughout the middle ages. By most definitions (positivists excepted), what the court ordered in that case was a weekly, scheduled rape. This practice continued throughout the ending question, middle ages. Memoir Essays. Rape could only be committed by ending a man against a free woman(Wemple 1993, p.229). Punishments usually involved a fine which varied depending on the amount of force used (5 solidi for abduction and mphil thesis rape, 8 more solidi if he used a sword). A common punishment for a man who committed rape was that he must pay the offended family the bride-price. If she consented to sex, the price was reduced by one third. Essay Ending. Consent was the property of the father or brothers, and sexual assault was an offence against their property (Ibid.).
Other punishments for rape included enslavement to the offended family (if the offender was a servant or only half free), and hr cover letter with death if the offender had the audacity to essay ending, flee to a church (Ibid.). Rape in the United Kingdom is a more puzzling affair. While it is commonly accepted that these mediaeval laws persisted, there is some evidence to the contrary. Mphil International Thesis. The doctrine on essay ending common law and marital rape was stated explicitly in the 1275 and education 1285 Statutes of Westminster Johnson and Sigler 1997, p11). This was reiterated by the 17th century judge Sir Mathew Hale. He stated that ?the wife hath given up herself in this kind unto her husband which she cannot retract? (Hall 1984, p.xvi).
He based his judgement on ?ancient common law doctrine?. While the Athenian, Roman, and Papal law cited above does suggest that Sir Mathew was factually accurate, he may not have been technically correct. Common law is an organic law which changes with each judicial ruling. These rulings are able to overturn legal doctrines such as the kind described in this paper so far. In 1631 a man was convicted in England of raping his wife (Hall, p.xvi). This suggests that perhaps, ?ancient common law doctrine? had long since been overturned by ending question the time that Sir Mathew got to it. Nevertheless it persisted unchanged until it was transferred to Canada in the 18th century. In 1800, the laws of England such as they were on September 17th, 1792, became Canadian laws. This was accomplished with the Act for the Further Introduction of English Criminal Law into Upper Canada (Garley 1989, p.26).
These laws were ineffective. Between 1840 and racing essay 1892, in Ontario, there were 228 rape prosecutions and 49 convictions (Ibid. Ending Question. pp. 29-30). By the memoir, late 1800?s the absurdity inherent in Sir Mathew Hale?s proclamation became evident. In R. v. Question. Clarence, the courts decided that while a husband had the essay university, right to question, sexual intercourse with his wife, he could not enforce that right by using force(anon. Our Town Essay. 2000). The implied consent or the ?sexual rights? were no longer considered to be absolute: Subsequent decisions restricted Hale's proposition to situations where husband and essay ending wife enjoyed ordinary relations between them, thus exposing abusive husbands to prosecution for rape where they were judicially separated or where the wife had initiated divorce proceedings and our town essay had been granted a decree nisi (Ibid.). Essay. The law continued to crumble throughout the 20th century. Letter. In 1935, Southern Australia allowed for the conviction (albeit under exceptionally violent circumstances) of essay ending, a husband for our town essay raping his wife.
In 1965, New Zealand permitted for the prosecution of husbands for raping their wives when a decree nisi was in place. Scotland barred spousal rape altogether in 1989, and England followed suit in 1991 (Ibid.). Canadian rape law throughout this period changed only once. While the absolute sexual rights that were referred to in the mediaeval period and reinforced by Sir Mathew Hale did not survive the start of the twentieth century, the formal law still remained in place. It was not until 1983 that the question, law shielding a husband from a rape prosecution by his wife passed into history. The law as it stood in 1927, and titled ?Unlawful Carnal Knowledge? reads as follows: 298. Rape is the act of a man having carnal knowledge of a woman who is not his wife without her consent, or with consent which has been extorted by threats or fear of bodily harm, or obtained by personating the woman?s husband, or by false and fraudulent representations as to the nature and quality of the act. Essays. [emphasis mine] (R.S., 1927, 289, p.87) By 1980, this law remained unchanged(Tremeear?s 1980 Criminal Code 143, p.61). Ending. A rape by definition could not be committed by a husband against his wife. While the absolute sexual right in perpetuity had ceased to exist, the right was maintained in existing marriages though it was grounds for divorce. The result of these laws was the gross under reporting of rape. It was not simply because many women believed that their attackers would not be punished, but it is that many women did not believe that an attack had taken place (Russell, p.134).
Furthermore, because the state had for so long assumed that a husband had a right to his wife?s body, many wives had accepted and adapted to the situation. Memoir Personal Essays. For a woman to see her husband as a rapist and to essay ending, continue to live with him is our town essay often too difficult. Many are too dependent on their husbands for economic, social, and psychological reasons to leave. Essay Ending. One solution for these women is our town essay not to see forcible intercourse as rape. Another more common adaptation is to give up the right to say no, to essay question, be always sexually available, regardless of her wishes (Rusell 1975, p.71). Women?s poor economic and social status had allowed for their continued use as sexual objects. The law reflected this.
It is a truism to state that Canada is a patriarchal society. There are reasons why this is so easily said, and the law prior to essays, 1983 is one of them. However, the law did change. With bill c-127 (1983) the law expanded to include spousal sexual assaults as part of essay ending question, its jurisdiction (Boritch, pp.234-235). Possibly because of this and reforms to the rules of evidence, the number of reported sexual assaults rose dramatically.
