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PhD: is the doctoral thesis obsolete? Should the foundations of a 21st-century academic career still be built on publication, the traditional model? Communication within the science world and with the public is becoming shorter and snappier, yet our PhDs still seem to be stuck in wedding essay the 1960s. Earlier this year, Jeremy Farrar, director of the Wellcome Trust, examined a PhD candidate at Imperial College London. Although the student “sailed through”, Farrar was struck by how much time he had spent writing up his thesis compared with carrying out experiments. “Is it time to look at the PhD thesis?” he wondered aloud on Twitter. “What is best for candidate and proposal revising dissertation, research in thesis report the 21st century?” He estimates that the average doctoral student spends about six months of their four-year programme writing their thesis, and another three “waiting for it to be examined”.

“That is just not a wise balance,” he says – particularly when even examiners rarely have the time to “wade through” theses in their entirety. “An awful lot is going unused and unread,” he says. “Is this really appropriate for the modern world? Communication within the science world and with the public is becoming shorter and snappier, yet our PhDs still seem to be stuck in the 1960s.” The Wellcome Trust currently supports more than 850 UK doctoral candidates, so Farrar’s views are significant. He feels some PhDs have become a demoralising “conveyor belt”, with students convinced that as long as they “churn out dissertation, 300 pages”, they will “get through”. Hence, theses become bloated with “page after page of methods”, along the way to and essay, lines of: “I pipetted 2.5ml of proposal dissertation, this enzyme into that tube.” Philip Moriarty, professor of physics at best conclude the University of Nottingham, also worries about wasted effort. He says too many doctoral theses in proposal dissertation his field include up to 100 pages describing techniques and fundamental principles largely paraphrased from textbooks.

This is “very often superfluous and provides little or no insight into the student’s work”. He would much prefer to see theses’ introductory sections “written along the lines of thesis technical, a good review article, where the proposal revising, student does a critical appraisal of the state of the field”. But what about going further and abolishing the thesis entirely, and instead allowing students to submit a bundle of papers? For several decades most UK universities have offered doctorates “by prior publication”, but these are usually confined to wedding, staff and (sometimes) former students who have already published a substantial body of work that adds up to a unique contribution to knowledge. However, according to The Role of Publications and Other Artefacts in Submissions for the UK PhD , a report published earlier this year by the UK Council for Graduate Education, 72 per cent of 50 UK universities surveyed sometimes saw published papers incorporated into PhD submissions – although it was the proposal publication, norm in just 2 per cent of cases and was rare or absent in 83 per cent. A spokeswoman for Imperial says that the institution “does not currently accept a series of papers for submission as a thesis, although we are continuing to explore the possibility of accepting alternative PhD thesis formats”. The “integrated format”, as the UKCGE calls it, is already common in many European countries, for which reason it is sometimes known as the “continental model”. And according to Margaret Kiley, a visiting fellow at the Australian National University, many higher education institutions Down Under offer something similar.

The UKCGE report attributes the essay, integrated format’s rise to growing pressure on publication, students, particularly in ratification during the sciences, to publish their findings prior to graduation – not least so that they can compete for postdoctoral positions in an increasingly international job market. Some universities also want to eliminate the proposal publication, “opportunity cost to the institution if the PhD regulations forced candidates to rewrite…pre-published material”. However, there is also a “general consensus” that the bundle of papers submitted “needs to be coherent and to demonstrate explicitly the candidate’s individual contribution to knowledge”. The UKCGE itself, in best way to and essay a statement issued to Times Higher Education , notes that examiners “need to proposal dissertation, be confident that the research has been conducted soundly, securely, ethically and with a robust methodology. Therefore it is necessary for a PhD thesis to contain more information than other types of publication that researchers might produce later in their careers when they become more established. Shorter, multi-authored publications alone, without accompanying overviews, do not provide this.” The report’s lead author, Bruce Christianson, professor of urging ratification, informatics at the University of Hertfordshire, says that universities typically require students to append an revising, introduction, setting out the context in which the papers fit, and a critical summary at the end, bringing all the strands together. Despite all that, he estimates that the way to, amount of material candidates have to write from scratch under the integrated format is about a fifth of that required for a traditional thesis. Although it is “unheard of” for a department to insist on the integrated format, some supervisors “very much prefer” it, Christianson says. Proposal Revising Publication. One is David Leigh, Sir Samuel Hall professor of chemistry at how can the University of revising, Manchester. He has successfully “encouraged” all but one of his doctoral students during the past dozen years to submit for examination a series of papers, published or not – including the literature review favoured by Moriarty.

He says this approach fits perfectly with his discipline, where beyond the initial “discovery phase”, work is planned specifically “with the article we hope to publish in mind”. “It makes no sense to rewrite the work in a way [that was not intended] and dissect out just your own little contribution to the team’s work in writing proposal my order to report it in a PhD thesis,” he says. As well as teaching students how to proposal revising publication, plan and write papers, Leigh adds, the approach also teaches them “how to plan and execute a research project efficiently and thesis committee, effectively; focusing at a relatively early stage on what needs to be done rather than…carrying out a lot of experiments…sitting down to write the paper and revising dissertation, only then realising that to publish the story they need some model compounds that they haven’t made yet and don’t need some of the others that they have spent much time and effort making”. Any potential loss of information to future group members about tried and failed approaches (which typically aren’t reported in papers) is compensated for by requiring everyone in the lab to produce monthly “flowsheets” setting out during, what they have done, which are then stored in a “group repository”. Any extra work that this involves is more than compensated for by the fact that Leigh’s students typically spend just four weeks writing up their integrated thesis. One concern about the integrated format voiced by many respondents to the UKCGE survey is that it can be difficult to identify students’ individual contributions to multi-author papers; 64 per cent of institutions require each student to state their own contribution to revising dissertation publication, each paper and how can i write college essay, 22 per cent require claims to be endorsed by the co-authors. Proposal Dissertation Publication. According to Christianson, such measures make it harder for students to “fudge” their own contributions, as they can in the traditional thesis. Leigh has his students state their individual contributions in a preface to each paper, which also sets out where it fits into their wider research. Best Way To Conclude. Experimental details are provided by editing each paper’s supporting information down to just the candidate’s own work. Although Farrar sees the rise of the integrated thesis as “progress”, he is wary of dissertation, going too far down that road.

He is concerned that the approach risks turning the PhD into a “paper machine” that disadvantages candidates who are unlucky with their experiments and pushes supervisors to how can i write a good, avoid any project that doesn’t obviously hold out the revising publication, promise of a paper – “and there is already too much of that in the essay during science”. But Leigh argues that unlucky students with no results “shouldn’t be getting a PhD anyway”, since the degree is awarded “for a contribution to dissertation publication, knowledge, not for monsoon wedding, a good try”. He does not require his students to publication, produce any particular number of help dissertation with, papers (five is typical but numbers range from three to nine) and insists that the level of results they have to achieve is no different from that required for a traditional thesis. Since his lab always lists the names of paper authors alphabetically, there is proposal revising dissertation, no issue about authorship order. But Leigh accepts that other labs and disciplines in how can college essay which order is determined by often fraught judgements about each author’s contribution could run into problems with the integrated format – if a university department insisted on a particular authorship position before a paper could be submitted as part of an integrated thesis. One academic to respond to Farrar’s tweet was Simon Hay, professor of epidemiology at the University of Oxford, who said that doctoral theses should consist of “a series of revising publication, linked chapters, prepared like peer-reviewed articles with strict word limits” – as they do in his lab. The relevant departmental regulations at market Oxford stipulate that “papers written in collaboration should not be included unless the greater part of the work is directly attributed to the candidate” – although “joint papers may however be included as appendices”.

The latter provision allowed one of Hay’s current doctoral candidates, Oliver Brady, to include a Nature paper on which he was a minor author as an appendix to his thesis, and to write a chapter expanding on proposal revising dissertation, his role in the project based on ample “supplementary information” published alongside the paper. That decision, Brady says, was based on the fact that his contribution “formed a significant and independent body of work that could have been published in isolation, but was instead combined with other complementary work in wedding order to proposal dissertation publication, obtain a higher impact publication”. Best And Essay. He adds that a previous student of dissertation publication, Hay’s was able to combine several papers on which she was second author into a single thesis chapter. He sees the thesis as the ‘gold standard’, since it remains the thesis committee report, best means by proposal, which to the essay ratification, capture ‘the unfolding of the mind’ that a doctorate constitutes. Such “hybrid” approaches, which allow students to “demonstrate their contribution to a larger piece of published work”, would also be helpful in groups with fiercely hierarchical structures, Brady adds. Publication. In such scenarios, “a significant proportion of the essay, DPhil students’ time will be devoted to dissertation publication, advancing the goals of the group”, making it unlikely that they will generate many first-author papers of their own. Everyone appears to best way to, accept that the integrated format is not appropriate for all students, labs and disciplines, and that the traditional thesis still has its merits. Moriarty – who is not aware of proposal revising publication, any opportunity at Nottingham to wedding, switch to the integrated format – notes that part of the laudable trend towards equipping doctoral students with transferable skills should include ensuring they are capable of “clear and coherent writing”. This is much easier to assess in a thesis than in papers that are “drafted and redrafted, modified and re-modified…so many times before publication that the student’s contribution to the writing is often not easy to determine”.

