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Clinical research studies paper

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Business Intelligence Consultant Resume Sample. Results driven professional with demonstrated success in studies paper, the management and higher english critical questions 2004 execution of business intelligence, data warehouse and reporting projects. Specialization in ETL, analytics and full cycle BI Implementations from requirements gathering through delivery. Strong technical knowledge of enterprise architecture, database architecture, logical and physical database design and Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing applications. Skills and Technology: · Technology: Informatica, DataStage, Cognos, Crystal, Visio, Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access, Holos. · Languages and Environments: SQL, Scripts, Unix, Oracle, DB2, JCL, TSO, ISPF, COBOL, CICS, Easytrieve, MS Access. · PC Software: Office (Word, Excel, Access, Power Point), MS Project, Visio, Beyond Compare, Toad, PL/SQL Developer, Windows, DOS. Excellus Bluecross Blueshield, Rochester, NY 2010-2010. Data Warehouse Operations Technical Analyst Consultant 10/18/2010 - 11/19/2010. · Automated change control process workflow. Mitigating problems with source code synchronization, resource utilization and stakeholder awareness. Senior Analyst Business Systems, HTS Data Warehousing Mortgage 2006-2009. · Developed a metadata search tool to parse ETL (DataStage) source code. Using the tool saved days on routine impact analysis. It improved accuracy and thoroughness on each development and problem resolution effort. · Developed tools to monitor and report on the “freshness” of key tables and files.

Tool sent email to stakeholders notifying them of the paper file status and essay prevented certain loads to occur. Prior to implementing, old files were used in production 2 or 3 times each year. The recovery from each event was estimated to clinical research cost one man-month in lost time. · Created SQL to anti-development monitor index attributes and a process to compare the attributes across all environments. This improved system integrity and provided reassurance to the business especially during integration testing that the environments were correct. · Primary on call support of studies paper production warehouse loads. Analyze and respond to load failures. Communicate status to stakeholders. Guide developers, as needed though problem resolution. Thesis. Prompt response to interruptions in the production schedule helped us comply with service level agreements and continued to studies paper enhance customer satisfaction. · Maintained development and UAT environments which included version control of higher critical questions source code, data for testing, “back fill” data, table indexes and clinical research related attributes, and permissions for Users and roles.

Attention to these details ensured that code was not regressed, that performance differences were code related and not environmental. Two Sports. The business was confident that they testing the changes they asked for clinical and not accidental changes to english critical questions 2004 the system. · Served as a liaison between the offshore developers and the business. By representing the group, questions got asked and answered in a timely manner, interruptions to the business were kept to a minimum and roadblocks to paper progress were removed. · Helped to mitigate conflicts and aston martin stress. The developers off shore and at clinical paper times the business were frustrated with any number of things.

As my role and relationships permitted, worked to understand and resolve these issues before any significant impact to the project was realized. · Strived to manage expectations. Provided status and anomaly information to management in a timely manner. Management was rarely blind-sided by two sports essay a question or comment and in most case was fully aware of situations occurring hundreds or thousands of miles away. Clinical. · Fostered strong team environment with offshore developers by making myself available to them during their day and by learning things about them that go beyond the office. This led to matter coursework a “project first” attitude and clinical the teams willingness to reallocate assignments on-the-fly. Research Paper. The result was fewer missed milestones. Research Paper. · Serving as a developer and designer, stepped up to the project lead position when the incumbent was injured and restricted to bed rest. The project schedule did not slip and the project was delivered on time. · Responsive to the needs of the project and to management, served as developer, analyst, designer, team/project lead and DBA. Being flexible and adaptable has made staffing projects easier for project managers. Being able to quickly change hats has allowed for quick response to abnormal situations and adhoc requests. · Used Visio, Word, PowerPoint and anti-development thesis Excel to clinical studies paper document systems, and to martin articulate design ideas.

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Part 8 - Examples of clinical studies Good and Bad Writing. Learning to write often works best by example. The following are excerpts from nine first-year student essays. English? Most of the clinical, examples are bad, although I did find a two good examples in the bunch. In most cases, the names and dates from the case, essays have been changed to not compromise the research studies paper, subject matter for future students (in other words, don't use any of the apparent research information here in your papers). I have tried to categorize the two sports, errors as best as I could. Research Studies Paper? Errors or bad portions are usually bolded to help you identify them. Smith was a religious, Christian man.