However, while half of all women in Canada will be the victims of sexual assault in their lives (Ontario Woman?s Directorate 2000) only 6 percent of these women will report that assault to the authorities (Boritch 1997, p.213 and p.224). R. v. White (1-24 C.C.C. 3d,) is an example of a crime that would not have been prosecuted prior to the 1983 reforms. R. v. White is a 1986 case, brought before the British Columbia Court of Appeal. The accused (White) was married to the victim, but they were estranged (Ibid., p.1).
The victim returned home one night to find the accused wearing surgical gloves and holding a pillow. She screamed, at which point he put the pillow over her face, and then covered her mouth with a bandage that wrapped around her head. He then beat her, threatened to murder her, and then after a long discussion, she went into the bedroom, where she was raped (Ibid., p.1). Before I continue, I should add that the actions described were perfectly legal until very recently. The accused claimed that the discussion led him to essays indian, believe that his wife had consented to sex. He stated that he believed that sex was an attempt at reconciliation. The issue at hand in essay ending question R. v. Racing Essay. White is whether his mistaken belief that his wife consented is a valid defense. While the appeal of his conviction was dismissed, the fact that it went to trial is significant. If he had engaged in the identical activity three years earlier, he would have committed no crime. The signal difference between the law as it stands today and the law is it stood prior to 1983, was the essay, fact that wives are no longer considered to be the possession of their husbands.
Sexual assault by essay university intimates including spouses comprises 38 percent of all sexual assaults in Canada (Ontario Women?s Directorate). Essay Question. However, while 6 percent of the total number of sexual assaults are reported to police, only oxford international thesis 1 percent of these sexual assaults by intimates are reported (Ibid.). Several reasons for this lack of reporting are provided in surveys. One major reason for not reporting sexual assaults by intimates is that the nature of the essay ending, relationship may lead authorities to suspect that there really was consent. Furthermore, many women may not view a sexual assault by a husband or boyfriend as such. They may internalize the blame and memoir say such things as, ?what did you think he wanted,? ?you drank with him didn't you,? or ?you should have expected something like this to happen.?(Ibid.).
In a search through fifty editions of Canadian Criminal Cases, I found only one case of spousal rape that was prosecuted. Essay Ending. The vast majority of sexual assault prosecutions continue to be for assaults by strangers, on young women. Prior rape and sexual assault laws sought to protect the chastity of the essays, same class of young women from sexual predator. The purpose was to defend men?s property. Essay Ending. A look at which rapes are prosecuted shows that this is still the oxford relations, case. Sexual assault law has existed since the time of Plato. The point of that law, and nearly every law that succeeded it was, in the case of women, not to protect them as victims, but to protect their husbands, brothers, or fathers as guardians. Sexual assault law developed slowly through the mediaeval period, and followed the development of marriage and spousal property. While in the Roman Empire, a woman was a free citizen with the rights to dispose of her property, and enter into free contracts, in the mediaeval period, she was a possession to be transferred for a price from father to husband.
The mediaeval period saw the development of the principle of ending, a ?sexual right? that comes into existence with the consummation of a marriage. This right was so absolute as to allow the authorities to order a former wife to submit to a weekly scheduled rape. As this law came to England it was formalized in about the 1275 and 1285 Statutes of essay ending question, Westminster. These confirmed a husband?s right to have sex with his wife, whenever he chose. In 1800, these laws came to Canada. For more than a century , the absolute and unbreakable sexual rights remained unchallenged. Memoir Personal. By the essay ending question, start of the racing essay, 20th century, they were slowly chipped away at. A husband lost the ending, absolute right to rape his wife even after they divorced. This right was confined to a marriage where ?ordinary relations? persisted. This law stood until 1983.
With bill c-127, the essays education, sexual assault laws were finally expanded to include violence within a marriage. However, regardless of the new law, few reports of spousal rapes are made. The reasons for this are numerous, but the most troubling is the belief by many wives, that what happened was not an assault. It is not until this last problem of internalized blame is dealt with that two millennia of reforms can have any real deterrent value. Bibliography Annonymous (2000). Essay Ending. The Historical Development of the Offense of Rape. http:canadiancrimanallaw.com/articles/srticles/rape.htm.
Boritch, Helen. Fallen Women: Female Crime and Criminal Justice in essay for salem Canada, ITP Nelson (Toronto: 1997). Brundage, James A. Implied Consent to Intercourse pp. 245-256, Consent and question Coercion to Sex and Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Mphil International Relations. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993). Cohen, David. Consent and Sexual Relations in Classical Athens pp. 5-16, Consent and Coercion to Sex and Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993).
The Criminal Code and Other Selected Statutes of Canada, Edmond Cloutier (Ottawa: 1948). Garley, Kenneth David William. A Trust Betrayed: Sexual Assault in Dating/Courtship Relations and question the Response of the Canadian Criminal Justice System. Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, B.C.:1989). Hall, Ruth and international relations Selma James and Judit Kertesz, The Rapist Who Pays the Rent, Falling Wall Press (Bristol : 1984). Johnson, Ida M. and Robert Sigler, Forced Sexual Intercourse in Intimate Relationships, Ashgate-Dartmouth (Aldershot:1997). Justinian (trans.) (circa 550) The Digest of Roman Law: Theft, Rapine, Dammage and Insult, C.F. Essay. Kolbert ed..Penguin Books (Middlesex, England: 1979) Ontario Women?s Directorate (2000). Sexual Assault Dispelling the Myths. Racing Essay. http:www.womanabuseprevention.com/html/sexual_assault.html. R. v. White (1986), Canadian Criminal Cases, 1-24 C.C.C. (3d) Russell, Diana E.H., The Politics of Rape:The Victim?s Perspective, Stein and Day Publishers (New York: 1975).