Andrew Harrison, chief executive of the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Harwell, Oxfordshire – which offers PhDs in collaboration with numerous universities – also thinks there is “some merit in testing how well students can express themselves through the written word without the intervention of the paper’s editors”. He stresses the importance of doctoral candidates putting together a body of work “that supports a thesis – in the ‘proposition’ sense of the word – because this demonstrates a rather broader approach and a more in-depth view of problems than would be common in individual papers”. And Harrison worries that even requiring candidates to have a certain number of papers in preparation could be “problematic” for some. Proposal Revising. For these reasons, the traditional thesis that confines itself to “the most essential background material…still has value”, he believes. Robert Bowman, director of the Centre for technical analysis market, Nanostructured Media at Queen’s University Belfast, says there have been discussions at proposal dissertation his institution about moving to conclude and essay, the integrated format, and he believes that a “hybrid” system will ultimately come into publication existence. How Can I Write. But he prefers the traditional thesis.

For a start, he doubts that the typical science thesis is “anywhere near” as long as the 80,000-word maximum. Those he has supervised or examined have consisted, he estimates, of only 30,000 to revising dissertation publication, 40,000 words (plus figures). “So the idea that science students are spending months writing prose is probably wrong,” Bowman says. Furthermore, research in his field is “messy and doesn’t immediately lead to a few neat, tidy papers”. It is often the how can a good college, thesis writing and examination process itself that identifies the proposal publication, data and observations that might be publishable, he adds. Bowman also values the ability of traditional theses to “stretch” students, making subsequent writing tasks “that bit less intimidating”. They also offer greater scope to describe and discuss techniques – particularly important when the doctoral candidate has developed a new piece of equipment. And he prefers to see positive and negative results presented “in a consistent description, rather than artificially sewing together successful published strands”.

Theses, in Bowman’s view, are also invaluable documents for introducing new candidates to particular topics and techniques, and for tapping into former students’ views about the essay during what research should be taken forward. He accepts that requiring students to write an overarching introduction and discussion under the integrated format could address many of his objections – “but then you might argue that is proposal dissertation, just a conventional thesis, with the results chapters as papers”. According to the UKCGE report, the thesis technical analysis stock, debate in some institutions about the merits of the dissertation, integrated format pits older against younger researchers, with the latter being more receptive to it. But it also finds, unsurprisingly, that attachment to the traditional thesis is deepest outside the sciences, where publication prior to submission remains rare and wedding, where monographs often remain the research medium of choice. In economics, PhD candidates at proposal dissertation the London School of Economics are examined on the basis of a thesis formed of papers (which may have been published), together with an introduction and an integrating conclusion.

However, this approach is how can i write a good college essay, still rare, according to Andrew Oswald, professor of economics at the University of Warwick. He notes that the research excellence framework has led to an increasing emphasis on producing articles, but he remains a fan of the thesis. Although the traditional requirement that chapters fit together explicitly has been relaxed, thesis writing, in Oswald’s view, still helps instil in students the idea that “different parts of one’s thinking should be consistent”. “The problem with [only] writing endless articles…is that it is proposal revising, possible to hold mutually contradictory views in different [ones]. Hence the academic disciplines that stick up for books have got a point,” Oswald says. Chief among them, of course, is English. The Essay Urging Ratification During. Robert Eaglestone, professor of contemporary literature and thought at Royal Holloway, University of London, sees himself as a progressive on most academic issues, but still considers the thesis – and, relatedly, the revising publication, monograph – as the “gold standard”, since it remains the best means by which to capture “the unfolding of the mind” that a doctorate constitutes. A doctorate is help proposal with, about “making and testing a cogent, coherent and original argument in detail and over length. That’s a ‘book length’ thing to do,” he says. Proposal Dissertation Publication. Hence, even if integrated theses were permitted, they would be the victim of “snobbery”.

But even the a good college, humanities are not immune to the rise of papers and, hence, integrated theses. Oxford’s famous Faculty of Philosophy has begun to permit theses consisting of several publishable papers on publication, the same general theme (see ‘An athlete does thousands of laps on the track with no one watching’ box, below). How Can I Write Essay. Meanwhile, according to the UKCGE report, arts students are typically permitted to submit a “wide range of dissertation, exhibits or performances” such as novels, paintings and musical scores as part of their PhDs, provided they can “show how the artefacts relate to how can i write college essay, the thesis and its defence”. The rise of dissertation publication, doctoral training centres across the disciplines – with their increased focus on student employability – has prompted some of the academics running them to start to monsoon wedding, question whether the proposal dissertation, thesis is still the proposal with, best means for revising dissertation publication, a PhD candidate to demonstrate their ability to undertake independent research. Michael Saward, director of Warwick’s Economic and Social Research Council-funded doctoral training centre, believes the thesis remains the proposal with my, “ideal vehicle” to proposal dissertation publication, articulate and explore “the overarching issue” in the various aspects of candidates’ research – even if supervisors and students are “becoming increasingly skilled at seeing the thesis as a source of technical stock market, (ideally) two or three good journal articles”.

But for revising publication, Terry McMaster, director of the wedding, University of Bristol’s Centre for Functional Nanomaterials, a centre for doctoral training funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, the time is right for revising dissertation publication, a sector-wide discussion about the merits of moving to the integrated format in science and thesis technical analysis stock, engineering. He shares Farrar’s concerns about the amount of time it takes to proposal dissertation publication, write a traditional thesis in science and engineering: “In their fourth year, candidates are at writing dissertation with my their most effective and dissertation, productive, with high technical expertise, writing skills and research judgement. But then they are busy writing a large document, most of which will be read by only a small number of people.” The issue is thesis technical stock, brought into particular relief if students leave science after their doctorates and so do not write up their results in revising papers, McMaster adds. “In an era when we are driven by producing REFable outputs, it seems sensible to encourage skilled final-year science PhD students to produce as many papers as possible,” he says. According to the UKCGE report, a “substantial number” of institutions expect the integrated format to become more common over the next five years. But for his part, Farrar remains unclear that the model offers the how can a good college essay, best solution to his concerns. His hunch is that theses should be shortened and proposal revising, focused more on analysis and help writing dissertation my, reflections about research avenues. But he admits that the future of the doctorate is a “huge topic” that needs a lot more thought. For this reason, he is contemplating trying to convene a discussion with other major UK biomedical PhD funders to “think about what we want individuals to [gain from] a classic three- or four-year PhD in proposal revising dissertation publication order to enhance their careers and the science contribution they are making during [it] and afterwards”. Farrar concludes: “I am not necessarily in favour of ratification during, overregulating things, but it is fascinating how if you look at the whole educational piece from primary school, the PhD is the last bastion of stuff that is totally Wild West.

There are all sorts of different models.” ‘An athlete does thousands of laps on the track with no one watching’ The University of Oxford’s Faculty of Philosophy gives DPhil candidates two choices: they can submit a traditional thesis or one consisting of several journal-style papers (which may have been published) that “collectively represent a coherent and focused body of research into a single subject”. Such theses also require “a further integrative chapter, stating how the papers…relate to each other and to an overall field of learning”. As with the standard thesis, integrated ones must “contain material adequate for two publishable papers” – although according to Luke Brunning, a recent graduate of the programme, they typically contain three. Brunning attributes the faculty’s move to its recognition that publication is becoming ever more important for doctoral students intent on academic careers – as most Oxford candidates are likely to be. “If you can get a thesis already parcelled up into chunks that can be made into an article, it is something they are encouraging people to do,” he says. However, in Brunning’s view, the integrated format lends itself to some temperaments and dissertation publication, subject matter more than others.

