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Argumentative Essay Example: Is Animal Testing Necessary? Here is a great argumentative essay example. Feel free to use it while writing your own essay. If you need any help with it contact our friendly support team and we will gladly help you. An argumentative essay is an descrimination essay which involves a set of completely developed arguments to support a thesis statement that takes a solid stance on a specific issue. If you are looking for argumentative essay examples here is a great one below. Read and forrester friendship, enjoy!

If you would prefer assistance feel free free to use our uk-based essay writing services. Descrimination? The term animal testing refers to the procedures which take place before human clinical trials and it involves the development and experimental projects to determine the dosing, toxicity, and efficacy of drugs. This phrase has been used beyond the semantics and biological specificity. As such, without any reference, an animal testing exercise would be comprehended as any research procedure executed on a living organism from the zoological category of the kingdom Animalia. Transferring? Nevertheless, using the existing legislation framework, the definition of animal testing is descrimination limited to critical vertebrate animals, which are made up of the majority of species in the kingdom Animalia. The rationale for this legislative limitation is based on essay the assumption that vertebrates have less developed nervous system compared to invertebrates. As such, the assumption suggests that vertebrates have the capacity to suffer and feel pain more than invertebrates. In addition to this, the essays on mathematical, legislative restriction of the definition of essay animal experiments is that the procedure is done on live animals. This means that experimenting on dead animals is not animal testing. This practice of using animals in research is not a modern development, as it has a long history. Animals have been used in essays on mathematical, experiments over the years for biomedical research.

This can be traced back to the times of historical Greek scientists and physician who included the likes of Aristotle and descrimination, Erasistratus who conducted experiments on live animals. Another account of utilizing animal testing is depicted by a Greek physician, Galen, who dedicated his life to critical improving the field of medicine by carrying out animal experiments in order to enhance the understanding of aspects such as physiology, anatomy, pathology, and pharmacology. Additionally, in the twelfth century, there emerged an Arab physician called Ibn Zuhr, who started animal research just like an experimental technique for assessing surgical procedures before applying them to humans. Essay? Since then, animal testing is still working today, despite the fact that there are scientists and other animal welfare activists who oppose this practice. The main view of the opponents is that animal testing is transferring schools humane and should not be practiced. Nevertheless, the reality in laboratories in the 21st century depicts that animal testing is still cherished.

This can be illustrated by the increased variety of applications and purposes of animal experimentation. For instance, animal testing is used in descrimination essay, education; basic and applied biomedical research, regulatory assessment of compounds, products, and drugs as well as routine regulatory testing of biological products and substances. Animal experiments are often based on transferring the obsolete assumption that the response of animals and humans to a particular stress is the same. As such, scientists expose animals to certain products that are intended to be used by humans so that their reaction to the products can be assessed. The mostly used animals are mice, rats, and rabbits, which are usually subjected to tests that evaluate the safety of personal care, cosmetic, household products, chemicals and medical devices.

Their reaction to these products gives the basis of descrimination applying them to human situations. In the an essay writer, 21st century, there are many types of animal testing carried out. Descrimination Essay? Here are just but a few. One of the experiments is the an essay writer, eye irritation test. This test aims at assessing eye irritation caused by various chemicals. The second type of animal testing that is carried out is acute toxicity. This test is descrimination essay used to evaluate the danger of being exposed by essays on mathematical robotics skin, mouth or inhalation. Another kind of essay testing is the dermal penetration animal testing.

In this test, animals are used to give an understanding of the movement of chemicals through the skin. Animal testing provides the researchers with the knowledge of the factors to consider in coming up with an schools individual treatment and drugs. This acts as the major benefit because several treatments administered are as a result of animal testing. Animal experiments also provide the safety measures to be taken before administering a certain drug. One can determine the side effects of a certain drug and know the essay, steps to be taken to make sure that consumption of the drug is safe and efficient. Another advantage is the an essay writer, improvement of health care. Various animal tests are put into essay place to experiment new drugs and new better ways of treatment.

Animals tend to have close similarities to finding essay humans concerning reaction to consumption of foreign matters. This prioritizes animal testing to human testing due to the value of descrimination human life thus acting as an an essay writer advantage. However, animal testing is very expensive and essay, therefore limits the researchers in carrying out various experiments and our town essay, come up with the correct result. The animals require food, shelter, and treatment to descrimination maintain them until the end of the research. The animals and humans are closely the our town essay, same, but not completely equal in all aspects. Therefore, this makes it difficult for the researchers to come up with accurate results of their tests. The tests carried out in descrimination, the animals may lead to the deaths of the animals or disabilities.

The inability left with an animal might be a lifetime issue to the animal. Not all animal testing come up with the expected results thus causing the essays on mathematical, disposing of the animals, therefore, no value for the lives of the animals. Due to the ethical considerations and fails of animal testing in the field of biomedical research, some alternatives may replace animal testing. One of the promising tests that may be used is descrimination the in vitro or test tubes test which utilized tissue culture and human cells in essay, the experiments. Another method is to make use of practical drug tests and computerized patient-drug databases. Lastly, with the development of technology, there are non-invasive imaging techniques that have been developed over the year. These technologies, such as CT scans may be used as an alternative.

In conclusion, it is clear from the discussion that animal testing is beneficial in the field of biomedical research, as it has enabled scientists to test products before bringing humans into descrimination essay the picture. Format? However, this practice brings forth ethical concerns since the animals being used in the testings are made to suffer and feel pain. Furthermore, the applicability of animal testing is also under scrutiny since the response to the exposure of descrimination essay substances differ among different animals. Our Town Essay? For these reasons, it is crucial that scientists adopt the descrimination, alternatives of transferring schools animal testing. TOP 50 ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY TOPICS. If you feel you need assistance with your essay writing contact us or place an order and essay, our professionals will write a great paper for you. How to essay about schools Write an Argumentative Essay. Descrimination Essay? Here is an on mathematical article on the argumentative essay writing. Feel free to use it while writing your own one.

If you need assistance with essay writing contact our friendly support team and descrimination essay, we will gladly help you. 50 Most Popular Argumentative Essay Topics. Here is a list of japan essay format 50 most popular argumentative essay topics. Feel free to use them while writing your own one. If you need assistance with essay writing contact our friendly support team and we will gladly help you. This article covers the basic argumentative essay outline required to write a winning essay. Essay? Feel free to use this article while writing your own argumentative essay. If you need assistance with essay writing contact our friendly support team and we will gladly help you. An Essay Writer? Enter your email address to receive exclusive members-only discounts. The time-frames are specified by our customer.

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In the feedback section you may notice other customers mentioning writer numbers. Some numbers are over 9000. Essays On Mathematical Robotics? This is how many writers have attempted to actually register with us, but we only work with the best, allowing only the professionals to be a part of our team. Descrimination? We provide one of the best writing services available. An Essay Writer? We have 100% customer satisfaction guarantee which means that customer satisfaction is our top priority. The usual method of payment is by credit card, online, but you can also use PayPal. Essay? Payment is required at an essay writer, the time you place your order. We are a PCI-compliant website, all sensitive information is transmitted via 256-bit AES-encrypted SSL channel, and your credit card data is descrimination essay not stored in essay friendship, our database. However, if you feel hesitant using your credit card online, please feel free to place your order over descrimination essay the phone. An Essay Writer? To do this, you first need to visit our order page, enter assignment criteria, click Proceed to Payment, and call us when on the payment page. We will quickly identify your order and descrimination essay, activate it, after the payment has been processed.

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Discrimination Essay | Carlo Medrano

resume religion (CNN) If you’re applying for a new job, it may be best to descrimination essay leave religion off your resume, according to a new study. Job applicants who mentioned any form of faith affiliation on their resumes were 26% less likely to be contacted by employers than candidates who didn’t, according to the study conducted by sociologists at schools the University of Connecticut. Muslim, pagan and atheist job applicants were the least likely to get callbacks from descrimination potential employers. “People have a fear of the unknown,” said Michael Wallace, a co-author of the finding forrester friendship study and a sociology professor at the University of Connecticut. The study “implies that when people don’t know much about a religion, they have an instinctive fear of descrimination essay that group.” Jewish applicants received the japan essay least discrimination of all religious applicants, with evangelicals not far behind. The researchers sent out 3,200 nearly identical resumes to 800 employers around two major cities in the South, changing only a reference to descrimination participation in our town essay, a religious student group while in descrimination essay, college, including affiliations to evangelical Christianity, Islam and Judaism.

The study does not name the format cities. A control group of resumes featured no reference to descrimination any religion. The researchers also included a fake religion, called “Wallonism,” to measure the essay format degree to which people discriminate against a completely unfamiliar faith. The fact that employers discriminated against descrimination essay “Wallonians” confirmed this suspicion, Wallace said. The nonreligious resumes received responses about 18% of the time.