Treemar?s 1980 Criminal Code and Miscellaneous Statutes, The Carswell Company ltd. (Toronto: 1980). Ending Question. Wemple, Suzanne F. Consent and Dissent to Sexual Intercourse in Germanic Societies from the memoir, Fifth to the Tenth Century pp. Question. 227-244, Consent and Coercion to Sex and Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993). Feminist Crim. When the words ?women? and racing essay ?crime? are spoken, the first two words to come to many minds are ?sexual assault?. According to ending, most statistics, more than half of all women in Canada will be the victims of our town essay, sexual assault in their lives (Ontario Woman?s Directorate 2000). In some segments of the population that number rises to 83 percent (Ibid.). While these numbers are high, the numbers of convictions for sexual assault are not.
According to information presented by Helen Boritch, 10 percent of women can expect to be sexually assaulted in any given year, while only 6 percent of these women will report that assault to the authorities (Boritch 1997, p.213 and essay ending p.224) . Oxford International. There is a very large discrepency of numbers. The vast majority of question, sexual assaults go unreported. The vast majority of sexual assaults are committed by someone the victim knows (Ibid. pp.212-213). Perhaps the reason that so many sexual assaults go unreported is because of this overriding fact (Ontario Woman?s Directorate). Sexual assault within families was until recently legal in Canada.
The thinking went as such: The husband cannot be guilty of essays, rape committed by himself upon his lawful wife, for by their mutual matrimonial consent and ending contract the wife hath given up herself in this kind unto her husband which she cannot retract (Hall, James and Kertesz 1984, p.20). The authorities believed that common law provided for the lawful rape of a wife by her husband. While this is a patently false proposition, by the 18th century, it had become the essays about indian, official line (Ibid. p.xvi). I didn?t feel that I had been raped. I felt more that I was stupid because I went out with a white fraternity guy. ..so I blamed myself for going out with him. Essay. Also I didn?t think of it as rape because I knew him and because I consented to go. At the time I thought rape was a man coming out of the racing essay, bushes and attacking you, so somebody you knew couldn?t rape you (Russell 1975, p.134). For a woman to see her husband as a rapist and to continue to live with him is often too difficult. Many are too dependent on their husbands for economic, social, and psychological reasons to leave. One solution for these women is not to see forcible intercourse as rape. Another more common adaptation is to give up the right to say no, to be always sexually available, regardless of her wishes (Rusell 1975, p.71).
Crim (Deviancy) : Is there a point in my life when I considered myself to be deviant, or others considered me to be deviant? If so, how was the essay, situation resolved? People are always telling me that I am ?weird?. I disagree with them. I believe that I am one of the essay for salem state, least deviant people I know. I am very old fashioned though, so maybe that?s why I get the weird label. Essay Question. Nevertheless, there are few times in my life when I consider myself to memoir, be a ?deviant?. My self-concept appears to follow a dialectical pattern. I consider myself to be part of a group, and identify with that group and its values. I increasingly find myself uncomfortable with some of the ending question, things which that group does or talks about.
At some point an essays incident occurs, and I become isolated from the group. I then identify with a new group, and the process starts over. Ending. In other words, my membership in the first group can be considered a thesis. The thesis consists of about indian education, that group?s world-view, which I share in. Essay Ending Question. The crisis is the antithesis, it is the stage at which the cognitive dissonance that occurred within the thesis comes out into the open. Oxford International Relations Thesis. Finally the new group is the essay, synthesis.
In the synthesis, the world-view that I held in the thesis group is oxford relations largely gone, as are the troubles of the antithesis. The most memorable dialectical shift in my life occurred in 1990-1991. In 1990, I was part of the dominant white clique at essay ending my junior high school, in essays about suburban Richmond. While everyone had got along in elementary school, we all divided along racial lines when we got to high school. The Chinese kids all went and spent time together, and even the Chinese kids that could not speak Chinese, went. The East-Indian kids did as the Chinese did, and the white kids followed suit. There was not anything malicious about ending question any of it. Well, that is racing essay not entirely true.
Much of our time in the white group was spent making fun of kids in the East Indian and Chinese groups. However, we were not entirely racist, all the essay ending question, black kids in our school were part of our group. Our group had their own ?territory?, drama and the arts were ours, as well as physical education, while we gave the East-Indian kids shop class, and racing essay the Chinese kids, computer science. Question. The rest of the classes were required, so we could not split them up as easily, though we did manage some how. By 1990, I was firmly ensconced in memoir this group. I had few complaints about it, I am quite good at making fun of people, so I was a valuable asset to the collective. In the summer of 1990, an incident happened which upset my place within the group. On July 11th of that year, a group of armed Mohawks got into a shooting war with the Quebec provincial police.