And although the model is becoming more popular, he chose to stick with the traditional approach since “that is how I think about things”. Even if very few people read theses, he believes that writing one provides valuable training in how to “get to grips with a large amount of best and essay, material”, tying it all together and situating it in a broader context. “An athlete does thousands of laps on dissertation publication, the track with no one watching but that doesn’t mean it is valueless,” Brunning points out. He accepts that a good thesis is no longer enough to secure an academic job, but he is unclear about the thesis report, extent to which a good unpublished writing sample, culled from a thesis, can make up for a lack of publications. Brunning knows that the time it will take to dissertation publication, turn his thesis into advisory journal papers or a monograph could slow down his job search. “But publication is always difficult. Proposal Dissertation. There is how can college, still work to be done to turn a 20,000-word [integrated format] chapter into revising publication a journal article,” he says, noting that the eight chapters contained in a typical traditional thesis are more “article-sized”. “My regret is not focusing on publication sooner.

But that is monsoon, not about whether the thesis is a valuable thing to write, and more about proposal dissertation what is valued in committee academia in revising publication terms of best way to and essay, getting a job,” Brunning says. Cut to the paper chase: a happy example of the integrated approach. David Pigott is pursuing an integrated format PhD in dissertation the laboratory of Simon Hay, professor of way to conclude, epidemiology at the University of Oxford. Hay does not impose a lower threshold on the number of papers that must be submitted, nor do they need to have been published. Pigott’s thesis on proposal publication, mapping the global diversity of infectious diseases – which he expects to submit this summer – has four chapters. Each is linked to writing proposal, a first-author paper on revising dissertation publication, mapping a specific disease, together with the requisite introduction and discussion tying everything together.

Pigott enjoys the integrated format because “you are always working towards small goals instead of, like an undergraduate, leaving all the writing to a good college, the last minute” – a period that can potentially clash with the beginning of a postdoctoral contract. Although he says he would pitch some of the discussions in his early papers differently if he were to write them now because of what he has since learned, this is more than compensated for by their contribution to revising publication, building his profile within the field (and breaking the ice at conferences). Pigott also hopes that recruitment committees will be more willing to flick through the abstracts of his papers than they would be to the essay ratification during, engage with a long thesis. The fact that papers typically have much lower word counts than thesis chapters also “teaches the skill of culling everything that is not necessary but you feel obliged to write about because it took you two weeks to do”, he adds. Pigott admits the integrated approach can encourage the publication of several smaller papers rather than one big one, but hopes his final chapter will consist of a “higher impact” paper that synthesises his previous publications.

He admits the proposal revising, integrated format is not for everyone: “I have a colleague doing something on vaccines. Publishing as he goes along wouldn’t be viable because of all the dead ends that occur in best conclude [vaccine development]. You can publish method protocols but that doesn’t represent the same [level of] output.” But Pigott certainly thinks that where papers can be incorporated into theses they should be. Revising Dissertation. And he is struck by a story he heard about writing a PhD student who was censured for self-plagiarism after including one of his papers in a conventional thesis. “He was told he needed to rewrite it: that sounds to me like a complete waste of time.” Registration is free and only takes a moment. Once registered you can read a total of 3 articles each month, plus:

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Let me know what you think of this post in the comment section. I welcome intelligent and well thought out SEO discussion any day. Shows how many different websites are linking to this piece of content. As a general rule, the more websites link to you, the higher you rank in help writing dissertation, Google. Shows estimated monthly search traffic to this article according to Ahrefs data.

The actual search traffic (as reported in Google Analytics) is usually 3-5 times bigger. 47,058 marketers are already subscribed to Ahrefs blog. Revising Dissertation. Leave your email to get our weekly newsletter. I’ve got to say I’ve seen a lot of this around… I’m glad to say I work for an agency that does published very detailed case studies that do actually cover real detail, and not just rankings! (Shocking that there are still people basing their reports on rankings alone!?) I know they drive real leads as well. I guess it’s all about making sure you show potential clients what could be possible without telling them directly what is monsoon wedding essay, possible.

That’s the key to dissertation publication, case studies in my opinion. We use them as a representation of what we’ve achieved in the past, not an example of what we can achieve for any particular prospective client. Exactly Sam! This is wedding, what I’ve been just saying in proposal revising dissertation publication, the other comments here.. We don’t have to proposal my, be giving them an exact step by revising publication step, link by link guide.. but compiling a detailed case study is still very doable while keeping sensitive info to ourselves.

Clients want to be confident that the guys handling their work actually know what they’re doing, have a track record for doing it and are not afraid to show that.. Case studies are perfect for showing all of this and more. Do you want to see test seo? followed #seopazzo on Google+. Very good article, telling the how can essay truth in many cases. No way an proposal revising, SEO company would genuinely think that they are growing traffic for an entire year when 90% of the traffic is monsoon wedding essay, coming from seobuttons.com and buttons4u.com… Haha Had a good laugh reading this #128512; I think most people are scared that they will lose their jobs when a dip in traffic appears (hence the vague reports)…but it comes down to not being able to read and analyse data. Revising Dissertation Publication. I had a client who’s traffic declined but revenue almost doubled just because I was removing all the noise and clutter and honing in on the theme of his site/services. It also comes down to best, people not understanding Google Analytics itself and where to look for different results (Like linking your Search Console with GA to proposal revising dissertation publication, get search queries tracked) and to monsoon wedding, see increase in impressions,click throughs on valid search terms, etc. Keep up the great articles!

Haha very true, we might have a lot of unemployed SEOs! But I do feel that we could be a lot more see through and compile detailed case studies while at proposal revising dissertation the same time keeping “sensitive” company practices private. Thanks for the feedback #128578; Indeed… I just read it. Awesome article and you covered some really cool techniques I had not really thought of. I guess there is urging during, one another fear that restricts the SEO ’s from dissertation sharing their case studies is competition, the competitors can easily follow the steps and get closer, feels like giving competitors a road path, but honestly speaking any SEO with little analytical skills can easily gauge whats been done on the website, they can track their competitors link building tactics with Ahrefs tool, (the anchor texts used, the publishers, forums) So hiding all that doesn’t make sense now, in fact i agree with Tommy on this that by way to sharing successful SEO case studies you will increase your trust and it will also let you improve by eliminating the unnecessary work in future projects. I am junior in this field with just 2 years of experience but constantly trying to grab good insights from experts like you:)

looking forward for making case studies, keep up the revising great work! Yeah that’s a very valid point.. although case studies can still be done without giving EXACT details away. No one would expect full disclosure, some of the “case studies” I have seen by agencies boil down to “we increased his traffic”.. which certainly doesn’t count as a case study. Exactly.. anyone even a little SEO savvy can find most of the help with my links coming in to their site, so there is revising publication, no sense in trying to hide it and that excuse is nonsense now. Thanks for the feedback man #128578; Just looked on your site. Think since you offer packages from $250 per month we’re probably doing two quite different types of SEO to be honest. I used to work for an agency a few years back when we worked with small business, and it was a different ball game. Some of what you say will still work in those cases so I can see why you say as you do. Curious though, where are these case studies you mention? — nothing I can see on your site. Well those are for forum and wholesale buyers most of those being “agencies”..

I’d call them marketing companies, they buy links and market SEO . We cater to a number of clients then on dissertation proposal my, custom packages, you can also see that on the site. Proposal Publication. Some of thesis technical, those are in much higher price brackets.. Proposal Revising Publication. so I do hear you. You can find some of my case studies on BHW . The site you are looking at is only just one of the projects I’m involved with. I’m currently working on a blog to ramble on, I’ll be working on some case studies there.. keep an eye out for how can a good essay it. There seems to be some confusion. Our agency is not ‘scared’ of using case studies. We have them and publication we use them for pitching, etc… With permission of the business concerned. However, we don’t publish them. The only ones that do get published is when it’s to do with awards. The reason for this is not fear from our agency but client preferences about sharing their strategies.

Yes, these could be uncovered with some work anyway, but it’s understandable I think, to not make that easier for competitor analysis. Agreed, Clients should be asked as sometime’s they don’t want their competitor to know that they even invested on SEO , but on the other hand SEO ;s want to share the success to inspire other businesses (maybe clients direct competitor too) to invest in SEO and gain benefits, in advisory committee, order to increase clientele. For this reason i would advise clients to revising publication, be in contract for longer terms and advisory don’t just end the contract if they have achieved the goal. Case studies however are the proposal dissertation publication best way to inspire other businesses and even if the competitor of your client get to know what you doing, he cannot go with the how can a good college same strategy easily, but i still agree that we should try to keep it ambiguous for competitors. very nice case study to read, congrats. People tend to see the world in what they experience around them. I’m afraid that’s why the author feels that ‘most SEO providers’ do XYZ . But actually that’s not true. It means most providers he notices or comes across (especially as an admitted frequenter of publication, BHW ) are that way… that doesn’t speak for everyone else.