By contrast, less than 11% of Muslims heard back from employers, followed by 12% of atheists and about 13% of “Wallonians,” Catholics and pagans. Evangelicals heard back just under 16% of the time, while Jews heard back about 16.5% of the time. The study showed that employers in the South the country’s most religious region by many measures prefer applicants who are not public about their religious affiliations, according to the University of Connecticut researchers. “While religion is central to Southern life and Southerners more openly display their religious beliefs than citizens in other parts of the essay on walden country, they also embrace the essay secular notion that there is a proper time and place for religious expression,” the authors wrote. “Thus, even in the deep South, most employers draw the line against overt expressions of religious belief in the workplace.” Religion in the United States has become “compartmentalized,” Wallace said. It is perfectly acceptable to be religious, he said, but Americans prefer that expression be secluded to certain domains. “Social institutions are where you have a great diversity of about people,” Wallace said. The worry that religious people might try to push their beliefs on other people is the biggest reservation of descrimination essay employers, he added. The negative consequences of japan essay format open religiosity did not seem to apply to Jews, however. Although Jewish applicants received slightly less feedback from descrimination employers than applicants who made no mention of religion, this discrepancy was not enough to be statistically significant, Wallace said.

The researchers cited a number of japan theories as to why this phenomenon might be, especially since Jews make up a tiny portion of the Southern population. For one, Jews have integrated well in the region and are not as residentially or occupationally segregated as they are in other parts of the descrimination country, Wallace said. Also, evangelicals who make up the largest religious group in the South have a close affinity to Jews, even more so than to critical Catholics, and descrimination, may feel more connected to members of essays on mathematical this religious group, according to Wallace. “Jews, and especially the Jewish state of Israel, feature prominently in evangelical Christian theology; in fact evangelicals express stronger support for Israel than any other ethnic or religious group except Jews themselves,” the researchers wrote. Rachel Kranson, an descrimination essay, assistant professor of our town essay religion at the University of Pittsburgh, said that part of this phenomenon might be a race and class issue, rather than a religious one, as the vast majority of Jews are white and essay, middle class. “People’s religious identities do not exist in a vacuum, and intersect with categories of race and class,” she wrote in an e-mail. “Employers’ preference for Jews may also indicate a preference for white workers from transferring well-off backgrounds.” The conclusions of this research largely mirrored those of a study performed last year in New England by the same team of University of Connecticut sociologists. While sociologists found job discrimination in New England, it was not nearly as pronounced as in descrimination essay, the South, except against Muslim applicants, according to the study. That study found that resumes that mentioned religious affiliations received 19% fewer responses from transferring employers than the nonreligious control group. Muslims saw the worst of the descrimination discrimination, in both the North and our town essay, South, according to the studies.

Muslims received 32% fewer e-mails and 48% fewer phone calls than job candidates who didn’t mention religion on their resume, according to the study. In the descrimination essay South, they received receiving 38% fewer e-mails and 54% fewer phone calls. “This suggests, ironically, that religious discrimination in hiring is most prevalent in essay on walden, regions of the descrimination country where religion is most passionately practiced,” the authors wrote. July 10, 2014 at 1:00 pm. lot of transferring babble you got there….just cause the process is not mentioned does nOT mean it could not have happened..thats very weak logic. Kinda like claiming Noah gathered animals from every continent. Great MIRACLES have been discovered in essay, the GOSPEL (=Matthew Mark Luke John), it will change the finding friendship World forever. BIBLICAL EXCELLENT MIRACLES -3- don’t waste you time with this spam. They are only trying to essay generate hits on youtube.

I’m surprised they haven’t completely blocked this person. JAJAJA… oops… pardon me please… I meant to say again… HAHAHA and more HAHAHA. Japan Essay Format? Extremely hypocritical and Compulsive lying atheists are sending me Spam mail from descrimination essay CNN and WordPress. “JUSTbecause DNA is very similar ” “Not very similar…exactly the same. Most of the genes are exactly the same, and we can even see the one mutation that changed everything for humans, when we went from our town essay 48 chromosomes to 46.” – whomever made this statement doesn’t have a clue what they are talking about! there are many more differences. I’m intrigued. Essay? Please illustrate how. What are you talking about? Bonobo’s and chimpanzees share 99.6% of our DNA. That leaves only .4% difference. That is to say 99.6 % is EXACTLY the same.Once again showing you have no idea what YOU are talking about.

You say it is wrong but yet (as always) fail to provide substantiating facts to back you…care to do this without reverting back to your bible?? It isn’t the fact that you are religious that I will not hire you, it is that you are so religious that you want me to consider that fact in the hiring process. If you are so committed to critical on walden being an descrimination essay, Atheist that you need me to know it perhaps you are just a little too obsessed with your position. I am not interested in who your imaginary friends are, nor do I care that you consider yourself superior to anyone that has them. Only for the new members of this blog: Another of the many reasons your religion should never be put on a resume: “John Hick, a noted British philosopher of critical on walden religion, estimates that 95 percent of the people of the world owe their religious affiliation to an accident (the randomness) of birth. Essay? The faith of the vast majority of believers depends upon where they were born and when. Those born in Saudi Arabia will almost certainly be Moslems, and those born and forrester essay friendship, raised in India will for descrimination essay the most part be Hindus. Our Town Essay? Nevertheless, the religion of millions of people can sometimes change abruptly in the face of major political and social upheavals. In the middle of the sixth century ce, virtually all the people of the Near East and Northern Africa, including Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and essay, Egypt were Christian.

By the an essay writer end of the following century, the people in these lands were largely Moslem, as a result of the militant spread of Islam. The Situation Today. Barring military conquest, conversion to descrimination essay a faith other than that of on mathematical one’s birth is rare. Some Jews, Moslems, and Hindus do convert to Christianity, but not often. Similarly, it is not common for Christians to become Moslems or Jews.

Most people are satisfied that their own faith is the true one or at least good enough to satisfy their religious and emotional needs. Had St. Augustine or St. Thomas Aquinas been born in descrimination, Mecca at our town essay the start of the present century, the essay chances are that they would not have been Christians but loyal followers of the prophet Mohammed. “ J. Somerville. It is very disturbing that religious narrow- mindedness, intolerance, violence and transferring schools, hatred continues unabated due to randomness of birth.

Maybe, just maybe if this fact would be published on the first page of every newspaper every day, that we would finally realize the significant stupidity of all religions. That is your opinion. Opinions, like body parts, stink in essay, many instances. Why do you care so much that some one believes some thing you don’t? when people are led by their religion to critical vote against the materiel interests of descrimination other people THEN I publicly counter their religious nonsense. There are atheists who have been so injured by religious people that they criticize all public expression of religion. Our Town Essay? I understand that while viewing it as counter productive.

It is plain anti-social to tell someone their baby is ugly no matter how true that may be. With respect to hiring: I have found most *loudly* religious people to put less effort into their work product, God loves them so they don’t need much in descrimination essay, the way of admiration from their work peers. It’s only thirteen weeks until World Rabies Awareness Day! It’s never too soon to have your pet vaccinated against all dangerous viruses such as Rabies, Salero and Kermit4jc. Be kind to your pet! thanks for your concern…I already gotten mypets taken care of a few months ago, we always keep up to date on all vaccinations.

I guess prayer doesn’t work at keeping animals free from the rabies virus (one of your god’s nastier creations). When prayer once again fails, there’s always science to friendship fall back on. You have heard that it was said, ‘Eye for descrimination essay eye, and tooth for tooth.’h 39But I tell you, do not resist an evil person. Essay? If anyone slaps you on the right cheek, turn to them the other cheek also. Descrimination? 40And if anyone wants to sue you and take your shirt, hand over our town essay your coat as well. 41If anyone forces you to go one mile, go with them two miles. 42Give to the one who asks you, and do not turn away from the one who wants to borrow from you. Love for Enemies. 43“You have heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbori and essay, hate your enemy.’ 44But I tell you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, 45that you may be children of your Father in heaven. He causes his sun to rise on the evil and essay friendship, the good, and sends rain on descrimination the righteous and the unrighteous.

46If you love those who love you, what reward will you get? Are not even the tax collectors doing that? 47And if you greet only your own people, what are you doing more than others? Do not even pagans do that? 48Be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect. New International Version.

Do not repay evil with evil or insult with insult. On the contrary, repay evil with blessing, because to this you were called so that you may inherit a blessing. Do not take revenge, my dear friends, but leave room for God’s wrath, for it is written: “It is mine to avenge; I will repay,” says the Lord. The argument against evolution that we are missing transitional forms is essays like arguing that Marco Polo didn’t venture to China because we don’t have the exact route, or Lewis and Clark didn’t reach the Pacific because the details of essay their relationship with Sacajawea aren’t all known. The only our town essay, ‘errors’ found in Darwin’s Theory are that it is incomplete. There is much evidence, including transitional form fossils, genetics, geological evidence, chemical evidence, etc. It all supports evolution of species. Not any objective evidence refutes evolution of species. Descrimination? As more evidence rolls in every day, new details and more modes of evolution are found, not less.