My group hated French immersion kids, so it seemed obvious to me which side we would come down on. I did not worry. Much to essay question, my surprise, the general attitude among the white kids was that the government should send in tanks, and get rid of the ?Indians?. It had not occurred to me until that point that I am half-?Indian?. My family came down firmly on the side of the Mohawks. Racing Essay. Most of my male cousins who were old enough went off to ending question, join one blockade or another, and at personal essays least one got himself sent to ending, prison for his troubles. We went out to our town essay, the reserve more often. Previously we had gone there for the winter ceremonies, or for birthday parties. This time we were going out there to ?plan things?. Back at home amongst my friends, I found myself increasingly isolated. I got into more and more fights, both verbal and physical.
People that had been part of my group ? though not friends per se, walked past me like they did not know me. I started spending time with the black kids and the girls, and while they were not as overtly racist as the white boys, they were still racist. Young boys tend not to hide things, while young girls ? at least in that group- seem to believe that in order to be ?nice? it is their duty to essay, hide their opinions. By the end of the summer I found myself completely shut out of the white group. I was the one of only two native kids at my school, so there was no chance of joining the native clique. The other native kid had lighter skin, so he began to pretend that he was Italian. I would say that ?I can?t blame him? but in reality I hated him and consider him to be a two-faced traitor. I spent more time on racing essay the reserve and ending question with my younger cousins. With them, all the anger that had developed from being isolated could be vented destructively. It was o.k. in that group to hate the police and the government.
It was o.k. to through rocks at police cars and buildings as well as other things that can not be mentioned here. In fact, not only was it o.k. amongst the new clique, but it was accepted and approved of by memoir the adults around us. The point at which I switched allegiances entirely from white society to ending, native society was at a family barbecue. The barbecue was at memoir personal an uncle?s house. He was on the white side of my family. Everyone at the barbecue was white but me. Most of them were family, though there were a few family friends there. My parents stayed at home. That day happened to be the same day that the army advanced on native positions around Montreal.
Raw footage of the attack was broadcast on live television. Ending. I was glued to the news, and was very upset. Our Town Essay. I asked everyone else to come see what was happening. Ending Question. Because they were family I assumed that they would take my side. The group became very upset too, but at oxford international thesis the natives.
One of my uncles friends went on a rant and started saying that all those ?Indians? want out of the crisis is money to buy liquor. That is amongst the more polite things that he said. I noticed that several of my aunts and uncles agreed with him. My grandparents refused to say a word in essay question my defense. When I did open my mouth to essays, yell at him and give him the usual ?shpeel? about essay ending oppression et. al., I was hushed up. Racing Essay. I got up, and left. I walked home from there and told my parents. My father (he is very white) got into a loud argument over the phone with my uncle and my grandparents.
My mother yelled at essay ending question me for going to the barbecue in the first place. It was after the barbecue that I decided that I would completely abandon ?white? culture in favor of native (Salish) culture, and religion. In a pique of melodrama I went to the living room and threw my bible and little plastic Canadian flag into the fireplace. I have since changed since then, I know have a European wife, and white friends, and while I am no Christian, I certainly would not burn a perfectly good bible today. However, I still align myself with the native cause, and mphil international have abandoned any pretenses of Canadian citizenship. It is difficult to understand which theory of deviancy applied to me in that situation. Ending. Perhaps demonology applied to me, I did become a heathen, though that was after the fact (Gomme, p.41). If I was not possessed by our town essay the dark forces of the ?fallen one?, maybe I was the product of essay ending, my environment (Ibid., p.43). However, my environment was a townhouse complex which was at least one quarter Jewish, and was smack in the center of suburban Vancouver. If environment played any role in essay for salem my formation, I would have joined the essay, Lion?s Club, or become a Freemason.
Two theories of deviance hold the most possibility for explaining my situation. The first is containment theory. Containment theory is the theory of hr cover salary requirements, inner and outer forces pushing and pulling someone toward deviance (Ibid., p.81). Gomme writes that: Social forces that push and pull people toward deviant behavior include?membership in an ethnic minority, restricted access to legitimate opportunities (Gomme, p.81). Ending. These external social forces included my peers and my extended family. On the one hand, the white side of essay for salem state, family, and my white friends ostracized me, and openly attacked me, while on essay ending the other hand, the native part of my family, allowed me to vent my frustrations, and essays provided friends, and a ready target for teenage anger. I would also consider that my access to ?legitimate opportunities? was hampered by essay ending question the activities of the whites around me. By ostracizing me, and making school unpleasant, the whites prevented me from achieving the scholastic success that was due. They also prevented me from racing essay pursuing the social relationships that I had established over four or more years. This legitimate frustration sought me to seek success in the native community and to attempt to essay ending question, form social bonds with natives.
Internal forces that constrain an individual from deviancy include, ?a positive self-concept, a strong ego, an intense sense of personal responsibility, and a high frustration threshold? (Gomme, p.81). I know for a fact that I had none of these qualities. More often than not, a poor self-concept, and mphil relations thesis weak ego, led me to follow the crowd, and go along with whatever the group told me to do. As for personal responsibility and the ability to be frustrated, I was suspect that I was an average teenager, and therefore, both of essay, these things were absent. Containment theory appears to be a perfect fit. I was pushed into deviancy by the people around me. There are other theories that may be a better fit.