Our agency has tonnes of SEO case studies, but like other such agencies we can’t publish most publicly because it’s against the client’s wishes and we’re usually under an NDA . Large brands do not want their strategies revealed to their competitors. Most SEO ‘providers’ I converse with stopped buying links pre-penguin because they already figured out the essay urging ratification during it had a shelf life and was a poor long term strategy… and they’re all massively into dissertation publication, their data, so expert with analytics, etc… If the author wishes to generalise about the essay urging during, ‘most’ people of an industry including tens of thousands or more, he should probably walk in proposal revising, some different industry circles first. Monsoon Essay. Personal experience is never representative of anything. No not necessarily Steve.. While I do frequent those forums the majority of our business is done outside of them.

We’re also used by revising dissertation publication some very large agencies that outsource most of best way to conclude and essay, their work to us. So I see a lot of sides of the industry and there is a lot more going on “around me” than you seem to think. Great.. Proposal Revising. But you don’t need to use a clients site though to do a case study. The Essay During. Set up some sites of proposal revising, your own then full disclosure is no issues.. right? People may claim not to be purchasing links, but I can tell you now they’re all still reaching in to their wallets and buying links hand over fist. This is huge business man and if you think it’s not going on the essay urging ratification, then you are seriously misinformed. Again I’ve seen more of the industry than you seem to think.. The amount of time, resource, funds required to proposal revising, replicate a large functioning site with existing brand and product awareness to make a relevant case study, which would also require other marketing channels active to best, show attribution and context would be crazy.

Might as well suggest we make a new business and build it up for years to make a case study out of it. Revising Dissertation. Might work for writing proposal small business sites but that’s not what I’m referring to, and I can only assume that your suggestion to do that must mean it’s only proposal revising dissertation publication, what you’re referring to. Also, calling BS on monsoon, non-link buying SEO merely demonstrates my point. If you genuinely believe that everyone’s doing it, when a vast number aren’t displays a somewhat cocooned view of the industry. I used to do it and proposal dissertation publication know plenty who still do, but the majority who did, no longer do. Wedding. And many agencies would not risk their clients in that way… not to mention many businesses are more clued up now and wouldn’t risk it themselves.

Having done many link clean ups for companies that were penalised after link buying from proposal revising dissertation publication previous agencies, I can assure you that they’re careful not to urging during, go down that same path again. I think you’re over thinking it. Revising Dissertation Publication. We don’t have to build fortune 500 companies here to do a few case studies. A site can be built up over time, most large case studies I have followed have done just that.. updating them weekly or monthly. I’ve also written smaller ones myself targeting affiliate products. It’s all relevant.. it’s all showing clients what you can do and elements of how you do it.

No not everyone of course not. There is the essay urging during, some people out there that don’t. From what I’ve seen though.. A LOT have bought and continue to publication, buy links. They buy links from all manor of way to conclude, sources. So I’m not necessarily talking low quality here that would end up with you penalized like you mention.

Good luck getting a link on the likes of Forbes, Inc, HuffPo etc without getting your wallet out. Revising Publication. Agencies are paying for thesis technical these sorts of links all the time. We manage it through creating original and newsworthy content, often with new data, and proposal of course PR . Not in how can i write college, the sites you’ve mentioned there to-date but plenty of proposal, others of similar authority, and the essay during often smaller local or niche news sites. I’m afraid I still don’t see the point in building up our own sites for the sake of case studies. We simply don’t need to, so why bother. Re the building of sites for case studies… since our clients tend to have hundreds of thousands of pages and are in highly competitive markets, we wouldn’t be able to dissertation publication, replicate that very easily enough to make the case study relevant for them. The Essay Urging During. In fact if we pitched to them with some site we built as a case study which bore no comparison to revising, their size, they’d probably think we’re not right for them anyway.

I have got links of both of those sites without paying — I do agree with the article. but i disagree about getting links from the top sites without paying, its hard and not as easy as getting the wallet out but it can be done. I even managed to get one from themetro to my personal blog site by having something useful on their, something a bit different. I think Steve and Tommy are both right. Wedding Essay. There is a huge presence of link buying and dissertation publication borderline blackhat tactics, and these are more effective at fooling clients and taking their money than providing good SEO . On the opposite end we have real OPM companies that actually do what it takes to help their clients achieve their goals. I think that educating the market for SEO services about SEO services is technical analysis stock market, one of the revising biggest hurtles of the SEO industry. How Can A Good Essay. So many people just have no idea — and scoff when they see a quote — the reality hits them, and publication so they try to ratification during, wander off the right path, and fall down a thicket and into the swamp, where the proposal revising publication companies that Tommy describes dwell, waiting to prey on ratification during, small and big business alike. Agreed, to be successfully at SEO or anything you need to “ LIKE ” what you do and not care all about the money. Yes there is a lot of potential to make $$$$ but you will never offer the revising dissertation best services or have long term business if your just doing it for money. That being said if your doing SEO just for quick buck then its probably time to get out! And good post by the way!

Nice stuff, You have mention that point which are currently practice by numerous of company in my, term of SEO service vs top rank in revising, Google SERP . Advisory. I want to ask how do you think that you are different from search engine marketing ? while you are also selling traditional and only promotional SEO package. which is nothing more than lucrative some else. Unfortunately, these are very valid points. It’s sickening when I read Forbes posts or other large sites and revising dissertation I can spot a “paid” link. To validate it, simply look up the author in LinkedIn and see if they freelance. Then look up the proposal with questionable link in Ahrefs and proposal revising dissertation spot 10 other similar articles. It certainly changes your perspective on journalism. Finally someone with a bit of sense and not afraid to speak it. This is big business man.. Thesis Technical Analysis Market. I’m not sure if the revising dissertation critics on i write college essay, this post are unaware or prefer it not spoken about #128578; This SEO is now considering taking her business elsewhere. Proposal Revising Dissertation Publication. Why would I want to give my money to a company that thinks so little of what I do?

That places more value on a piece of garbage linkbait than on understanding what honest SEOs need from them? Honestly, why would any of best way to conclude and essay, you? It’s appalling to see such a well-established company stooping so low. This article is bang on. I used to offer up case studies and even disclosed publicly a few clients … until those clients started getting hit with negative SEO and all kinds of proposal, weird tactics. The industry is in for a change, what worked last year regarding PBNs does not work the thesis analysis market same way today. Bloggers and publicity can be so openly bought right now it just comes down to systemizing and scalability. The web, and society (now with social media and proposal dissertation everything shared) is i write essay, developing a CREDIBILITY system. Revising Dissertation Publication. But it’s not there yet. And the SERPs certainly aren’t yet either.

a really great case Damir, I really wish there were more like this. Case studies are good — but I don’t have the time to create them… I really don’t, and that sucks #128577; Its kind of shame for low level SEO Firms. Loved this article! Just about to put together some case studies myself (not just ranking reports!) and am excited to dig in deeper to thesis technical, my past projects and processes and get it on paper.

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A Medical Assistant Sample Resume Tips and proposal dissertation Guidelines. Having a professional resume is critical when looking for a medical assisting job. During! Medical assisting is competitive, especially in areas where job openings are limited. Your resume should adequately display your education, skills and abilities and help you stand out proposal dissertation, from the crowd. Let’s take a look at how to write your own professional medical assistant resume. Your resume should reflect the job you’re hoping to monsoon essay, get and dissertation your related skills and how can i write a good college experience.

If you are proficient in both administrative and clinical, you can combine all your skills into proposal revising one resume. Thesis Analysis Stock Market! Or, focus on either clinical or administrative skills if it is relevant to proposal revising dissertation publication, the job. Below is a professional medical assistant resume sample that focuses on administrative and clinical: · Working knowledge of medical terminologies, with key focus on orthopedic terminology. · Proficient in with using orthopedic office equipment, including cast cutters and suture/staple removers. · Ability to revising dissertation, multitask and manage busy patient loads. · Working knowledge of wound care, including debridement, infection management and bandaging. I Write College Essay! · Ability to proficiently manage front office responsibilities, including appointment setting, medical insurance and billing and medical records. Revising! · Ability to operate autoclaving units and perform instrument sterilization. · Working knowledge of universal precautions and infection control. Writing Dissertation Proposal My! · Associate of Applied Science, Medical Assisting; 1996. Commonwealth College, Virginia Beach, VA. · Emergency Medical Technician-Intermediate; 2000, WITC, Rice Lake, WI. · Medical Coding Certification, 2005, CPC-H, American Association of Professional Coders. · CPR certified, current, American Heart Association. Clinical Medical Assistant, Orthopedics. Proposal Revising Dissertation! St. The Essay Urging Ratification! Mary’s Orthopedic Center, Norfolk, VA. · Provide one-on-one assistance to orthopedic surgeon in a clinic setting. · Rooming patients, collecting vital signs and health histories. Performing preoperative health histories. · Remove staples, sutures and casts.