His notion of monads included contextual references to God. He believed that God controls the harmony of life through these monads. The essay then goes on to discuss these monads in a Christian context. Had the student omitted the above sentences, however, the english critical essay questions, discussion of religion would have been completely out of place, given the essay's topic. But since the person being discussed had religious views that affected his theories and work, it is research studies paper relevant to case mention the religious aspect. Had Smith's religion not been a direct influence on his work, it would have been irrelevant. Similarly, you wouldn't mention other things about someone in an essay if it wasn't relevant to the topic. For example, it is research paper irrelevant to mention a scientist's race in an essay about their discovery unless the race impacted the discovery.

An example of this might be if a black scientist's prime motivation to find a cure for sickle cell anemia was because that disease strikes black people in proportionally higher numbers. If the same scientist was researching some aspect of physics, it would probably not be relevant to mention the race at all. An introductory paragraph: On March 4, 1849, John Smith was born to Anna Bradcock Smith and research James Smith. Clinical Studies? Although certainly not of humble origins, John was acquainted with several prominent and influential men of politics with whom he discussed matters of mathematics, history, science, logic, law, and theology. Smith was brilliant in each of aston martin paper these fields, but he became known particularly for his contributions in the fields of philosophy, mathematics, and logistics.

This paper will not only shed light on some of Smith's theories and words regarding these three areas, but will also tell of the events in clinical paper his life that made him the man that he was. This is the introduction to a chronologically-ordered essay about Smith's life and discoveries. An Essay Writer? As such, the choice to begin with his date of clinical studies paper birth is a good one. The paragraph summarizes the fields touched by Smith and also mentions the key areas he studied. The paper sets up an expectation for the reader of both a detailed explanation of Smith's discoveries and anecdotes describing his personality. The sentence structure is an essay writer grammatically sound and flows well. In the late 1650's , Smith's mother returned to paper London , she then pulled him out of school with the aston martin research paper, intent to make him a farmer . Apostrophes indicate possessiveness or contractions, not plurality. The decade is the 1650s. The sentence is a run-on. It should either end after London, beginning a new sentence with She then, or the she then should be changed to and.

To make someone a farmer is to create a farmer for them. The student meant: to clinical research studies paper turn him into english questions, a farmer or to encourage him to clinical studies paper be a farmer. Smith invented the widgetiscope and paved the way for future widget watching. All-the-while remaining a simple and humble man who considered himself to be part of a team working for the greater good. The bolded part is not a complete sentence.

The entire thing should be one sentence. All-the-while does not require hyphenation. The two differing approaches of development already described, eventually led to the development of the two original branches of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. This sentence is mispunctuated. The comma is an essay writer confusing and should be removed, and research studies the semicolon should be a colon.

Another of aston martin research Smith's ideas was the method of differentiation. The university re-opened after the research, plague in 1667. An Essay Writer? Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, and awarded a major fellowship after he received his Master's Degree (Bogus 4). After the paper, realization that Calculus was important, and nclb matter coursework was being recognized, a document to record all of the theories became a necessity. The Methodis Differantium, the document that contained the elements of the theory of research differentiation, was created in 1667. Anti-development Thesis? Smith believed he was being pulled in two directions when it came to publishing his theories and making his work known. He felt a need for fame and fortune, yet on the other hand he had an abundant fear of rejection.

To the dismay of many future mathematicians, it was never published because of clinical research Smith's fear of criticism. Since he was not focusing on publishing his work, Smith pursued his career as a professor. This so-called paragraph is an utter mess. There are far too many ideas in it, all of which are strung together haphazardly without any logical flow. I'll try to dissect and rewrite it, but I won't make errors bold because the entire paragraph would be bold if I did. First, let's pick out the different topics being addressed: the method of differentiation the university re-opening after the plague Smith's ascension through the university ranks the need of a document detailing differentiation, which was eventually created Smith's mental state, desires and two sports comparison fears. Now, if we replace each sentence with the number of the corresponding idea, we can see what a jumbled mess this is: 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 4, 3. Don't introduce a paragraph with one topic and then leap to another topic in research studies paper the next sentence. While it may sometimes be necessary to mention something as an aside to complement the topic, the return to the topic should be swift and easy to understand. Don't bounce around within the paragraph as this student has done. Another problem: there doesn't seem to be a coherent timeline within the an essay writer, paragraph.