I will discount social control theory, because of its reliance on the concept of deterrence (Ibid., p.89). I do not believe that there was either a general or a specific deterrence factor to being native. Up until 1990, being native was an curiosity, like being double jointed; it could be trotted out at parties to impress and entertain people. At that time, there was almost an incentive to be exotic. Incentive does not apply in our town essay my case though. Labeling theory has some interesting possibilities. Essay Ending Question. The Oka crisis was an act of primary deviance (Gomme, p.100). If the Canadian State was to defend a burial ground in ? say, France ? from essays conversion into a golf course, it would be considered to be legitimate. However, because the Mohawks lacked many of the legitimate venues that a Country would have in lobbying another on the international stage, they were forced into an act of violence ? a blockade. Afterwards they were attacked, and used force to defend themselves ? something that any country would do. However because the Mohawk country is not recognized, what they did was considered to be an act of terrorism, and they were punished for it in those terms.
As for me, the primary act of deviance was defending the Mohawks in essay ending question the Oka crisis. While the majority of my peers were attacking the Mohawks, I came to their defense. My first act of defense was primary deviance because it was isolated, and did not result in ?continuous negative social reaction? (Ibid.). Because I did not consider that act of essays, primary deviance to be deviant, I would not be self-identified as a deviant. Gomme writes about what happened next: The application of derogatory labels and the severing of connections to conventional sphere intensify the construction of a deviant identity by forcing the devalued person to seek out others in similar situations who can provide more favorable reflections of the self. (Gomme, p.101). This description matches my situation to a tee. I was labeled as an ending ?Indian? (trust me, as a native, that is an insult), and my social connections were severed.
I sought out new social situations in letter which I would be accepted and my anger approved of. As I wrote at the start of this paper, I do not consider myself to be a deviant ? in ending any sense of the term. Labeling theory requires that I identify with my deviance. I do not, and indian did not. My main goal in life is to modernize native society, and ending question help guide it toward independence.
If I accepted native society as it is, I suppose that I could be considered deviant in the labeling theory sense. Our Town Essay. However, my allegiance to native society, is a biological one, that recognizes my membership in it as a fact of biology. Question. My formal association with native life began because I was pushed into it. University. When that force was removed I formed new friendships with whites. Ending Question. It is because of this that I suspect that the best explanation for my period of deviance is contained in containment theory. I would draw a comparison between my situation and that of people described in ?Normalcy and Visibility?.
While I am not often mistaken as Anglo-Saxon white, I do have a passing resemblance to a straight-haired version of essay for salem university, a Jewish stereotype; I have also passed as Catalonian, Mexican, and Greek. People do not know that I am native until I tell them; I am racially ambiguous. The article gives one major relevant factor to living with an invisible disability. The first was that people had the option of maintaining a ?semblance of normalcy? (Thorne 1993, p.9). I my case, I have the ending question, option of passing as white. This is disturbingly important in this country. For example , until recently I worked in a West Side grocery store. This store had an up market clientele. Our Town Essay. Among the items the store sold were bags and cards with native designs on them. After a while began to notice that in spite of ending, this native friendly image that the store had, even middle-class natives could not enter the store without being considered to letter salary requirements, be a shoplifter by the management. My co-workers also occasionally told stories in which natives were attacked or demeaned.
If I were to reveal my identity, I would face being excluded from essay ending these conversations. If I was excluded from personal these conversations, I would face being excluded from their social circle in general, and any future options for advancement that arise from being a part of the ?in? group. I decided to keep my mouth shut, and get a raise instead. If I was visibly more native that option would not have been open to ending, me. Deviance in my case is not really deviance on my part. When I did have a spell of deviant activity, it was caused by external forces. When those external forces were removed, the deviancy ended. This deviancy is in some ways voluntary, because I can hide it. However, I do not believe that by engaging in a profound act of self-denial can be a reasonable choice, so the voluntary choice is somewhat less real. I have found many other people in similar situations. Memoir Personal. There are quite a few natives that can pass in white society, and do so, however, they maintain a true allegiance to their nation.
I have found this common thread among many other natives: they had a lot more white friends, until opinions hardened against our peoples. While we hold the same western liberal views that we have always had, we no longer see Canada, or our white liberal peers, as friends but enemies, and dangerous ones at that; and it is not something that we chose. Bibliography Gomme, Ian. The Shadow Line: Deviance and Crime in Canada, Harcourt Brace Jovonovich (Tornto: 1993). Thorne, S.E. (1993).
Normalcy and Visibility. In Social Explanations of Criminal and Deviant Behaviour, Brian Burtch Ed., Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, B.C.: 2000). Crim 135: Essay 2 The major argument in essay ending favour of curtailing judicial independence and prosecutorial discretion is that the justice system needs to racing essay, be more accountable, more consistent, and more predictable. Each of these counts against the justice system is based on the mistaken assumption that the justice system needs to be a rational and efficient corporate body. That is to say, that the justice system must act as a single entity with the rasion d?etre of fighting, controlling, and deterring crime. The advocates of legal straightjackets have failed to prove their prima facie case. The justice system has no need to be a single solid structure with automated systems of judges, lawyers and parole officers. In the strictly constructed systems of our less-democratic cousins, lawyers, judges and their ilk serve only to diagnose the criminal for the sole purpose of placing them in a category of offender, prisoner, and essay parolee.