Actual evolution is complex and has many modes. An Essay Writer? These will continue to descrimination be discovered. The record of objective evidence has been in only 1 direction, species evolve, sometimes into new species if the conditions are right. The anti-evolution crowd never provides any objective evidence for their claim that evolution is false, or for their speculated alternatives. They throw unsubstantiated hypotheses up against tested and an essay writer, validated science. Descrimination? This is an essay writer a standard tactic of defense lawyers. Essay? It works, jurys get confused as they don’t differentiate evidence from hypothesis. This tactic has been shrewdly picked up by some religious leaders to mislead their flock. Being skeptical is good. Scientists are skeptical of new results published.

But to blindly follow suit of japan essay format people with an agenda and descrimination, argue unsubstantiated hypothesis as equal to tested and about, verified theory because it is incomplete is descrimination not skepticism, it is a failure to be able to weigh evidence. Yup! Denying evolution due to essay format “missing links” is like denying the Lewis and Clark expedition because they didn’t leave permanent footprints for every single step that they took. really? lewis and clark and objective evidence. vs. objective evidence from intertransitional forms? If you watch an old film movie that happens to have a few frames ruined in spots throughout the playback do you imagine that the story takes off in wild directions in essay, those few missing seconds? You can similarly line up fossils, but you would have us believe that weird divergent creatures could have just popped up anywhere in-between the samples we have? That’s just preposterous… SURELY with SO many animals having had existed in the past one would find SOME tranitional forms..but NONE are found…ZERO! Part ape-like and part human-like and you are SURE they couldn’t be “transitional” they have NOT been priven to BE part ape and robotics, part man.

I tell you a secret kermit – they’re ALL transitional fossils. butnone has been proven to be transiational between common ancestor of man, to the humans we have today. Nonsense, kermie. The fact that you use the term “missing link” shows how sorely misinformed (and probably mislead) you are on the subject. As G to descrimination the T said, but if you want to learn a little about it, start with these prominent examples of transitional fossils: ZERO is the sum of kermies mental abilities…that’s why the bible and what it says means so much to him.

Doris..NO comment to format YOU except for this….I did NOT bring up the essay “missing link” term I was nOT using the term missing link..one of the essay ATHEISTS in the blog did this..I was ONLY responding to their use of the word. btw I see you bought into the deception of the Archaeopteryx …do youbelieve this is the transition form from reptile to bird? No one is looking for any “missing link” that is extremely outdated. All fossils are transitional because evolution is continuously happening. The proof you are descendant of descrimination essay apes is in your DNA. We ARE apes. ( h0m0 sapiens literally means wise ape.) oie..JUSTbecause DNA is very similar and close does NOT make us have common ancesior with apes…correlation does not always prove things. Every fossil ever found represents a tranitional form.

You’re looking for something like a crocoduck, I assume, or maybe a mermaid, or pegasus skeleton? WHERE are the fossils of the japan essay format common ancestors? WHERE is the fossil (s) of the common ancestor of man and apes? Australopithecus sediba is one of descrimination essay many examples. You seem to be under the impression that evolution says that one day there was a chimpanzee and the next a human. No common descent means that each line evolved largely separately over a long time but millions of essay about schools years ago had a common ancestor. not at all…apparently YOU are not reading my posts! I still keep referring to the transitional forms! MY beef is..WHERE is the essay common ancestor. BTW according to an essay writer evolutionists….humans did not come from apes but from common ancestor) I think you may know that, IM just saying IM aware of that. “JUSTbecause DNA is very similar ” Not very similar…exactly the descrimination essay same.

Most of the genes are exactly the same, and we can even see the forrester essay friendship one mutation that changed everything for descrimination essay humans, when we went from japan essay format 48 chromosomes to 46. Trying to water down reality will not work. Your DNA proves beyond doubt you are descendant from apes, with apes and descrimination essay, monkeys having a common ancestor. The genome is quite complex and essays robotics, extensive, and in it, we can see your history. I think you need to study onthat beter..it is descrimination essay nOT exactly same….DNA is NOT 100% same in critical on walden, ever way with the descrimination apes and humans. 99.6% of an essay writer Chimpanzees and descrimination, Bonobo’s DNA is critical essay exactly the same as humans. Only .4% is descrimination different. They are our closest living relatives.

First, there are plenty of transitional fossils just visit any Natural History Museum. Second, the Nakalipithecus and Ouranopithecus fossils are likely to be the most recent known common ancestors between humans and chimps (and also gorillas). these missing links are missing..there are none..and scientists are desperately trying to show o Creaiotn, o God by essay schools hanging on descrimination essay the deception that these “missing links” exist! See above, kermie. The only about transferring schools, thing I see missing here is essay what should be between your ears. hey kermit you missed the essay about transferring schools links that redoza mentioned about the AiG and the ICR ? Oops damn thumbs redzoa. This is a sample of the AiG – ICR’s old stuff ? Scripture and Geologic Discovery by Douglas E Cox. Comedy Gold kermit . Ihave not used that in years….I don’t refer to essay those…sorry..you are assuming…my info comes from essays on mathematical elswhere.

Hey kermit for essay the kids – not some ideology . Please check it out essays robotics, thanks. Climate Science Students Bill of Rights. ALL KIDS DESERVE THE BEST CLIMATE SCIENCE EDUCATION AVAILABLE. Ihave not used that in years.. Good to know that kermit.wonder if topher has ? It’s one thing to say that evolution is descrimination essay not completely driven by natural causes so the theory is about transferring schools incomplete, it’s another to deny physical evidence. There are many clear transitional forms in the fossil record. Descrimination? The dating on our town essay those forms (established by physical chemistry) establishes the essay order and transitions. An example is the critical on walden transition from primitive reptiles to essay dinosaurs, to our town essay birds. There are many transitional forms showing the gradual evolution of feathers for warmth and descrimination essay, display, into flightworthy form.

There are living transitional forms we can directly look at essay transferring today. Did land animals evolve from aquatic animals? Some amphibians today start life as fully aquatic forms with gills and descrimination, fins. An Essay Writer? They then change form (with their same DNA), grow legs and lungs to live on descrimination land. An Essay Writer? Other animals start in the water with gills and descrimination, change those gills into essays on mathematical robotics wings and fly. thatsa theory that has not been proven…..

To deny transitional forms is like denying that other planets have satellites. Descrimination? You can keep saying it, but we can directly observe them just like we can directly observe transitional forms. Evolution is a fact. Life forms have progeny with mutations. Now that we can quickly sequence the critical on walden genome, we have measured the essay mutation rate accurately. Humans have an on mathematical, average of 60 mutations at birth. Selection acts on those mutations, that is a fact. Descrimination? Dogs, sheep, pigs, goats, cows, cats, chickens, horses, apple trees, pear trees, che.rry trees, orange trees, almond trees, walnut trees, fig trees, barley, rice, wheat, lentils, peanuts, corn, gra.pes, blueberries, strawberries, eggplant, squash, tomatoes, carrots, radishes, broccoli, cauliflower, etc. are a small fraction of the plants and critical, animals that were radically changed by selection on descrimination those mutations that have been measured. It’s a fact. Science hasn’t proven that the only selection forces are natural. It has shown that there are natural selection forces, but not that they are exclusive.

You can argue that there are supernatural selection forces put on the mutations to create new form. It is finding essay not reasonable to deny evolution of species. thetranistional forms have NOT been observed in humans and essay, apes! again similarity does not make it true! ithas NOT been proven….there IS no fosisil of the common ancestor. I agree with your postion on most things and many of the details, but one item makes me wonder. This bit about gills into wings is new to me. Is there a source for that? P.s. kermit4jc is obviously just disregarding all evidence that disagrees with him. I first learned of essay format this from the book by Sean Carrol, “Endless Forms Most Beautiful”. Descrimination? He is an Evo Devo researcher. They study how DNA operates during development.

It sheds amazing light on evolution. The genes that form gills early in about schools, development are later orchestrated slightly differently to make wings in the next form. If you look up evolution of insect wings you will find more. What I find more interesting is that the same genes contribute to essay gills and wings in an individual. Once that is true, evolution of wings doesn’t seem as mysterious. Essays On Mathematical? This is true of descrimination essay other “transitional” forms as well.

Ah, “insect wings [from] gill-like appendages” that makes more sense. I was picturing bird wings, which seemed unlikly. Sorry for the confusion. My mistake. Thanks for the info. Just as you are rejecting the an essay writer evidence supporting evolution theory the anti theists reject the evidence of purpose in essay, creation. The Bible is silent as to the process God uses to create the physical world we experience yet express in the process of forrester friendship evolution of essay man out of a carnal state of existence and into an eternal state. We cannot reject evolution because of our belief in God as that is without merit and anti theists cannot reject God based on about scientism as that is without merit.

lot of babble you got there….just cause the process is not mentioned does nOT mean it could not have happened..thats very weak logic. You make some very good points. I am an atheist, not an essay, anti-theist, so I assume your comment was not applicable to atheists. The atheists I know don’t reject evidence. I am waiting to see evidence of supernatural purpose. I see purpose all around me, but all the evidence I have says that those purposes are naturally derived.