Provide wound care as directed. · Handled narcotic pain medications, prescription refills and worked closely with pharmacy. · Performed in-house autoclaving. · Performed bedside minor surgical assisting. · Handled medical insurance, appointment setting and coordinating medical records. 1. Dr. Ryan Oldstadt, M.D. 2222 MD Street. Norfolk, VA 22222. Proposal Revising Dissertation Publication! 2. Kathy Nurse, R.N.

Nursing Supervisor. 1111 Nurse Street. Norfolk, VA 22222. There are many ways to create a resume. How Can College Essay! If you recently graduated from medical assisting school, you likely learned how to write a professional resume. Dissertation! If you’ve been in monsoon wedding essay the workplace for a while, you may be unsure how to write a resume. Either way, following simple steps can make writing your medical assisting resume easier.

Your resume should contain these essential components: Include your name, address, phone number and email address. This information is placed at the very top of the resume. Proposal Revising! The career objective tells a prospective employer why you are interested in the job and why you’re the best person for writing dissertation proposal it. The career objective should be a personal statement about why you truly feel this job could be the best fit for you and you for the job. In the career objective in the resume sample above, you see the objective is written from a personal viewpoint. Be careful not to use a ‘cookie cutter’ career objective found in many resume samples. Include a brief list of your strongest skills, in both clinical and medical assisting if appropriate. Be sure to focus on skills related specifically to the job you’re applying for. List relevant post-secondary education related to the job you are applying for.

Be sure to list your medical assisting education and revising dissertation publication any related certifications. Best Way To And Essay! If you’ve earned a college degree in proposal publication another area, which may still be beneficial to advisory committee, your skills, be sure to include it. Be sure to include the name of the college you attended, the year you earned your degree and proposal dissertation publication the type of degree or certificate earned. The work experience section allows you to list any relevant work experience for the job in wedding which you are applying. Start with your most recent employment first. Be sure to list the name of your employer, your position and the dates in which you were employed. Don’t feel you need to list all employment; simply stick to your work history related to health and dissertation publication medical assisting. If you’re newly graduated without much work experience, consider adding your externship history here, and any medical volunteer work you performed . · Relevant certifications, experience or education. Include any additional certifications or continuing education you’ve received in this section. Analysis Stock! Certifications like CPR, pre-hospital trauma life support (PHTLS), medical records or office certifications go here. Lastly, include two or three professional references.

The cover letter accompanies your resume and dissertation acts as a brief way to introduce yourself to your prospective employer. Stock! A cover letter should be short and to-the-point; no more than one-half to one page in length, or about 3-4 paragraphs. Your cover letter should include why you’re applying for the position and dissertation publication a summary of your work experience, education and skills. Let’s look at a sample cover letter: Dear (Insert the name of the i write a good essay, person you are contacting here. If you don’t know whom to address the cover letter to, call the company and find out. Be sure to spell the name correctly.), I am applying for the position of orthopedic office coordinator. I’m a highly motivated and reliable CMA with an excellent employment history in orthopedic medical assisting.

Most recently, I’ve served as the proposal, clinical office manager for and essay a three-physician pediatric orthopedic clinic, for the past three years. My responsibilities include coordinating orthopedic surgeries, providing clinical care for pediatric patients and directly assisting the orthopedists with minor surgery and clinical procedures. Publication! I hold several certifications, including medical coding for with orthopedic practice and revising dissertation publication pediatric advanced life support. You’ll find that my qualifications and work experience make me highly qualified for your open position. I’d be glad to meet with you to further discuss the position and how I can best serve your clinic. Monsoon Wedding Essay! Please find the enclosed resume and professional references for publication your perusal.

I look forward to hearing from you. Please feel free to contact me via phone or email, at your convenience. Ultimately, take your time when writing your medical assisting resume and cover letter. Keep your resume no longer than 1-2 pages in length, and be sure to paint a clear picture of your skills and abilities. Revise your resume and cover letter as needed to fit the job opportunity you are applying for, for a better chance of landing your dream job! Article Written by Elizabeth Otto. Elizabeth Otto is a freelance writer specializing in medical and health articles. Otto has worked as a certified medical assistant in specialty practice since 1994 and is also a nationally registered emergency medical technician. I#8217;m a Medical Assistant graduate but was never hired. It#8217;s been three years now and I really would like to gain employment in the field. I know I would need on-the-job training because I#8217;ve been out for thesis technical analysis market so long.

Could I seek some training or shadowing on proposal revising dissertation my own?

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essay heuristic Paper presented to CCPE, London - October, 2001. ? Dave Hiles 2001. Heuristic Inquiry and revising publication, Transpersonal Research. (Psychology Department, De Montfort University, Leicester. LE1 9BH. UK.)

I would like to begin with a quote from William Braud and Rosemarie Anderson that I think will clearly go to the heart of what my focus will be this evening. Many of the most significant and exciting life events and extraordinary experiences - moments of clarity, illumination, and healing - have been systematically excluded from conventional research. Usually, when I introduce the course that I teach on qualitative inquiry, I begin by thesis analysis, defining research as an addition to knowledge , and I also point out that we undertake research because we care and want to make a difference . It is therefore with some concern that I do take seriously what Braud Anderson are saying, especially with respect to revising dissertation, the field of transpersonal experience. I am particularly disturbed by the claim that research is being systematically excluded. It would seem that we are being actively prevented by other scientists from adding to our knowledge of some of the most significant and exciting aspects of dissertation with my human experience.

This makes me wonder about such matters as: exclusion by whom, on proposal revising dissertation publication what grounds, and at what expense to humanity does conventional research make such limitations. The motivation for this lecture is that I think we all care, and that we do want to make a difference. While I will be mostly concerned with the heuristic inquiry approach to help writing my, research, what I will be saying here is particularly relevant to these wider issues raised above. What seems to lie behind Braud Anderson's comment is that some areas of human action and experience are thought by some scientists to be too difficult to study, or even to be unsuitable topics of empirical study. However, it is publication my view that these topics are too important to be ignored. Problems of measurement, and lack of appropriate methods of inquiry, have often been the stock excuses offered for technical analysis market the exclusion of these areas of study. I want to argue that such excuses are no longer valid, and we should begin to take notice of an expanding range of methods of revising inquiry now being made available, and the essay urging, that we must take seriously the proposal, research findings that are beginning to essay, emerge in these areas.

I would place transpersonal research and revising, heuristic inquiry within the area of human science (Giorgi, 1970; 1994). It is especially relevant here to draw attention to thesis technical analysis market, the following point made by publication, Donald Polkinghorne. Human science seeks to proposal with my, know the reality which is particularly our own, the reality of our experience, actions, and proposal, expressions. This realm is closest to us, yet it is most resistant to during, our attempt to revising, grasp it with understanding. Technical Analysis Stock! Because of the success we have had knowing the world around us, the human realm has expanded its power to such an proposal, extent that we can act to create wellbeing and physical security and comfort and to best conclude and essay, inflict untold suffering and dissertation publication, destruction. Serious and rigorous re-searching of the human realm is required. Polkinghorne (1983, p. 280-1)

Polkinghorne's plea for a serious and rigorous re-searching of the human realm is exactly the point I wish to make. He points out that although this realm is closest to us, in the sense that it concerns our direct human experience, it can also be most resistant to careful study. He warns that the dissertation with my, imbalance between our efforts in the natural science approach, at the expense of human science, may be a contributory factor in the untold suffering and destruction that seems to be ever present in the modern psyche. I remember that Carl Jung expressed very much the same idea when he observed that the future of humankind is held by a single thread, the human psyche. Proposal Dissertation! There is no more urgent topic to research than the human realm of experience, action and expression, especially the significant and exciting life events and thesis report, the extraordinary experiences these can entail. I want to examine the role that heuristic inquiry can play in this and its relationship to transpersonal research. 2. Heuristic inquiry.

Heuristic inquiry is an extremely demanding process, involving disciplined self-commitment, rigorous self-searching and self-reflection, and ultimately a surrender to dissertation, the process. It does not suit a fixed time-frame for research, and should not to be attempted lightly. In essence, it is a research process designed for the exploration and interpretation of experience, which uses the self of the researcher. It is a research process that reflects Clark Moustakas' basic philosophy that in every learner, in essay every person, there are creative sources of proposal energy and meaning that are often tacit, hidden, or denied (Moustakas, 2001). I will begin by discussing heuristic inquiry within the help writing dissertation proposal, context of proposal revising publication my own experience. For many years now, I have been engaged in a research project that could be said to have almost taken over my life. Writing Dissertation With My! It began with some insights into the parallels between the work of Carl Jung and the work of the 18 th Century English poet and artist William Blake.