The primary fault of the argument in education favour of essay ending question, judicial and prosecutorial constraints is that it carries in itself the tacit assumption of guilt. By merely categorizing a citizen as an offender under the criminal code, the most authoritarian and unaccountable element of the letter with requirements, justice system, the essay question, police, has effectively acted as judge jury and executioner. The citizen, who becomes labeled as an offender under the criminal code is shunted off to a holding cell, where, another police official determines if they are to be released. This police official would, at this stage in the current system use subjective criteria to determine if the offender was a significant risk and should be released; in a constrained system, the crime would determine the availability of release automatically. In the constrained system, the belligerent, and indigent, flasher would go free; while the tenured professor whose failing student wrongfully accused him of hr cover letter, rape would be sent before a judge. Upon reaching the judge, the charges wold determine the bail-after all, consistency is the modus vivendi of the constrained system.
Griffiths and Verdun-Jones note that those people that have been denied bail and appear at their trial in state custody are more likely to be found guilty, and, when found so, they are more likely than other convicted citizens to receive a harsh sentence. Beside the clear difficulty encountered by imprisoned people in mounting a defense against ending question, the state's accusations, there is a secondary problem of facing a jury of their peers while in custody. Hr Cover Letter With Salary Requirements. To the average citizen, the appearance of question, one of their wayward neighbours in chains is likely to prejudice them against him or her. In a future system of with salary, 'consistent' justice it is likely that those offences where the punishment is most severe, the essay ending, indictable offences, that the citizen is likely to be held in custody; and, it is our town essay those same indictable offences, to be tried before a jury, where the accussed's status as a prisoner is most likely to be held against essay ending, them. While the accussed's status as a prisoner is not a de jure proclamation of their guilt, to for salem state university, the average citizen of ending, a western liberal democracy, the presence of some person that has been forcibly removed from society is a de facto statement that they are dangerous. In the model state of consistency that certain legal reformers foresee, the police, the justices, prosecutors, and judges would 'apply' the law according to a strict set of rules. The state's agents will act with no prejudice, no leeway, no derogation and no derivation and no mercy. The police would presumably lay every applicable charge against every accused person that is brought to their attention. Not only would a person be brought to justice for forcible rape, but also for equally abhorrent crimes such as assault and battery, littering, loitering in memoir personal a public park, attempted murder, reckless endangerment, unlawful confinement, jaywalking, speeding, creating a disturbance, resisting arrest, and any other possible offence related to the crime and the flight from essay justice.
Griffiths and Verdun-Jones have noted that in the recently more open atmosphere of plea-bargaining, police have become more consistent appliers of each and every conceivable law. Not only has a person been charged with one crime, but also of every other alternative charge available. Essays About Education. In the process of ending question, plea bargaining, a great deal of trust is needed between the defense counsel and the crown. For Salem State University. This trust often resembles collusion. In the process of plea bargaining the multiple -though mutually exclusive- charges against essay, an offender are often reduced to a single charge in our town essay exchange for a guilty plea and reciprocal sentencing recommendation. In reality, the accused are bargaining away irrelevant charges for essay question the single charge that they would have faced anyway, in international thesis short, the question, accused gains nothing from a system of bargaining based on consistent policing. There is, however, nothing consistent about plea-bargaining. Plea-bargaining is at the heart of about education, prosecutorial discretion. Prosecutorial discretion would go the way of inconsistent policing and it would be abolished. Consistency in prosecution requires that each and every accused be treated identically.
In order for each accused to be seen to be treated identically, they must have each and every charge dealt with in an open court of record. Essay Ending Question. Inconsistency is not a problem with the police, prosecutors, or parole board members. Our Town Essay. Inconsistency is what enables the police, prosecutors, and parole board members to consider the question, human factor of the crime. Essays Education. I f police were to 'throw the book' at every criminal, the system what bog down with minor crimes. Furthermore, while some acts may technically be crimes, they may not have been enforced in twenty or thirty years. A possible problem of inconsistency is with judges. Sentencing may vary across the country - though there is very little evidence to say if it does or does not. There are sentencing guidelines, but there are no uniform statistics on sentencing which would allow the public to determine if these sentencing guidelines are being followed. When sentencing is brought to the public's attention, it is only in the most extreme cases where a particularly lenient sentence has been given out. Therefore the best solution for inconsistent sentencing is to question, produce and publish uniform statistics on sentencing in order to determine of racing essay, sentencing guidelines are being followed. Essay Ending. Any other reform of the judicial sentencing process before these statistics were produced and before their impact was observed on personal essays the judicial branch would be premature.
It is possible that many judges that have handed out lenient or severe sentences did not realize that they were significantly out of line with the Canadian mainstream. Conclusion Discretion is not a problem, perception is. The police need discretion in order to question, enforce laws commensurate with the changes in community values. Police also need the ability to exercise their discretion in order to enforce laws as they are best able to do and to not get swamped with petty crimes, while resources are needed to deal with serious offences. Prosecutors need the ability to exercise discretion in order to plea bargain. Without the ability to plea bargain, prosecutors may find that they send far too much time prosecuting ancillary legal offences while the main crime is not given their full attention.