When a Paramecium swims up a glucose gradient, it has a purpose, to feed. I am very open to any objective evidence of purpose coming from beyond what we call nature, but I haven’t gotten any. Abraham, Moses, Jesus for example had purpose outside of finding friendship natural. Before my conversion experience my purpose was limited to the known physical. When I asked Jesus into my life my purpose was to do the will of God. Descrimination Essay? This is outside of myself and given that the object is outside of the physical my purpose must be outside of the physical i.e. supernatural.

This transformation of purpose from carnal to a love of God happens hundreds of millions of essay about transferring schools times a year. These experiences are objectively observable and consistent. The result is as predictable as any other natural law. Essay? A real transformation is a rebirth that opens a window into the kingdom of God and an essay writer, the things of descrimination God that sees a purpose onto God. Evidenced by critical the words of Moses in 1440 BC Abraham’s sons Isaac and Ishmael would be great nations and out of Isaac would come the Christ. Two thousand years ago Christ came from the line of Abraham as did the descrimination essay great Nations Jewish and Muslim. In 1440 BC God said these two nations will struggle with each other to the end of time.

Those in Christ are born of the Spirit. Our Town Essay? Here we are in 2014 as all remains as stated. This purpose of descrimination God is forrester clear. Like the Paramecium the people of God have followed the hope in a promise from the days of essay Abraham. That is observable evidence. Given the object is not natural the purpose is supernatural. “lot of babble you got there….just cause the process is not mentioned does nOT mean it could not have happened..thats very weak logic” =The details of how God will fulfill the purpose of creation is very clear as that is the story of the Bible. You are arguing about the things of this world when you discuss missing links not the things of God or truth as expressed in the Word of God.

The Bible discusses kinds,for example, and the classification system used in essays robotics, Genesis is descrimination essay not the complex taxonomy classification of today. Genesis was written in finding forrester essay, a form of classical Hebrew poetry which is not an acceptable form of scientific expression. Don’t get me wrong, the Genesis story of essay creation has not be proven in error by science and remains the only Holy Book that gets it right (or does not get it wrong as far as we know). =God said let it be and it was so is the operative process of Genesis. The beginning of life eternal is the Word of God not biopoiesis arising from some base element formed under pressure in a neutron star. I respect your opinion on that. For me, the purpose of characters in the bible can be anything the essay reader projects onto that character. The feeling people get that they are spiritually moved to a purpose is essay a subjective experience. It is observable. An Essay Writer? That doesn’t make it evidence of a supernatural cause as it could be a natural cause.

We know that brain chemicals can cause powerful feelings and motivation of action, sometimes it gets out of control and bad things happen. The point is, what feels like supernatural has been shown in descrimination essay, some cases to be completely physical. I’m not saying that proves anything, much less that your experience is essays robotics different than you experience it to be. I’m saying I have no objective evidence. Who then did the 56 out of 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence refer when the appealed to the supreme Judge of the Word to bless their decision? And could that blessing have been in the form of the descrimination essay worlds superpower status as a nation of Christians ever since?

Certainly that does not establish proof of God but these patterns are abundant. You are in the same boat as a Christian when it comes to format proof for your belief. The fossil records, biology etc. show a pattern that we call evolution of descrimination essay man yet you have zero evidence to establish it was an accident without agency. If you reject agency without evidence you are at a minimum conflicted to demand evidence for agency from 90% of the word that accepts agency as causation on essay about the same basis as you reject agency. Jesus said no proof will be given you except the sign of Jonah. Essay? If I give you proof other than that I would make Jesus a liar. Robotics? Consider that the enemies of Israel in the ancient world did not fear the descrimination essay God of Abraham (probably did not know God) but feared Israel because God was with them.

This goes to your line where we can observe the result of belief but that does not prove God. I do not know anymore than science can know how God works (i.e. existence may just be an expression of God and we only observe what appears physical in nature) nor can I define the substance of God. I don’t have proof of my beliefs, if I did they would be things I know vs. things i believe. I don’t ask for proof. There is currently no proof either way. An Essay Writer? I ask for objective evidence. Descrimination? There is a lot of our town essay objective evidence of descrimination essay a natural universe (not proof). There is no objective evidence that there is any supernatural in our town essay, the universe. Therefore I believe in a natural universe. I could be wrong, but with lots of evidence for natural, and zero objective evidence for supernatural it is descrimination a reasonable conclusion. You do know that something exists that is not currently known and that it extends well beyond our ability to comprehend at the present.

Just how do you know that? Because there are known phenomena we can’t describe yet. Their effects have been observed (e.g. On Walden? dark matter). I was driving towards 90% of the world that senses there is essay something more to existence than the observable natural. This same sense is what drove Neanderthal to our town essay bury important things with their dead. We are more aware of how little we know and the scope and power of descrimination even dark matter confirms it as to the external boundaries while introspection reveals lack of critical boundary as to time and space.

Only God can take all of that in and create it. Our senses are notoriously unreliable. Essay? There are many things we think we sense that are wrong. If you watch an old film movie that happens to robotics have a few frames ruined in spots throughout the descrimination essay playback do you imagine that the story takes off in wild directions in essay, those few missing seconds? You can similarly line up fossils, but you would have us believe that weird divergent creatures could have just popped up anywhere in-between the samples we have? That’s just preposterous. “The argument against evolution that we are missing transitional forms is like arguing that Marco Polo didn’t venture to China because we don’t have the exact route, or Lewis and Clark didn’t reach the Pacific because the details of their relationship with Sacajawea aren’t all known.” It is precisely like arguing that Marco Polo didn’t venture to China because we can’t find his fossilized poo with noodles in it, or that Lewis and Clark didn’t reach the descrimination Pacific because we can’t find the remains of the original Fort Clatsop. NO evidence whatsoever for forrester essay macro evolution…..NO tranistional forms available..period..uyour argument has no merit. your ignorance is descrimination essay truly astounding … Positive evidence for macroevolution: the progressive order of the fossil record; transitional forms including but not limited to essay about tiktaalik, archeopteryx, etc, which bear traits bridging allegedly specially-created kinds; phylogenetic analyses of essay extant and extinct forms which corroborate the progressive order of the finding fossil record; molecular vestiges of common ancestry, e.g. our defunct human gene for egg yolk protein; anatomical vestiges of historical evolutionary contingency, e.g. the recurrent laryngeal nerve, male nip-ples; Etc, etc.

Negative evidence for descrimination macroevolution: No fossils observed in the wrong place, e.g. no humans alongside dinosaurs, no rabbits in the pre-Cambrian; No observations of true chimeras; No observations of special creation of organisms; etc, etc. Earlier, kermit mentioned something along the finding essay lines of “just because we don’t believe [evolution] doesn’t mean we’re ignorant.” This statement is descrimination more or less true; however, statements like the japan essay format one above certainly do demonstrate a clear ignorance. But more, they demonstrate the arrogance which accompanies a general scientific ignorance when coupled to a vain belief that a preferred and wholly unsupported belief in magic provides sufficient “credentials” to discuss topics with which they have no education or experience. “Usually, even a non-Christian knows something about the earth, the heavens, and the other elements of this world, about the motion and orbit of the stars and even their size and relative positions, about the predictable eclipses of the sun and moon, the cycles of the years and descrimination, the seasons, about the schools kinds of animals, shrubs, stones, and so forth, and this knowledge he hold to descrimination as being certain from reason and experience. Now, it is a disgraceful and dangerous thing for an infidel to hear a Christian, presumably giving the meaning of Holy Scripture, talking nonsense on essays robotics these topics; and we should take all means to prevent such an descrimination essay, embarrassing situation, in which people show up vast ignorance in a Christian and laugh it to scorn. The shame is not so much that an finding, ignorant individual is derided, but that people outside the household of faith think our sacred writers held such opinions, and, to the great loss of those for whose salvation we toil, the writers of our Scripture are criticized and rejected as unlearned men. If they find a Christian mistaken in a field which they themselves know well and hear him maintaining his foolish opinions about our books, how are they going to essay believe those books in matters concerning the resurrection of the dead, the our town essay hope of eternal life, and the kingdom of heaven, when they think their pages are full of essay falsehoods and on facts which they themselves have learnt from experience and the light of reason? Reckless and incompetent expounders of forrester Holy Scripture bring untold trouble and sorrow on their wiser brethren when they are caught in one of descrimination their mischievous false opinions and are taken to task by those who are not bound by the authority of our sacred books. For then, to defend their utterly foolish and obviously untrue statements, they will try to critical essay on walden call upon Holy Scripture for proof and descrimination, even recite from memory many passages which they think support their position, although they understand neither what they say nor the things about which they make assertion.” – St. Augustine.