These insights particularly related to understanding the processes of transformation that can be involved in the experience of proposal revising dissertation human suffering. I especially wanted to apply these insights in my practice as a counsellor and therapist, and also engage in research that would bring some form to wedding, these insights that could then be shared with others in the field. When this all started, I was not even sure that what I was doing could even be called research. In fact, it was only several years later that I discovered that what I had been doing all along was really heuristic inquiry . Coming across the work of Clark Moustakas (1990), I immediately recognised the phases of engagement, immersion, incubation and illumination in my own work. I have reported some of the methodological issues involved in this work before (Hiles, 1999, 2001), and I only will briefly summarise here the essentials of revising dissertation publication Moustakas' method, together with some of the insights that I have gained about the nature of heuristic inquiry from my own direct experience in using it.

Heuristic inquiry was developed by Clark Moustakas (1990; see also Douglass Moustakas, 1985), and bares some striking resemblance to the idea of lived inquiry developed by John Heron (1998), and thesis advisory, mindful inquiry developed by Bentz Shapiro (1998). The heuristic inquiry paradigm is an adaptation of phenomenological inquiry but explicitly acknowledges the involvement of the researcher , to the extent that the revising, lived experience of the researcher becomes the main focus of the research. The researcher really needs to feel passionate about the research question (West, 1998a; 1998b). Thesis Report! Indeed, what is explicitly the focus of the approach is the transformative effect of the inquiry on the researcher's own experience. This is often achieved by a process that I think can usefully be called discernment . The heuristic process involves getting inside the research question, becoming one with it, living it. Self dialogue is the critical beginning, allowing the phenomenon to speak directly to proposal, one's own experience. Knowledge grows out of direct human experience and discovery involves self-inquiry, an openness to one's own experience.

I n addition to knowledge that we can make explicit, there is knowledge that is monsoon wedding implicit to our actions and experiences. This tacit dimension is ineffable and unspecifiable, it underlies and precedes intuition and can guide the researcher into untapped directions and sources of meaning. Intuition provides the bridge between explicit and tacit knowledge. Intuition makes possible the seeing of things as wholes. Every act of achieving integration, unity or wholeness requires intuition. This refers to the conscious and deliberate process of turning inward to proposal, seek a deeper, more extended comprehension of a quality or theme of human experience. Indwelling involves a willingness to gaze with unwavering attention and concentration into some aspect of human experience. Focussing is advisory committee report inner attention, a staying with, a sustained process of revising publication systematically contacting the central meanings of an experience. Thesis Technical Analysis Market! It enables one to see something as it is publication and to make whatever shifts are necessary to make contact with necessary awareness and insight.

The outcome of the heuristic process in terms of knowledge and experience must be placed in the context of the experiencer's own internal frame of reference, and not some external frame. The task of the thesis committee, first phase is to discover an revising dissertation, intense interest, a passionate concern that calls out to the researcher, one that holds important social meanings and personal, compelling implications. The research question that emerges lingers with the researcher, awaiting the a good college essay, disciplined commitment that will reveal its underlying meanings. The research question is lived in waking, sleeping and even dream states. This requires alertness, concentration and self-searching. Virtually anything connected with the question becomes raw material for immersion. This involves a retreat from the intense, concentrated focus, allowing the expansion of knowledge to take place at a more subtle level, enabling the revising dissertation, inner tacit dimension and intuition to clarify and extend understanding. This involves a breakthrough, a process of awakening that occurs naturally when the researcher is open and receptive to tacit knowledge and intuition. It involves opening a door to new awareness, a modification of an old understanding, a synthesis of thesis committee report fragmented knowledge, or new discovery. This involves a full examination of what has been awakened in consciousness. Proposal Publication! What is required is organization and a comprehensive depiction of the core themes.

Thoroughly familiar with the data, and following a preparatory phase of solitude and meditation, the researcher puts the components and core themes usually into the form of creative synthesis expressed as a narrative account, a report, a thesis, a poem, story, drawing, painting, etc. The question of validity is one of meaning. Does the synthesis present comprehensively, vividly, and accurately the meanings and committee report, essences of the experience? Returning again and again to the data to check whether they embrace the necessary and sufficient meanings. Proposal Dissertation Publication! Finally, feedback is obtained through participant validation, and receiving responses from others. . . . a process of internal search through which one discovers the nature and meaning of experience and develops methods and procedures for further investigation and analysis. The self of the researcher is present throughout the process and, while understanding the monsoon essay, phenomenon with increasing depth, the researcher also experiences growing self-awareness and self-knowledge (p. 9). . . . The heuristic process is a way of being informed, a way of knowing (p. 10). . . Proposal Publication! . From the beginning, and throughout an investigation, heuristic research involves self-search , self-dialogue , and self-discovery ; the research question and the methodology flow out of and essay inner awareness, meaning, and inspiration.

When I consider an issue, problem, or question, I enter into it fully . . . I may challenge, confront, or even doubt my understanding of a human concern or issue; but when I persist in a disciplined and devoted way I ultimately deepen my knowledge of the phenomenon . . I am personally involved . Revising! . I may be entranced by visions, images, and dreams that connect me to my quest. I may come into touch with new regions of myself, and discover revealing connections with others (p. 11). . . . Essentially in the heuristic process, I am creating a story that portrays the qualities, meanings, and essences of universally unique experiences (p. 13). . . . In heuristic research the thesis technical analysis stock, investigator must have had a direct, personal encounter with the phenomenon being investigated. There must have been actual autobiographical connections (p. 14).

. . Revising Publication! . Heuristic inquiry is a process that begins with a question or problem which the researcher seeks to illuminate or answer. The question is one that has been a personal challenge and puzzlement in the search to how can a good, understand one?s self and the world in which one lives. Proposal Revising Dissertation! The heuristic process is during autobiographic , yet with virtually every question that matters personally there is also a social - and perhaps universal - significance (p. 15). 3. Some observations concerning heuristic inquiry. There is clearly more involved in heuristic inquiry than the researcher simply analyzing their own experience, which could easily be seen as a variation of phenomenological inquiry. What Moustakas seems to offer is the proposal revising dissertation, much wider context within which the researcher engages with the research question, examines their own experience amongst a number of other explorations, and follows this through with an awareness of the transformative processes at work in the research enterprise. Drawing on my own use of this method of inquiry, I would like to make the following observations.

Heuristic inquiry is a research process that is difficult to set any clear boundaries to, with respect to duration and scope. It is a method that can be best described as following your nose, but at the same time requires the highest degree of rigour and thoroughness. Urging During! It is a method of inquiry that should not be undertaken lightly. In heuristic inquiry, the research question chooses you, and proposal, invariably the research question is deeply personal in wedding origin. Indeed, it is my own experience that the research question has been a preoccupation of proposal mine for at least thirty years, and probably much longer than that. There is a very striking similarity between the methods of heuristic inquiry and the practice of counselling and psychotherapy, particularly with respect to the use of the self. It is therefore a method of research that particularly resonates with inquiry into and essay, counselling and therapy related issues. Heuristic inquiry highlights the importance of working with the heuristic process of others, especially with the proposal revising dissertation publication, historical recordings of previous inquiry (especially spiritual texts).

Indeed, it turns out that the works of writers, poets, artists, spiritual leaders and scientists can all be usefully treated as the creative products of way to and essay heuristic inquiry. In the light of this last observation, it would seem that heuristic inquiry was probably the first research method adopted for psychological inquiry many, many centuries ago. It should really be regarded as the most ancient of methods, with a proven track record well before the proposal revising dissertation publication, advent of modern science and psychology. It is a method of inquiry that is desperately in need of being re-invented! The form that my own heuristic research has taken, in urging ratification addition to my own self-exploration and lived inquiry, involved the designing and carrying out of several phenomenological/co-operative inquiries. I have interviewed people who have claimed to have had a near-death experience, people who have been victims of serious crimes, and people who have been attracted to voluntary, or paid work, which entails being in a helping role with others (i.e. counsellors, carers, nurses, social workers, advocates, etc.).

Such research is necessarily ongoing, and the outcomes are not always easy to summarise. However, two fairly specific claims have emerged, (i) a clearer and more general view of the human response to loss, and in particular the revising, human grieving process, and (ii) the crucial importance of the heuristic framework for urging ratification researching human experience. 4. Transpersonal inquiry. The transpersonal represents a distinct new paradigm within psychology because the assumptions and presuppositions it makes are so different to revising dissertation publication, the rest of help dissertation proposal with my psychology. At the proposal, heart of the transpersonal approach is an attempt to place human life and experience in its widest possible context. Of course, such an approach has a very long history indeed, although it has largely been expressed in spiritual and religious terms. Personally, I cannot see that it matters in the least whether different cultures and writing dissertation my, groups of people, at revising, different times in human history, have come up with very different visions of reality, of our place in dissertation my it, and the associated practices that help give meaning to human existence.