The only reform necessary, is not technically a reform, but is instead a fine-tuning of the current system to allow it to essay university, function better, and essay ending that is the production and publication of hr cover with requirements, uniform statistics on sentencing. Communications 131 Review: Neil Postman?s Amusing Ourselves to Death Robert Jago 200015294 Neil Postman's Amusing Ourselves to Death focuses on the change from what he calls a 'typographic' society to a televisual society. This change involves the decline of rational, linear thought which is based on the book, to ending question, disjointed, a-historical, and our town essay non-inferential thought which is based on the standards of television. Postman's prima facie argument is that the medium of communications affects forms of thought. His first argument is based entirely on essay conjecture (though later in the book Postman does cite a study by Gavriel Solomon, p.152 footnote 4). Postman argues that television and its predecessors (the telegraph, the racing essay, photograph) changed people's modes of thought through operant conditioning. Television and electronic communications in general force people to understand only the immediate and to forget the past. Essay Ending. Several of Postman's axioms are questionable, and his data is open to competing interpretations. Most importantly, Postman's study of the electronic society focused on it in an immature stage of development. Modern electronic culture is quite different from the one that Postman studied. Our Town Essay. Neil Postman's stated purpose for his book is to, show that a great media-metaphor shift has taken place in ending America, with the state university, result that the content of much of our public discourse has become dangerous nonsense(p.16).
To that end, his book opens with a glimpse at the United States of the early nineteen-eighties and an explanation of his use of the essay question, word metaphor. Racing Essay. For Postman the media metaphor is a metaphor that draws analogies between aspects of the essay question, media and aspects of society. Postman states that in the literate age, metaphors abounded. Alice in wonderland, became a metaphor for a person wandering in 'a world of semantic nonsense' and trying to make sense out of it; Athens became a metaphor for intellectual excellence and so on. In the twentieth century, the our town essay, printed word added very little in terms of metaphor. Terms such as Orwellian, thought police, but very little else transferred over from the question, printed page into middle class speech. The metaphor of the later twentieth century was to be dictated by television. Modes of thought mimicked television production standards.
Postman charts the about education, transition from the typographic mind, through the 'peek - a - boo' world and into the 'now. this' world of television. The larger scale of the medium metaphor is essay ending what Postman refers to as resonance. Postman states that resonance is our town essay metaphor writ large. What Postman appears to mean here is that resonance is the question, stuff of myths, when social customs and racing essay norms, and idiosyncrasies become confused with nature. Just as one is seen as peculiar to question the ending question, effects of the construction of mountains, one is seen as equally peculiar to oxford thesis, question such social constructs as [Noam Chomsky notwithstanding] contemporary English word usage and grammar.
After first explaining his proposition on how the dominant medium of communications affects forms of thought, Postman uses the remainder of the essay, first part of his book to describe decline of the printed word in America. He begins with describing 'typographic' America at its peak. Essay For Salem University. Postman describes a country -though not a nation- where the essay ending question, ability to read was nearly universal among men, and, where foreign reading materials were abundant (P. 34). Racing Essay. The way in essay ending question which he describes the empowerment that the average person may have felt is interesting for my third argument [that Postman contrasted typographic America with the wrong era of the electronic age].
By 1772, Jacob Duche could write: 'The poorest labourer upon the shore of the essays about, Delaware thinks himself entitled to deliver his sentiment in essay matters of religion or politics with as much freedom as the gentleman or scholar. Letter Requirements. ' (P. 33) The printing press dominated the minds of typographic Americans. Their modes of thought mirrored the ending, construction of books and pamphlets. Books were linear, impersonal, rational, and historical. The written word was never read 'live'. People's minds functioned in memoir essays these same ways. People were rational and thought historically and therefore linearly. Public discourse in typographic America was fundamentally rational and essay question intelligent. Advertising and politics were based on reasoned argument [for the hr cover letter, most part]. According to Postman, the essay ending question, change in public discourse occurred because of the change in the media available to the public.
The first major change that Postman notes is the invention of the telegraph. Hr Cover Letter With Salary. While it is interesting to note that the industrial revolution, and the rise of the urban centres occurred at ending question roughly the essays, same time as the invention of the telegraph, it is the later event that most effected the question, way that people think and behave. Following the telegraph came the photograph. The telegraph changed the meaning of our town essay, intelligence and information. In preliterate days, intelligence was synonymous with memory. In the typographic age, intelligence became synonymous with rationality. With the electronic age heralded in by the ending question, telegraph, intelligence became the ability to sift through large amounts of essays about indian, data. News in typographic society consisted of useful facts and information. Postman describes a type of apathy ratio, what he calls an 'information-action ratio' (P.69).
In typographic America, efficacy as seen through individual responses to 'news' was significantly higher than it is in modern televisual America. Essay Ending Question. The telegraph made trivia in with place of news. Surely people in essay Finland could finally know the day to day events that occurred in essays Lorado Texas, but, why would they want to? According to Postman, the telegraph made the United States one nation [this was also coincident with the Civil War and the United States' great era of wars of conquest]. The telegraph allowed people on the Pacific and the Atlantic shores to know the minutiae of each others every day lives. While the telegraph trivialized the public space with useless information and 'factoids' the ending, photograph came along to act as a magnifying glass for these details. The photograph increased the racing essay, impact of the proliferating factoids, by giving them a face and a presence greater than a thousand words. By the time the essay ending question, photograph and the telegraph had become ascendant, the public discourse had irrevocably changed. Advertising became irrelevant, irrational, and the first slogans were developed [following shortly after such election slogans 'fifty-four forty or fight' or 'Tippacannoe and Tyler too' or the Democratic Party's anti-Republican song 'Nigger Doodle Dandy'].The era of the photograph and the telegraph are what Postman calls 'the peek-a-boo world'. Letter. Part two of the book focuses on the particular ills of the televisual age.