NOT at robotics all..first of all..its NOT proven that those you mentioed ARE in FACTtransitional!in fact..there are problems with those fossils being called as “transitional..plus it is interesting…do you believe in the Cambrian explosion? you know what it is? Yes, God may have created completely different species that were very much like man and very much like apes and NEVER mentioned in the Bible. Nope..no evidence whatsoever. The fossils bear traits that bridge the vertebrate classes as well as the commonly understood notion of biblical “kinds”; that is, tiktaalik bears both fish and essay, tetrapod features and archeopteryx bears both reptilian and finding friendship, bird features. The only source of alleged “problems” comes from ID/creationists and it should be restated that phylogenetic analyses of essay both extant and extinct forms corroborates these transitions. You may want to resist the standard creationist talking points regarding the japan Cambrian Explosion. Based on your prior comments, I’m reasonably confident that I’m more familiar with the topic than you are and scurrying off to AIG and descrimination essay, ICR will not legitimately supplement your demonstrated previously ignorance.

Evidence of your scientific ignorance and lack of on mathematical robotics training is present in your use of the words “proven” and “believe.” “Proof” is available only in formal logic and mathematics; it is not the evidentiary standard for the physical sciences. I do not “believe” in the Cambrian Explosion; the physical evidence indicates a relatively rapid expansion of forms over the course of tens of millions of years. But to pre-empt your response and contrary to the standard creationist talking points, the Cambrian Explosion did not transpire “quickly” but the descrimination essay term “explosion” is relative to the context of geologic time. An Essay Writer? Furthermore, molecular and fossil evidence does provide pre-cursor forms and such rapid evolution has been observed at the expected taxonomic levels (i.e. speciation), e.g. the Pod Mrcaru lizards, Cichlid radiations in essay, African lakes, etc. I would note that you failed to remotely respond to any of the other supporting evidence for macroevolution. Feel free to explain our defunct human gene for egg-yolk protein or the progressive order of the japan fossil record. Alternatively, you could be the first ID/creationist to offer some positive supporting physical evidence for your position rather than continuing the losing strategy of parroting well-refuted arguments of incredulity based in personal ignorance . Descrimination? . . We have PHYSICAL PROOF that part-man part-apes existed. We have ZERO PHYSICAL PROOF of the Garden of Eden, Adam, Eve, and Jesus. nooo..you do NOT have proof they are part ape part man….its a deception and the scientists are merely trying to make it fit in their mold what it should be….rather than the other way around…. God had no trouble designing unique animals. He made elephants, tigers, giraffes, turtles, etc.

Then when he came to essay his greatest creation, he apparently ran out of ideas and created a man to be extremely like apes and the other animal fossils we have found. Not much for originality by descrimination essay then. My God you are so shallow….they are similar in our town essay, some ways..sure..but humans are TOTALLY unique! do gorillas have abtract thoughts? are they self aware? etc etc….just cause they LOOK similar does nOT mean that’s where it ends..SO many things that humans are unique from apes….Ill bet you really think “The Planet of the Apes” must be true! Apes forming religions like humans do..etc etc..come on..get real..youre getting desperate here…. kermit, Did you read anything that redzoa wrote? btw Apes are self-aware – I’m surprised that someone in your line of work is descrimination not aware of that. not in same sense we are aware of our town essay ourselves…again think of being in the abstract and essay, all…. In what ways are they different and please cite your sources. “do gorillas have abtract thoughts? are they self aware? ” Yes and finding forrester essay friendship, yes, acccording to the studies that have occurred and the ones that are currently going on.

Why are you getting all of your info from 1970 and before? July 9, 2014 at 2:15 am | “do gorillas have abtract thoughts? are they self aware?” You really BLEW those questions. Starting to do RESEARCH would help you a lot. NOT In the same sense as US! get all the info ok? thanks don’t misrepresent me. You JUST MAKE UP THINGS as you go along because you don’t bother to descrimination essay do any research so you KNOW what your are talking about. Read about the studies they have done on apes and then you won’t be so painfully CLUELESS. stop with false accusation..I do not make things up….I study this too..I READ things s well…..I have already mentioned several in the past Lee Strobel’s “Case for our town essay a Creator” I also have read from Michael Behe, JP Moreland, and many others mentioned in essay, Lee;s books (including the secular books that have been cited in his book) BTW not all scientists agree with you…thus I am still in the right….

You make things up like claiming that you know MILLIONS of gays are wrong to essay on walden say they’ve always been that way or claiming that 2 MILLION abortions were BECAUSE of convenience. Since you didn’t research it, here’s what wiki says: According to essay the definition stated earlier in this section, if an individual can process, identify, store information (memory), and recognize differences, they are self-aware. The chimpanzees, dolphins, and magpies have all demonstrated these factors. hmm…something screwy with the posts..anyhow…you seem to lazy to look things up yourself…I made up NOTHING..this is stuff I get from reading!

I can get you the finding forrester friendship links to stats of what people actually say..wiki doesnot really provide that….I don’t have to frigging know the essay mind of gays to use logic that being born gay does not work…in other word…..science again has NOT..I repeat NOT conclusively said one IS born gay! THATS what IM going on….many people IGNORE this and forrester friendship, say that gays ARE born that way so as to seem tolerant…and everyone falls into descrimination that game. Science cannot conclusively say why one is born hetero, either. I would like the link to where it is stated conclusively that 2 million women a year get abortions out of convenience. This seems a little high. I am yet to an essay writer hear an evolutionary biologist claim that they accept Darwin’s Theory of Evolution because: 1. They had an experience one day and now feel “born again” after Charles came into their lives. 2. Evolution is written about in a 2,000 year old book of late Bronze Age and Greco-Roman Jewish mythology. 3. Descrimination Essay? It makes them moral and good. 4. “Well, how else could it have happened.”

I guess we rational people just hold ourselves to a higher standard than the sky-fairy believers. Fairies wear bo ots and you gotta believe me. yeah I saw it, I saw it, I tell you no lies. Yeah Fairies wear bo ots and you gotta believe me. I saw it, I saw it with my own two eyes, well all right now! the only fey that were boots are the cat sidhe, have at the vile cur! Are we really arguing about essay about schools, dictionary definitions now? I’m amazed that Christians want to be so precise about words used when their magical bronze age book of fairy tales is so imprecise. That Christians can believe that a book so obviously factually and scientifically and descrimination essay, logically flawed could be the word of an our town essay, omnipotent god. LET’s Relig iosity Law #6 – If a bible verse furthers the cause, it is to be taken literally. Essay? If a bible verse is detrimental to the cause, it is either: taken out of an essay writer context; is descrimination essay allegorical; refers to another verse somewhere else; is an ancient cultural anomaly; is a translation or copyist’s error; means something other than what it actually says; Is a mystery of god or not discernible by humans; or is just plain magic.

That’s because those definitions can actually apply: Full Definition of TRUTH (Merriam Webster) a archaic : fidelity, constancy. b : sincerity in action, character, and utterance. a (1) : the state of being the case : fact (2) : the body of real things, events, and facts : actuality (3) often capitalized : a transcendent fundamental or spiritual reality. b : a judgment, proposition, or idea that is true or accepted as true. c : the body of true statements and propositions. a : the property (as of essays a statement) of being in accord with fact or reality. b chiefly British : true 2. c : fidelity to an original or to descrimination essay a standard.

capitalized Christian Science : god. : in essay, accordance with fact : actually. Definition of truth in essay, English: (Oxford American English) NOUN (plural truths /tro?oT?Hz, tro?oTHs/) 1The quality or state of an essay writer being true: he had to accept the truth of her accusation. 1.1 (also the truth) That which is true or in accordance with fact or reality: tell me the truth. she found out the truth about him.

1.2A fact or belief that is accepted as true: the emergence of scientific truths. Jesus was a 1st century CE, Jewish, simple, preacher-man who was conceived by a Jewish carpenter. named Joseph living in Nazareth and born of a young Jewish. girl named Mary. (Some say he was a mamzer.) Jesus was summarily crucified for being a temple rabble-rouser by.

the Roman troops in Jerusalem serving under Pontius Pilate, He was buried in an unmarked grave and still lies. a-mouldering in the ground somewhere outside of. Said Jesus’ story was embellished and “mythicized” by. many semi-fiction writers. A descent into Hell, a bodily resurrection. and ascension stories were promulgated to descrimination compete with the. Caesar myths. Said stories were so popular that they. grew into a religion known today as Catholicism/Christianity. and featuring dark-age, daily wine to blood and bread to body rituals.

called the eucharistic sacrifice of the format non-atoning Jesus. It is extremely unlikely that there was a town at Nazareth at the time of Jesus, at least not a Jewish one (only a cemetary). Additionally the descrimination only descriptions of Nazareth do not mesh with where the existing Nazareth is on mathematical robotics (no cliff). Other than that your statements are compatible with what historical records there are, which however isn’t the same as being true. yeah i was debating the finer points of essay accepted terminology during a defined debate. dala wanted to use the international DALA dictionary. lmfao sorry i couldn’t help it i’m bored at work so i was just sitting here poking dala with a stick so i could watch him chase his tail. the wasp has a sting. I used the first definition of “faith” that appeared after I Googled “Faith Definition”. What is wrong with that? It is not a debate when you write your own rules and moderate it yourself in transferring schools, the setting of an anonymous opinion blog.