However, what does matter is the recognition of the crucial role that transpersonal beliefs and practices play in peoples? lives, and the important place these can have in publication explaining and understanding an individual?s experience, actions, growth and development. In a previous paper (Hiles, 2000), I have described the aim of transpersonal psychology as offering a synthesis of what may seem, on the surface, to be two quite different traditions - science and spiritual practice. What has emerged is a new field offering new approaches to monsoon wedding essay, psychotherapy, human development, crisis, etc. Proposal Dissertation Publication! Before modern psychology, it was the spiritual traditions and practices in the wide range of cultures that offered an understanding of human consciousness, and the possibilities of human experience. Transpersonal psychology can be seen as an attempt to thesis technical analysis market, bring the world?s great spiritual traditions together with the revising dissertation publication, basic ideas of (Western) modern psychology.

This has, to a large extent, already been achieved in Eastern psychology, we are just coming rather late to this in the West!! The vitality and enormous scope of this field is demonstrated, amongst many other examples, in the pioneering vision of Ken Wilber (1977, 1980, 1983, 1998, 2000), in research on spiritual emergence/emergency and the model of the holotropic mind developed by technical analysis, Stanislav Grof (1985, 1988, 1998; and with Christina Grof 1989, 1990), and in John Heron's (1998) proposal for a person-based, person-centred spirituality. While the transpersonal field has been developing since the early 1970's, it has been more or less waiting for appropriate research methods in order to emerge into the mainstream. Proposal Revising! The very nature of the transpersonal paradigm, where the monsoon, basic assumptions of the field are so different from proposal revising other areas of scientific inquiry, requires paradigms of inquiry that are necessarily quite different. However, transpersonal inquiry is no less empirical than any other area of inquiry, but the empirical focus is on human intuition and essay, creative expression, and possible altered states of awareness. The empirical data can take the publication, form of subjective experience, discernment and monsoon wedding essay, direct knowing which may emerge from dreamwork, imagery exercises, storytelling and meditation practices, etc. It is notable that recently very considerable progress has been made in dissertation the development of research methods more appropriate to the paradigm of transpersonal inquiry. For example, Braud Anderson (1998), Heron (1998) and Valle (1998) have considerably extended the range of research methods that this area might adopt. Braud Anderson's work in particular reflects the need for a systematic approach to thesis advisory, the development of new inquiry paradigms. Revising Publication! They do draw up a general scheme which usefully tries to bring some order to best way to conclude and essay, the confusing diversity of methods of data collection and analysis, which I have summarized in Table 3. They propose five new methods for transpersonal research. But my concern here is to revising dissertation, point out that these new methods do not seem to differ significantly from the intermediate approaches that they identify.

For example, with respect to heuristic inquiry, describing it as intermediate, as sharing important commonalities, is misleading. In most cases, the five methods outlined by Braud Anderson are each variants of the heuristic inquiry process. They seem to overlook the fact that heuristic inquiry and phenomenological inquiry are both foundational to this whole area of research. Although heuristic inquiry is not of necessity transpersonal, it has a central role to play in the research into transpersonal and spiritual issues. Naturalistic and field studies. Historical and archival. Content analysis, textual analysis. Narrative and discourse analysis. Case studies and life stories. Interviews, questionnaires and. and design issues.

Physiological and biomedical. assessments and design issues. Experiential research method. Inquiry informed by i write college essay, exceptional. 5. Proposal Revising Dissertation! A note on mindful inquiry. Earlier I mentioned an approach to inquiry that is similar to heuristic inquiry, and is certainly worth spelling out a little further.

This is the refreshingly different approach to proposal my, research called mindful inquiry (Bentz Shapiro, 1998). Mindful inquiry is described as a synthesis of four intellectual traditions : phenomenology, hermeneutics, critical social theory , and Buddhism . Scientific research is recognized as one of proposal revising our many ways of knowing, and needs to be connected with the other ways. The emphasis in this approach is in placing the thesis technical analysis market, inquirer at proposal, the centre, and research from this perspective is seen as intimately linked with the awareness and the experienced world of the researcher. Research can be seen to how can a good college, contribute explicitly to the transformation of the researcher?s sense of self or identity. Dissertation! The idea of bringing mindfulness into disciplined inquiry is exciting, as it stresses focus, intention and awareness of whatever is wedding present in a situation or experience. There is one aspect of mindful inquiry that I think is of special note, which is the inclusion of critical social theory. I do not have time to proposal revising, develop this point here, but one of the features of critical theory that I think is most important is the recognition that theories, explanations and understanding can be empowering . Wedding! One of the goals of proposal dissertation psychological inquiry and therapeutic practice must be empowerment, i.e. the use of psychological knowledge and techniques to empower people to make informed choices, express themselves freely, and challenge discrimination, oppression and how can i write a good, unnecessary suffering.

While empowerment is possibly universally held by counsellors and dissertation publication, therapists to be an outcome of their practices, it is hardly ever acknowledged that this also needs to be a recognized outcome of research inquiry. Mindful inquiry clearly does this, as does heuristic inquiry. 6. Developing the heuristic approach. Recently, I have found myself adapting the heuristic approach for my own specific purposes of inquiry. In turn, this seems to have revealed something of what lies at the core of this approach. On different occasions I have found myself needing to engage deeply with some specific material, or text. I have come to call this deep study of urging ratification a single text, heuristic engagement (and I am very aware that this is almost precisely how I view working with a client in therapeutic practice). On other occasions I might deliberately choose two or more texts for this work, and I have called this methodology heuristic comparison . Both of these methods are simple adaptations of the method of heuristic inquiry, designed as formalized analytical tools for the study of the phenomenological experience resulting from engagement with almost any cultural or clinical practice.

In the case of heuristic comparison, the methodology involves these basic phases: choosing two texts/practices for comparison - this is not limited to only two and proposal publication, is not crucial - but the selection needs to be very limited, leaving other comparisons for further study, and the choice needs to thesis analysis, be made from proposal revising a range of texts/practices with some underlying feature in common. a phenomenological engagement with the texts/practices, examining and re-examining them, drawing out similarities and i write a good college, differences, exploring the proposal dissertation publication, demands placed on the researcher. a period of dissertation proposal my discernment and exploration, but avoiding superficial similarities and differences - with the likely need to proposal revising dissertation, follow leads to materials outside those chosen, but always returning to the comparison that is the thesis advisory committee, main focus of the proposal dissertation, study. a phase of sifting through and gathering together the materials and experiences, allowing a range of insights, meanings and themes to emerge. reflection on the inter-relations of the texts/practices, working towards formulating a range of insights, perhaps working back through phases (ii) to (iv) again and again and again. a formulation, or synthesis of the inquiry involving self-validation. and finally, further establishing the validation of the work by thesis analysis market, sharing it with others. There are three features of this methodology that I would like to point out here. Firstly, it should be fairly clear that the methodology is the outcome of trying to do justice to the required depth of the engagement with the dissertation, material, while also being able to set appropriate boundaries to thesis report, the work that is involved.

It is proposal revising dissertation my view that a heuristic comparison is almost always simply a part of a wider heuristic inquiry. Thesis Analysis Stock! Secondly, I would like to claim that there is possibly something universal about these seven phases. Revising Dissertation Publication! My reason for this claim arises from the fact that I keep coming across these seven phases in different aspects of my own work. For example, they are clearly explicit in the description of heuristic inquiry offered by Moustakas. But they also emerge from my close examination of some of the i write a good, work of William Blake, and I have found them to be the key to formulating a deeper understanding of the grieving process in the human response to suffering (Hiles, 1999). And, thirdly, I must emphasize the importance of the seventh phase, (vii ) validating the proposal revising publication, work by sharing with others, which is the key to help with my, understanding good qualitative research practices. It is my observation that this seventh phase is often overlooked, or taken for granted by other researchers. For example, Moustakas (1990) clearly offers six phases to his discussion of revising dissertation heuristic inquiry (p. Thesis! 27), but then clearly includes a seventh phase (p. Revising Dissertation Publication! 32-37). It is my proposal that validation of the thesis market, research is two-fold, involving a process of self-validation (and possibly participant verification) that is integral to proposal publication, the sixth phase of the creative synthesis, and in the seventh phase a process of external validation, a sharing with others, which is the basic requirement of any research paradigm.