The greatest ill, and one that Neil Postman had focused on in the question, past, is the decline in education in favour of entertainment. A prime example for Postman is 'The Voyage of the Mimi' series. This series is a study that involves a great deal of time on behalf of mphil international thesis, children in essay question order to study whales and navigation among other things. None of these things are relevant to letter with salary, education in ending question any traditional sense of the word. Postman's analysis of that particular series is our town essay that it is an example of the education changing in order to essay ending, meet the needs of television. While there are more books in print in the television age, they do not have the impact of their fewer but more serious predecessors.
As was the case with the Voyage of the hr cover letter salary, Mimi series, books seem to have become 'audio-visual aids'. Books have lost their seriousness. Books in the modern context no longer command the essay question, attention that they once did. The printed word in the modern context is a visual aid, it celebrates the dominant medium and is constructed around television's conventions. For example, a glance at any of the Fin de Siecle 'best 100 [or 1'000 et al.] lists that currently proliferate, would show what books are considered to be of our town essay, substance to this society. Ending. In the Globe and Mail's list of the best history books are, a picture book, Atlas of World History, and ESPN Sport Century.
Among the hr cover with, best seller lists are a book of lists, a book by a television writer, a book by essay question a faded hockey star, a book by a movie writer, a book of trivia. While there are more books in racing essay print today than ever before, it is likely that they are to essay question, be gems such as ESPN Sport Century, as opposed to Walden or the Native Son. Postman concludes his book by analyzing this 'dangerous' lack of substance brought on by the conventions of the television age. Oxford. Postman uses two of major metaphors of the decline of western society. the first is the Orwellian. Today the totalitarian state is confined to only a few fourth rate and essay ending question declining states such as Myanmar and thesis Belarus and so its position as primary threat to Western Liberty has given way. In the place of the Orwellian thought police and big brother is Aldous Huxley's 'Brave New World'. The brave new world of Postman's interpretation is one where television has taken the place of Huxley's 'Soma' [an ecstacy like drug]. People have forsaken their liberty and democracy in favour of simple and constant pleasures. Postman concludes that television has created a Brave New World where the statescraftsmen are given free hand by a public more interested in their leader's private affairs than their economic policies. This new world where seriousness is mocked, and where depth of imagination, and attention span have gone into steep decline is one that has put democracy and essay question freedom in grave danger.
Postman proposes that the solution to the current state of affairs is to inoculate the populous through education. People would be educated to understand the television epistemology, and to not just become media savvy, but to become aware of the myths that surround the dominant medium. The current dominant medium in the United States and Canada is television. Other media, such as radio, and letter with print are complementary to television and have very little independent sway over societal mores. Postman's analysis could only take into account society up to the mid 1980's. Ending. That society lacked the internet, and such venues as digital cable and inexpensive satellite dishes. Postman derides libertarians for attacking government censorship but failing to take on the oligarchy of the big-three networks. In his discussion of the typographic age, Postman describes the empowerment of the racing essay, common man by his ability to converse and understand every subject of importance.
Postman takes especial note of ending question, Benjamin Franklin's views on the importance of the pamphlet. Each of these points noted by racing essay Postman can lead to a different final conclusion if extrapolated into the internet age. To begin with, the modern era of between seventy and five-hundred television channels should have been easily foreseen by Postman. He noted the lack of attention by essay question the general public, and how that brief attention span was created by television. Personal. The television of Postman's study was, by current standards, conservative, and for lack of a better word, 'deep'. Question. The oligarchy of the three networks is gone, replaced by a constellation of specialty television networks [though production is now owned by a few industrial concerns].
Attention spans are even briefer, and every whim under the sun can be served by its own television network. Contrary to Postman's original argument that the product of a populace obsessed by entertainment is memoir personal political apathy, entertainment can create political involvement. While Postman described the efficacy felt by the people of the typographic age, he failed to note that part of the efficacy was inspired by such public proceedings as the public hanging. Essay Question. Postman failed to realize that a public raised on scripted spectacle, would be enraptured by live reality. In a world of our town essay, instant communications, there is enough live spectacle to keep every audience entertained. This entertainment can be translated into ending, efficacy through such means as instant television poll, something that Postman only briefly touched on. Essay. Postman's description of the transition from literate to essay, televised worlds and the coincident transformation of society from literate and rational to base and excitable is not entirely accurate. He fails to take into essays, consideration other factors such as the second industrial revolution and the expansion of liberty within countries which may explain the general decline in question the public discourse.
Postman places the blame for hr cover letter with salary requirements the decline in essay rationality solely on the dominant medium of communications. Essays Education. Furthermore, Postman writes that people have lost the sense of efficacy vis a vis the state. While people may be voting less, they may be participating more. Protest groups, lobby groups, special interest groups, petitions, and the like have proliferated in post-industrial society. Ending. People may have transferred their trust from the with salary requirements, state to the epistemic community and they may have done this because of a new involving medium.
Bibliography Postman, Neil, Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Buisness, Penguin Books (Toronto: 1986).
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