You must be joking? WAHHHHHHHHHHH! I BROKE MY DALA! (points while sucking thumb) fix it. WAHHHHHHHHHHH! I AM ZHILLA! (starts playing a game and descrimination essay, makes up the rules as he goes) I win! Considering the fact that you lie and misrepresent the arguments and statements of others, and even misrepresent your own statements, you have little to chastise others for.

As opposed to internet blog Christians… who are the epitome of scientific knowledge, compassion and format, Jesusyness.

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FIGHTING DISCRIMINATION essays

99 theses date on descrimination the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences. by finding essay, Dr. Martin Luther, 1517. Earthquake victims in Haiti need your help! Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther. on the Power and Efficacy of descrimination Indulgences. by an essay writer, Dr. Essay? Martin Luther (1517) Works of Martin Luther: Adolph Spaeth, L.D.

Reed, Henry Eyster Jacobs, et Al., Trans. Eds. (Philadelphia: A. J. Holman Company, 1915), Vol.1, pp. 29-38. Out of love for the truth and the desire to bring it to light, the following propositions will be discussed at Wittenberg, under the presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of our town essay Arts and of Sacred Theology, and Lecturer in Ordinary on the same at that place. Wherefore he requests that those who are unable to be present and debate orally with us, may do so by letter. In the Name our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. 1. Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, when He said Poenitentiam agite, willed that the whole life of believers should be repentance.

2. This word cannot be understood to mean sacramental penance, i.e., confession and satisfaction, which is descrimination administered by the priests. 3. Yet it means not inward repentance only; nay, there is no inward repentance which does not outwardly work divers mortifications of the flesh. 4. The penalty [of sin], therefore, continues so long as hatred of on walden self continues; for this is the true inward repentance, and continues until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven. 5. The pope does not intend to remit, and descrimination cannot remit any penalties other than those which he has imposed either by his own authority or by that of the Canons. 6. Critical? The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring that it has been remitted by descrimination, God and by assenting to God's remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to grant remission in such cases were despised, the guilt would remain entirely unforgiven. 7. God remits guilt to no one whom He does not, at robotics the same time, humble in all things and bring into subjection to His vicar, the priest. 8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to them, nothing should be imposed on the dying. 9. Therefore the Holy Spirit in the pope is kind to us, because in descrimination essay his decrees he always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity.

10. Ignorant and format wicked are the doings of those priests who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penances for purgatory. 11. This changing of the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory is quite evidently one of the tares that were sown while the bishops slept. 12. Descrimination Essay? In former times the canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition. Forrester Essay Friendship? 13.

The dying are freed by death from all penalties; they are already dead to canonical rules, and have a right to descrimination essay be released from essays them. 14. The imperfect health [of soul], that is to say, the imperfect love, of the dying brings with it, of necessity, great fear; and the smaller the essay love, the greater is the fear. 15. This fear and horror is sufficient of itself alone (to say nothing of other things) to constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is finding forrester essay friendship very near to the horror of despair. 16. Descrimination Essay? Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ as do despair, almost-despair, and the assurance of safety.

17. With souls in purgatory it seems necessary that horror should grow less and an essay writer love increase. 18. It seems unproved, either by reason or Scripture, that they are outside the state of merit, that is to say, of increasing love. 19. Again, it seems unproved that they, or at least that all of them, are certain or assured of their own blessedness, though we may be quite certain of it. 20.

Therefore by full remission of all penalties the pope means not actually of all, but only of those imposed by himself. 21. Descrimination? Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in error, who say that by the pope's indulgences a man is japan format freed from every penalty, and saved; 22. Whereas he remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which, according to the canons, they would have had to pay in this life. 23. If it is at all possible to essay grant to any one the remission of all penalties whatsoever, it is certain that this remission can be granted only to japan essay the most perfect, that is, to the very fewest. 24. It must needs be, therefore, that the greater part of the people are deceived by that indiscriminate and descrimination highsounding promise of release from penalty.

25. The power which the pope has, in a general way, over purgatory, is just like the power which any bishop or curate has, in a special way, within his own diocese or parish. 26. The pope does well when he grants remission to souls [in purgatory], not by the power of the keys (which he does not possess), but by way of intercession. 27. They preach man who say that so soon as the essays on mathematical robotics penny jingles into essay the money-box, the soul flies out [of purgatory].

28. It is essay certain that when the penny jingles into the money-box, gain and avarice can be increased, but the essay result of the intercession of the Church is in the power of God alone. 29. Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory wish to be bought out of it, as in the legend of Sts. An Essay Writer? Severinus and Paschal. 30. No one is sure that his own contrition is sincere; much less that he has attained full remission. 31. Rare as is the descrimination man that is essay truly penitent, so rare is also the man who truly buys indulgences, i.e., such men are most rare. 32.

They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure of descrimination their salvation because they have letters of pardon. 33. Men must be on their guard against those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to Him; 34. For these graces of pardon concern only the penalties of sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man. 35. Our Town Essay? They preach no Christian doctrine who teach that contrition is not necessary in those who intend to buy souls out of descrimination essay purgatory or to buy confessionalia. 36. Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of an essay writer pardon.

37. Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in all the blessings of Christ and the Church; and this is granted him by God, even without letters of pardon. 38. Nevertheless, the remission and participation [in the blessings of the descrimination essay Church] which are granted by the pope are in japan format no way to be despised, for they are, as I have said, the declaration of divine remission. Essay? 39. It is most difficult, even for the very keenest theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people the abundance of pardons and [the need of] true contrition. 40. True contrition seeks and loves penalties, but liberal pardons only critical essay on walden relax penalties and cause them to be hated, or at least, furnish an occasion [for hating them]. 41. Descrimination? Apostolic pardons are to be preached with caution, lest the people may falsely think them preferable to other good works of love. 42.

Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend the buying of pardons to be compared in any way to works of mercy. 43. Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons; 44. Because love grows by works of love, and man becomes better; but by pardons man does not grow better, only more free from penalty. 45. An Essay Writer? 45.

Christians are to be taught that he who sees a man in need, and descrimination passes him by, and gives [his money] for pardons, purchases not the indulgences of the pope, but the indignation of God. 46. Christians are to be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep back what is an essay writer necessary for descrimination essay their own families, and by no means to squander it on pardons. 47. Essay On Walden? Christians are to be taught that the buying of pardons is a matter of free will, and not of commandment. 48. Christians are to be taught that the essay pope, in granting pardons, needs, and therefore desires, their devout prayer for him more than the money they bring. 49. Christians are to be taught that the pope's pardons are useful, if they do not put their trust in them; but altogether harmful, if through them they lose their fear of God.

50. Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the pardon-preachers, he would rather that St. Peter's church should go to ashes, than that it should be built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep. 51. Christians are to be taught that it would be the pope's wish, as it is his duty, to give of his own money to very many of on walden those from whom certain hawkers of pardons cajole money, even though the church of St. Descrimination? Peter might have to be sold. 52. The assurance of salvation by letters of pardon is vain, even though the commissary, nay, even though the pope himself, were to stake his soul upon it.

53. They are enemies of Christ and of the pope, who bid the Word of God be altogether silent in some Churches, in order that pardons may be preached in others. 54. Forrester Essay? Injury is descrimination done the essay format Word of descrimination God when, in the same sermon, an equal or a longer time is spent on pardons than on this Word. 55. It must be the intention of the pope that if pardons, which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell, with single processions and ceremonies, then the Gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies.

56. The treasures of the Church, out of which the pope. grants indulgences, are not sufficiently named or known among the people of Christ. 57. That they are not temporal treasures is essay format certainly evident, for many of the vendors do not pour out such treasures so easily, but only gather them. 58. Nor are they the merits of Christ and the Saints, for even without the pope, these always work grace for essay the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outward man. 59. St. Lawrence said that the forrester essay friendship treasures of the Church were the Church's poor, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time. 60. Without rashness we say that the keys of the Church, given by Christ's merit, are that treasure; 61.

For it is clear that for the remission of penalties and of reserved cases, the power of the pope is of itself sufficient. 62. The true treasure of the Church is the Most Holy Gospel of the glory and the grace of descrimination God. 63. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last.

64. On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first. 65. Therefore the treasures of the Gospel are nets with which they formerly were wont to fish for men of riches. 66. The treasures of the indulgences are nets with which they now fish for the riches of men. 67. Essays On Mathematical? The indulgences which the preachers cry as the greatest graces are known to be truly such, in descrimination essay so far as they promote gain.

68. Yet they are in truth the very smallest graces compared with the grace of essay on walden God and the piety of the Cross. 69. Descrimination Essay? Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of apostolic pardons, with all reverence. 70. But still more are they bound to strain all their eyes and attend with all their ears, lest these men preach their own dreams instead of the finding essay commission of the pope. 71. He who speaks against the truth of apostolic pardons, let him be anathema and accursed!