I pointed out earlier that heuristic inquiry is thesis advisory committee really the most ancient of inquiry practices, and you can possibly see that what I am calling for is that it should be given the proposal dissertation, proper recognition that it obviously deserves. 7. Researching human experience. All transpersonal inquiry will involve a focus on the exploration and study of thesis technical analysis human experience. But, the study of human experience is certainly not without its difficulties, not least of which is the sheer breadth of experiences this would entail. As a final thought, I have tried to take a broad view of the nature of this field of study by identifying a number of tensions that seem to underlie much of the research involved. Six of these tensions are presented in Table 4. What lies behind my thinking is proposal revising dissertation publication that there seems to be a fundamental tension between experience that is grounded in human knowledge systems of our everyday occurrences, and experience that is more subtle which involves perhaps deeper or altered states of i write a good essay consciousness. leading to knowledge derived. from an imposed order.

experience derived from everyday happenings, events. common, ordinary normal. focus on the content of thought. (whether real or imagined) expected, predicted, absorbed. into our current perspective. centred in the self. leading to knowledge of a. induced experiences through. rituals, shared practices. uncommon, unusual, unique. the experience of knowing itself, witnessing the act of revising dissertation publication knowing.

generating insight and best way to and essay, permanent. beyond self, what am I a part of? This contrast between grounded and subtle can be broken down into at least six underlying tensions. Human experience may be constructed or principled by the culture we are embedded in, or by contrast may be the reflection of a process of discernment, i.e. a more directly experienced found order in things. It may be experience that is spontaneously discovered in the course of events, or may result from proven practices or rituals. It may be common and ordinary, or quite exceptional in nature. It may be intentional, or may involve transcendent experience, for example the subjective experience of knowing itself. It may be experience that is predictable and easily assimilated into a current point of view, or it may be a transforming experience, leading to insight and significant change.

Finally, it may be experience grounded in the ego and self, or may be transpersonal, beyond ego and self. My purpose here is simply to do justice to dissertation publication, the full range of experience, setting out a curriculum for study in this field. The possibilities of how can college essay researching human experience from a transpersonal perspective are of course exciting, but also challenging. Not the least of the challenges involved will be in convincing the wider scientific community of the proposal dissertation, seriousness of this undertaking. I find it extremely encouraging that Ken Wilber, in his discussion of direct spiritual experience, asserts that such experience is repeatable, reproducible and urging ratification, confirmable (Wilber, 1999, p. 43). Revising Dissertation! These are of course the basic requirements of any scientific approach. Help Dissertation! Wilber (1998, p. Proposal Revising Dissertation Publication! 155-6) proposes three essential aspects of any scientific inquiry: (i) instrumental injunction - if you want to know this, do this, (ii) direct apprehension - the i write a good college, direct experience or apprehension of the revising dissertation publication, data, and (iii) communal confirmation or rejection - checking the data with others. These three essential aspects of scientific inquiry ensure that the basic requirements of technical analysis repeatability, reproducibility and confirmability are being met.

Furthermore, it is quite clear from Wilber's position that in these respects research into human experience is no different from any other area of scientific research. It also seems to follow that in many ways spiritual experience, that so often is the product of an publication, injunction to practice a certain form of meditation practice or ritual, may be relatively much easier to study scientifically than other types of experience which are more exceptional or spontaneous. In these latter cases, the only difference is in the form of injunction involved, i.e. Best Conclude! wait for this to happen, or, find instances of proposal this happening, and then apprehend the data, and wedding essay, confirm the observation with others. Another matter that I think has importance, is the point made by Valle Mohs (1998, p.100). Proposal Publication! They propose that transpersonal awareness: seems somehow prior to [any] reflective-prereflective realm, presenting itself as more of a space or ground from which our more common experience and felt-sense emerge. Moreover, it is an awareness that makes itself known to the experiencer, but: is not of the monsoon essay, phenomenal realm of perceiver and proposal revising, perceived [but] rather it is a noumenal, unitive space within or from way to which both intentional consciousness and phenomenal experience manifest.

The important point here is the claim that transpersonal awareness is always prior to our phenomenal awareness. Our everyday awareness is grounded in transpersonal awareness, and it is dissertation publication not the other way around. What I have tried to do in this final part is perhaps set out an enormous programme of research that so desperately needs to be undertaken. I am left wondering, do we care ? And, if we do not care, who will? Do we want to make a difference? I hope that I have achieved my modest aims.

I have tried to best conclude, provide a brief outline of the heuristic inquiry approach to dissertation publication, research, originally pioneered in the work of thesis advisory committee Clark Moustakas. I have argued that it occupies a key place in transpersonal inquiry. Revising Dissertation! I have discussed some of the insights that I gained from using it myself, and have shown you how I have used its basic principles in and essay developing some more specific inquiry paradigms of my own. What defines transpersonal inquiry is proposal revising dissertation publication not its methods of research but the particular perspective it takes on human actions and experiences. However, progress in the transpersonal field will largely depend on thesis how we refine our methods of inquiry. The promise of heuristic inquiry is that it offers a systematic way of incorporating the self into publication, our inquiry methods, and, therefore, some of the most significant, exciting and urgent life events and extraordinary human experiences can be researched more closely. Bentz, V.M. Shapiro, J.J. (1998) Mindful Inquiry in Social Research.

Sage. Braud, W. Anderson, R. (Eds) (1998) Transpersonal Research Methods for the Social Sciences: Honoring human experience. Sage. Douglass, B.G. Moustakas, C. (1985) Heuristic inquiry: The internal search to know. Conclude! J. Revising Dissertation! Humanistic Psychology , 25 , p. 39-55.

Giorgi, A. (1970) Psychology as a Human Science. Harper Row. Giorgi, A. (1994) The idea of human science. In F. Wertz (Ed.) The Humanistic Movement: Recovering the person in psychology. Gardener Press. Grof, C. Grof, S. (1990) The Stormy Search for the Self.

J.P. Tarcher. Grof, S. (1985) Beyond the Brain: Birth, death and transcendence in psychotherapy. SUNY. Grof, S. (1988) The Adventure of Self Discovery. SUNY.

Grof, S. Conclude And Essay! (1998) The Cosmic Game: Explorations of the frontiers of human consciousness. SUNY. Grof, S. Grof, C. (Eds.) (1989) Spiritual Emergency: When personal transformation becomes a crisis. J.P. Tarcher.

Heron, J. (1996) Co-operative Inquiry: Research into the human condition. Sage. Heron, J. (1998) Sacred Science: Person-centred inquiry into the spiritual and the subtle. Publication! PCCS Books. Hiles, D.R. (1999) Loss, Grief and Transformation: A heuristic inquiry.

Paper presented to technical analysis stock market, the 18 th International Human Science Research Conference, July 26 -29, Sheffield. Hiles, D.R. (2000) Defining the Paradigm of proposal revising publication Humanistic-Existential Psychology. Paper prepared for the Old Saybrook 2 Conference , May 11 - 14, West Georgia, USA. Available at: Hiles, D.R. (2001) Jung, William Blake and Our Answer to Job. Paper presented to the Collegium Jungianum Brunense, April 25th, Brno, Czech Republic. Available at: Moustakas, C. (1990) Heuristic Research: Design, methodology and conclude and essay, applications. Sage.

Moustakas, C. Proposal Dissertation Publication! (2001) Statement . Available at: Polkinghorne, D.E. (1984) Methodology for the Human Sciences: Systems of advisory inquiry. SUNY. Valle, R. (Ed.) (1998) Phenomenological Inquiry in Psychology: Existential and transpersonal dimensions. Plenum Press. Valle, R. Mohs, M. (1998) Transpersonal awareness in phenomenological inquiry: Philosophy, reflections, and recent research.

In W. Braud R. Anderson (Eds) Transpersonal Research Methods for the Social Sciences: Honoring human experience. Sage. West, W. Proposal Dissertation Publication! (1998a) Passionate research: Heuristics and the use of self in monsoon wedding counselling research. Proposal Revising Dissertation Publication! Changes , 16, p. 60-66. West, W. (1998b) Critical subjectivity: Use of self in counselling research. Counselling , (August), p. 228-230. Wilber, K. (1977) The Spectrum of thesis advisory Consciousness . Publication! Quest. Wilber, K. (1980) The Atman Project . Quest. Wilber, K. Monsoon! (1983) Eye to Eye: The quest for the new paradigm . Shambala. Wilber, K. (1998) The Marriage of Sense and Soul: Integrating science and religion . Random House.

Wilber, K. (1999) One Taste: The journals of Ken Wilber . Shambala. Wilber, K. (2000) Integral Psychology: Consciousness, spirit, psychology, therapy. Shambala.