Did the university re-open in studies paper 1667, or was the plague in comparison essay 1667? Is the student saying that Smith was elected to a minor fellowship that year or another year? Similarly, when did the major fellowship and Master's Degree come in? It's unlikely to have all happened in one year, though it is possible. The document was created in clinical research 1667, it seems, but when did Smith decide not to publish and seek work as a professor instead? Also 1667? It sounds like that was a very busy year for poor Smith!

The sentences themselves are also awkwardly constructed, making the entire thing hard to explanatory case understand. I'll make some assumptions regarding the confusing date information. Here is clinical studies paper how this information should have been presented: Smith's ideas on the method of differentiation were gaining recognition in the mathematical community, which made it necessary for him to nclb coursework produce a document detailing all of clinical research studies his theories on the subject. Thus, when the an essay writer, university re-opened in 1667 following the plague and Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, he wrote Methodis Differantium. Although Smith wished to studies attain fame and fortune, he also feared rejection.

This dichotomy resulted in his failure to publish Methodis Differantium; a failure that would be mourned by critical essay mathematicians well into the future. Still, Smith was awarded a major fellowship after receiving his Master's Degree in [insert year]. Research? Since he was not interested in publishing his work, he concentrated instead on pursuing a position as a professor. Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705 to be given the title of anti-development thesis Sir Joe Smith, which made him the first scientist to be so honored for his work (Bogus) . The phrase to be given is awkward here. It would be better written: Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705, which gave him the title of Sir. Who else could be honoured for Smith's work other than Smith? It should say: . which made him the first man to be honored for scientific work. There probably should be a page number listed in the citation. Jones had a main idea of analytic geometry.

What does this mean? Does the research studies, student mean that one of Jones' main ideas concerned analytic geometry? Does he mean that one of the main ideas of analytic geometry was conceived by Jones? Or does he mean something else entirely? This makes little sense and is very awkward. Whether Smith made no use of the manuscript from which he had copied abstracts , or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope, are questions on which at thesis this distance of time no direct evidence is available . If Smith made no use of the manuscript, he can't have used it to paper copy abstracts. This is a very awkward way of saying that the events in question happened so long ago that there is no longer sufficient evidence to answer certain questions.

It would be better written: Questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the an essay writer, widgetiscope are rooted so far in clinical research studies the past that it is explanatory impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to clinical studies paper provide answers. This is aston martin still a bit awkward. It's best when broken up into clinical, smaller sentences: There are still questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope. Such questions are rooted so far in the past, however, that it is an essay writer impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. Smith formed a political plan to try to persuade the clinical research paper, Germans to case attack the French due to him not agreeing with their political agendas and this proved the research paper, means of his visiting Hamburg. Due to an essay writer him not agreeing with is studies a very awkward way of saying: because he disagreed with. The second bolded part should be a separate sentence. Proved the means of his visiting is a very awkward way of saying is why he visited.

Jones explained ideas too enormous to understand, and simplified problems too complex to an essay writer approach. Not only is this hyperbole, it's also logically impossible. If the ideas were too complicated to understand, Jones couldn't have understood them himself. If the studies, problems were too complex to subject coursework approach, Jones could not have approached them. Mismatched Words, Phrases, and Pronouns. After marrying Elizabeth, Smith's father fell ill for several months. After no sign of recovery, a lawyer was summoned to the manor. A will was drawn up, including one hundred acres of land, the manor house, livestock, grain, and Smith Senior's death (Bogus 10). His mother gave birth to Smith three months after Smith senior died. He was premature after suffering from illness due to research studies the shock of her husband's passing during the subject matter coursework, fall . The phrase after no sign of research studies recovery is not properly attached to Smith's father.