72. But he who guards against the lust and license of the pardon-preachers, let him be blessed! 73. Descrimination? The pope justly thunders against those who, by about transferring schools, any art, contrive the injury of the traffic in pardons. 74. But much more does he intend to thunder against those who use the pretext of pardons to contrive the injury of holy love and truth. 75. To think the papal pardons so great that they could absolve a man even if he had committed an impossible sin and violated the Mother of God -- this is madness.

76. We say, on the contrary, that the papal pardons are not able to remove the very least of venial sins, so far as its guilt is concerned. 77. It is said that even St. Peter, if he were now Pope, could not bestow greater graces; this is blasphemy against essay, St. Peter and against the pope. 78. We say, on the contrary, that even the present pope, and on mathematical any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal; to wit, the Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written in I. Corinthians xii. 79. To say that the cross, emblazoned with the papal arms, which is descrimination essay set up [by the preachers of indulgences], is of equal worth with the Cross of Christ, is blasphemy.

80. The bishops, curates and theologians who allow such talk to japan format be spread among the people, will have an account to render. 81. This unbridled preaching of pardons makes it no easy matter, even for essay learned men, to rescue the reverence due to the pope from slander, or even from the shrewd questionings of the laity. 82. To wit: -- Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the sake of holy love and of the dire need of the souls that are there, if he redeems an infinite number of souls for japan essay the sake of miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial.

83. Again: -- Why are mortuary and essay anniversary masses for the dead continued, and why does he not return or permit the essays robotics withdrawal of the endowments founded on their behalf, since it is wrong to pray for the redeemed? 84. Again: -- What is this new piety of God and the pope, that for money they allow a man who is impious and essay their enemy to buy out of purgatory the friendship pious soul of a friend of God, and do not rather, because of that pious and beloved soul's own need, free it for pure love's sake? 85. Again: -- Why are the penitential canons long since in actual fact and through disuse abrogated and dead, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences, as though they were still alive and in essay force? 86. Again: -- Why does not the pope, whose wealth is to-day greater than the riches of the richest, build just this one church of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with the money of poor believers? 87. Again: -- What is it that the pope remits, and what participation does he grant to finding forrester essay those who, by perfect contrition, have a right to full remission and participation?

88. Again: -- What greater blessing could come to the Church than if the pope were to do a hundred times a day what he now does once, and bestow on every believer these remissions and participations? 89. Descrimination? Since the on walden pope, by his pardons, seeks the salvation of souls rather than money, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons granted heretofore, since these have equal efficacy? 90. To repress these arguments and scruples of the laity by force alone, and not to essay resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the Church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies, and to make Christians unhappy.

91. On Mathematical? If, therefore, pardons were preached according to the spirit and mind of the descrimination essay pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved; nay, they would not exist. 92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Peace, peace, and there is essay on walden no peace! 93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to essay the people of an essay writer Christ, Cross, cross, and there is no cross! 94. Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and hell; 95. And thus be confident of entering into heaven rather through many tribulations, than through the assurance of peace. This text was converted to ASCII text for Project Wittenberg by Allen Mulvey, and is in the public domain. You may freely distribute, copy or print this text.

Please direct any comments or suggestions to: Rev. Robert E. Smith. Concordia Theological Seminary. Descrimination Essay? Surface Mail: 6600 N. Clinton St., Ft. Wayne, IN 46825 USA.

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Literature Search Methods for the Development of Clinical Practice Guidelines. Ione Auston, MLS, Marjorie A. Essay. Cahn, MA, Catherine R. Selden, MLS, National Library of Medicine, Office of essay about transferring schools Health Services Research Information. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Office of the Forum for descrimination Quality and Effectiveness in our town essay Health Care, Forum Methodology Conference. In December 1989, Title IX amendments to Public Health Service Act established the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) and descrimination required AHCPR and finding essay the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to descrimination essay, enter into an agreement to improve information services for health services researchers. As part of this effort, NLM has: Provided literature searching and back-up document delivery services for 13 AHCPR- sponsored guideline development panels; and Analyzed references actually incorporated into AHCPR-sponsored guidelines to identify any patterns that suggest ways to robotics, streamline the literature search and descrimination essay review process for future guideline panels (Cahn, Selden, Auston, 1992). Based on these experiences, this paper provides NLM's suggested methodology for identifying, retrieving, and managing literature that forms the basis of a clinical practice guideline. To search efficiently for all known scientific evidence on an essay writer a particular clinical topic, it is important to descrimination, understand the literature search process and to plan well. The following model has been developed to assist Guideline Development Panels in planning and organizing the essay, literature search process.

Panels will need to adapt these procedures according to essay, their goals, available resources, and time constraints. A literature search is a systematic and explicit approach to the identification, retrieval, and bibliographic management of independent studies (usually drawn from published sources) for the purpose of locating information on a topic, synthesizing conclusions, identifying areas for future study, and developing guidelines for essay clinical practice. Computer database searches are the most efficient way to identify published studies. Essay. Computer searches may be supplemented with manual searches of essay format print sources. Also, it is expected that Guideline Development Panel members will bring to the literature search process their subject expertise and knowledge of studies completed and forthcoming. Literature identification and management, the search process, is distinguished from (but key to the integrity of) the literature review process. A literature review involves analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing scientific evidence derived from studies identified through the descrimination essay, search process and is the topic of other papers commissioned by the Forum. However, it should be noted that search process tools may also be applied to literature review tasks.

For example, specialized bibliographic management software used in the literature search process (see Step 1.3, below) may also be used for inserting data extracted from studies or codes keyed to data extraction tables into bibliographic records. Such use will assist panels in reviewing large numbers of studies and documenting each by stated relevancy criteria. The 6 general steps in the literature search process, and essay on walden the individuals critical to implementing these steps, are described below and descrimination essay presented in Figure 1. Before the first panel meeting, a planning and critical coordination meeting is usually held to discuss the guideline development process. Topics covered typically include development of guideline concepts, organizing the essay, literature search process, and selection of methodology(ies) for literature review. This meeting should include the Panel Chair(s), AHCPR Panel Manager(s), Panel Methodologist(s), Literature Review Coordinator and robotics Literature Searcher(s) (see 1.2, below), and descrimination essay any other individuals who will be actively involved in managing the forrester, guideline development process. Discussion concerning the literature search process should focus on the overall direction of the searches, specific guidance for preliminary computerized searches, literature management tasks (e.g., processes for obtaining documents for review, photocopying, distributing to reviewers, tracking review status), and assigning responsibilities for descrimination essay tasks. 1.2 Select Literature Review Management, Searching, and critical Document Delivery Staff. Literature Review Coordinator.

Because the guideline development process is literature dependent, each panel needs a Literature Review Coordinator (LRC) responsible for the management of the literature review process. Descrimination Essay. The LRC should be experienced in computerized literature searching and/or managing computer reference services. In the search process, LRCs act as liaisons between panel members and professional Literature Searcher(s). Literature searching is finding a dynamic and iterative process; there is no one way to conduct a search and there are many variables involved. Panels typically need two preliminary computerized literature searches, a comprehensive search, and periodic searches to update the material. Further, the guideline development process demands searching on a much larger scale than is usually done by most researchers or librarians. Therefore, panel staff should include experienced, professional-librarian searcher(s). Panels also require consistency in the construction of search strategies and documentation of descrimination all searches for essay their final Guideline Report. To control variation in the searching process, it is recommended that arrangements be made to have the same searcher(s) work with the LRC throughout the life of the panel. Panels often decide to obtain hundreds to thousands of articles and documents for review and evaluation. Retrieval and copying requires a high level of effort.

Since most panel members' institutions can't absorb such effort into their normal routine, it is recommended that panels negotiate arrangements for document delivery with a local medical library. This library should be a member of the essay, National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) and an essay writer located close to the Literature Review Coordinator and/or Panel Chair(s) who must consult with the local library throughout the document delivery cycle. 1.3 Obtain Computer Equipment and descrimination essay Reference Management Software. In order to manage the literature search and review processes, the Panel Chair and/or Literature Review Coordinator should have a personal computer (PC) with sufficient hard drive capacity to easily store and manipulate a very large bibliographic database. This PC should be equipped with reference management software and DOS. Additionally, a printer and a modem are essential. ProCite is the reference management software we chose to support AHCPR-sponsored guideline panels. It has a very fast and accurate feature for eliminating redundant records, and it can handle many thousands of citations in an essay writer a master database. It eliminates the descrimination, need for multiple entry and an essay writer reverification of references. ProCite provides for the easy downloading and importing of citations into a formatted database. ProCite also allows for editing of records so that codes indicating document status can be inserted during the literature retrieval and review phases.

It can easily export data to essay, a word processor for desktop publishing of references. STEP 2: PRELIMINARY LITERATURE SEARCHING. 2.1 Conduct Content and Volume Searches. Following Step 1, panel staff (i.e., the LRC and Literature Searcher(s)) should complete two preliminary searches of the literature. The strategy for the first preliminary search should be quite detailed but have a limited time frame (e.g., six months). An Essay Writer. Citations should be downloaded, imported into reference management software, arranged by author, and printed out for review. Reviewing this sample literature gives the panel an descrimination essay opportunity to scan for missing citations and to see if the search strategy pulled a high proportion of essays relevant citations. Panel Chair(s) may review this search themselves, or they may send it to panel members. The second preliminary search is to determine the universe (volume and distribution) of literature available on the broad topic of the guideline.

The second search strategy, therefore, should reflect the widest possible interpretation of the guideline topic and descrimination essay consist only of the counts (number) of critical essay citations retrieved from descrimination essay, several key databases. Finding. This broad search graphically illustrates to panel members the general volume of literature and its distribution among databases. In our analysis of the first three AHCPR-supported panels (Acute Pain, Urinary Incontinence, and Pressure Ulcers), it was found that MEDLINE was the source for between 77 and essay 91 percent of the literature used in these guidelines. An Essay Writer. Further, all NLM sources combined provided 91 to 94 percent of all the literature cited in these guidelines' reports. Thus, it is recommended that MEDLINE and two to three other databases deemed most relevant to the specific topic be selected for the second preliminary search. As panels are interdisciplinary, members may only be familiar with the subset of the literature related to their specialty. The Panel Chair(s) and descrimination essay members need to obtain a clear picture of overall volume and content in order to determine the level of effort and resources required for reviewing the our town essay, literature. They will then be able to weigh the available time (e.g., 12 months) against the quantity of the literature and assess whether all specific issues within the essay, broad guideline topic can reasonably be addressed. STEP 3: COMPREHENSIVE LITERATURE SEARCHING. As suggested above, the panel should review and assign priorities to possible guideline topics and subtopics.

That is, panels should consider defining a series of separate guideline topics which may be undertaken as resources allow. Then, if needed, some topics can be deferred to a subsequent guideline panel. This will help to ensure that questions to be addressed by a panel can be developed within the timeframe specified for that panel. Based on the results of this prioritization, at its first meeting the panel can define the specific aspects of the guideline topic(s) it will develop. The panel should clarify the topic(s) to about schools, be addressed in terms of the condition and types of patients for which the guideline is intended, the clinical interventions that will and descrimination will not be considered, and the type of provider and practice setting to format, which the guideline will apply. 3.2 Define Parameters of the Comprehensive Literature Search. While defining their guideline topic(s), the panel must also define the parameters of the comprehensive literature search by constructing statements or questions to descrimination, be answered using the literature and by our town essay, preparing lists of specific topics (e.g., a list of descrimination essay diagnostic tests) to be considered. The panel should also develop general inclusion/exclusion criteria for studies it will or will not consider. Specific criteria include: time period, age groups, languages, geographic areas (e.g., developing countries), animal studies or human studies, type of published material (e.g., peer reviewed publications, dissertations, meeting abstracts, books, patient education materials, laws). Some exclusion criteria can be handled in our town essay the search strategies (e.g., languages).

Other exclusion criteria must be applied by the panel members as they review the descrimination, citations retrieved (e.g., case reports involving fewer than 10 subjects). Once the panel reaches consensus on the foci of the essay about transferring schools, guideline, it is recommended that all topics be combined into one broad statement that can be used as the basis for the comprehensive literature search. Searching a series of separate statements would result in much duplication among topics in the literature retrieved. Essay. Panel members would have to review the same article for essays on mathematical robotics more than one question resulting in their being able to review fewer articles overall. 3.3 Determine Sources of Information. The foci of the guideline topic and the timeframe and descrimination resources available for completing the guideline should determine the robotics, sources of descrimination essay information. Panel members will be familiar with many literature sources and may also refer to an essay writer, NLM's Health Services: Sources of Information for Research 1 . As noted above, experience shows that limiting computerized searches to MEDLARS databases will retrieve upwards of descrimination essay 90 percent of the material needed (see Table 1 following). It is therefore recommended that Literature Searcher(s) access MEDLARS first.

Panel members should identify and discuss other available data sources and select for additional searching those few key databases that most comprehensively cover the topic area. The Literature Searcher(s) should develop search strategies appropriate for each database to be searched. Terminology or keywords must be selected. Since the transferring schools, guideline topics are usually quite complex, search strategies will involve a combination of controlled vocabulary and free-text words or phrases (words appearing in titles or abstracts of articles) to narrow or broaden the descrimination, scope. The Panel Chair(s) or LRC should consult with the librarian searcher(s) throughout the literature search process to discuss refinements or modification to search strategies. Initial computerized literature searching generally should take approximately two months to essay on walden, complete Figure 1; the timeframe must be set with advice from the Literature Searcher(s). The total time required will depend on the complexity of the subject area and descrimination essay the comprehensiveness desired.

If needed, periodic updates should be planned within the context of the an essay writer, guideline development schedule. Broad searching of numerous databases is neither needed nor efficient. However, after careful review of comprehensive retrieval, additional, more narrow searches of targeted databases may be done, if necessary. In addition, after reviewing the citations from computerized searches, panel members often have suggestions concerning literature not retrieved. This might include documents not published in the open literature, or articles from essay, relatively obscure or new publications that are not routinely indexed or included in computerized abstracting services. When such studies are identified, panel members can usually provide copies from personal files or direct the LRC to the authors or other sources for obtaining them. It is recommended that the search results be merged into one large master bibliographic database. An Essay Writer. Further, all literature records should be maintained in the master database throughout the guideline development process. That is, in descrimination essay addition to finding forrester, the retrieval from the initial computerized literature searches, as other references are identified, they should be merged electronically or typed into descrimination essay the master file.

Having a master database gives the panel flexibility in its literature review process and aids in efficiently managing the citations throughout the literature review and report writing phases. Forrester Friendship. For example, the Literature Review Coordinator might search the master database and create topic-specific subsets of descrimination studies for on mathematical robotics individual panel members or subgroups of panel members to review. Further, to facilitate managing the literature, panels should develop schemes for coding records in descrimination essay the master database. For example, panels may want to develop quality scores for our town essay study design or some other type of weighting criteria and input these into bibliographic records as literature is descrimination essay reviewed. Administrative data (e.g., initials of reviewers, review dates) may also be inserted into master database records and used for tracking document review status. Additional codes may be inserted into records to correspond to sections of the guideline or scientific evidence tables in which the literature will be cited. Such coding is critical for sorting references for guideline publications (see also Step 6 below). As noted above, in addition to developing criteria for determining which studies out of the citations retrieved from the comprehensive search they want to obtain for on mathematical review, the panel should arrange with a local library for document delivery. Descrimination. Typically, this will require the local library to format, provide one photocopy of each article that is to be reviewed. For items it does not hold, the local library may utilize the resources of the National Network of Libraries of descrimination essay Medicine (NN/LM) as well as other resource libraries to an essay writer, which it has access. Again, any literature that is not available through library mechanisms may often be obtained by the Literature Review Coordinator from panel members or their colleagues.

In addition to being key to essay, managing the literature review, the master database is the best source for the final bibliography. An Essay Writer. For example when using ProCite, records in the master database may be coded for specific chapters or sections of the Guideline, the evidence table(s), and the Guideline Report. In this way, a record is entered in the database once but may be sorted for use in many sections of the guideline publications. Since ProCite allows for easy exportation of descrimination records to a word processor, these sorted references may be incorporated into the guideline text and an essay writer appendices without re-entry or the need for reverification. Descrimination. Regardless of the bibliographic management software used, NLM recommends that panels standardize and edit all references to conform to the style presented in NLM Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation 2 . NLM no longer provides extensive literature searching and document retrieval to Guideline Development Panels. However, NLM will provide limited support of guideline panels to essays on mathematical, the extent appropriated resources permit. This may include: Consulting on descrimination essay literature searches; Providing tutorials on Grateful Med , ProCite, and DOCLINE; and an essay writer Providing back-up document delivery service through the essay, NN/LM. Guideline panels should contact their AHCPR Panel Manager(s) to critical on walden, access such services from NLM's Office of Health Services Research Information.

Table 1. Citations in AHCPR-sponsored Guidelines, by Source and Topic. Source: Cahn, Marjorie A., Selden, Catherine R, Auston, Ione. Essay. Summary report on analysis of AHCPR guideline panel literature. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine; 1992 August. 5 p. Note: 1. Unverified citations are items not found in any of the NLM databases, non-NLM databases, or the NLM collection. These are largely panel-supplied items not available in traditional published sources (e.g., working papers, meeting presentations, or other gray literature) or forthcoming publications. Cahn, Marjorie A.; Selden, Catherine R.; Auston, Ione. Summary report on analysis of AHCPR guideline panel literature. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine; 1992 Aug. 5 p.

National Library of Medicine (US). Health Services: sources of information for research. Bethesda, (MD): NLM; 1992 Aug. Report No.: NLM-PSD-92-01. 201 p. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA: PB92-221175. Patrias, Karen. National Library of our town essay Medicine recommended formats for bibliographic citation. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine; 1991. Descrimination Essay. Report No.: NLM-LO-91-01. 248 p. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA: PB91-182030.

1. Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, (703) 487-4650; publication number PB92-221175. 2. Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, (703) 487-4650; publication number PB91-182030.