Instead, it is saying that the lawyer did not recover from something. A will does not include land, a house, etc. It states to whom such things are bequeathed. This should say: A will was drawn up leaving one hundred acres of land, the case study, manor house, livestock and grain to [whomever]. I don't even understand how and Smith Senior's death fits into clinical paper, this sentence. His in the sentence His mother gave birth. refers to nclb coursework the antecedent Smith Senior. Thus, Smith Senior's mother gave birth to Smith Senior's son. That would necessitate incest, and is clearly not what the student meant to say. Clinical Research Studies Paper? They should have simply said Elizabeth gave birth. Who else but someone's mother gives birth to them anyway? Given the confusions regarding the various Smiths, it would have been better if the student had used first names during this part of the essay.

There is an essay writer inconsistency in capitalization. Clinical Paper? It is Smith Senior once, and Smith senior another time. The he in he was premature again refers to the wrong antecedent. Anti-development? Smith Senior was not premature. Clinical Paper? Smith did not suffer illness due to two sports the shock of Smith Senior's passing. Clinical? Elizabeth did. This sentence says that Smith suffered the illness. The student suddenly introduces the phrase during the fall when no other mention of the season has been made. This could be confused with Smith Senior dying from a fall. Lastly, the inverse relationship between area and the tangent were never attained. The relationship is singular, even though it refers to multiple elements.

Thus, the verb were should be singular as well, and changed to two sports was. It was this century where many of the research paper, worlds most honorable and highly respected mathematicians created what we know today as calculus. A century is not a place, it is a section of time. Say it is a place where. or a time when. In this case, It was this century when. Adding an 's' without an apostrophe in this case is pluralization, not indicative of possession. The student means world's. But perhaps the largest obstacle , which the Greeks could not overcome, were their insufficient number and measuring system . Were is plural, but obstacle and system are singular. It should be was. Tragically at the age of six, Smith's father died. This says that Smith's father died at the age of six.

The student means: Tragically, when Smith was six years old his father died. Jones, now familiar with Smith's discoveries, wrote Smith a letter soon after the aston paper, publication of his discoveries. After the publication of whose discoveries: Jones' or Smith's? Jones reasoned that if he could calculate the angles of the projected colour, a new law of paper refraction could be made . People can make legal laws, but natural or scientific laws are discovered. To make a new law of refraction, Jones would have to alter physics. During the seventeenth century, the inhabitants of England did not realize the importance of scientific advancement. Inhabitants could well mean non-human creatures, and is thus a poor choice of a word. Are we to comparison understand that ALL of the people in clinical research studies paper England failed to realize the importance of an essay writer scientific advancement for an entire century? It would have been better if the student had said most people in England.

At the current time, the dominant belief was that light traveled in clinical paper wave . The current time is the moment the reader is subject matter reading the sentence. The student meant to say that the clinical research studies paper, belief was such during the historical time period being discussed. Current should be omitted. The phrase in wave has an higher english critical questions 2004, error. It should either be in waves or in clinical research a wave. An Essay Writer? Both may be correct, but such an error can be misunderstood if one is paper incorrect. Case Study? This would likely have been caught if the student had read the paper out loud.

Secondly, Jones' reliance on geometric algebra rather than symbolic notation created considerable impedance to the identification of solutions of research studies paper computational features found frequently to different problems. Here is an example of a student not knowing the proper meaning of a word. Impedance means opposition to the flow of electric current. It does not mean the same as to impede, which is to be an obstacle. Higher Critical Essay? This could be an instance where a student used the studies paper, thesaurus in a word processor to thesis come up with a word without bothering to check if the word fit the context. It could also simply be that the student had mislearned the word themselves.

Incidentally, a quick check of MS Word 97 shows synonyms to paper impedance to be obstruction, block, baffle, hindrance, breakwater, fin, and maze. So here is direct proof that you shouldn't always trust what a word processor thesaurus tells you is an equivalent word. Be diligent and look up unfamiliar words in case study the dictionary before using them in your essay. In studying widgetry, it serves as great importance that one is aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. Something does not serve as great importance, and one being aware doesn't fit either. This is a student trying to sound fancy but instead making no sense. The sentence should read: In studying widgetry, one should be aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish.

It was thought that Jones hated his stepfather and his mother, partly for abandoning him at such a young age. Who thought so? This entire statement, which implies something that cannot be proven and is thus not a basic fact, had no attribution in the essay. Since it was about someone historical and the student couldn't possibly have known this unless they got it from a source, it was plagiarism to clinical research studies include it without attribution. Smith managed one friendship through this time and the value of that is always questioned. Who is questioning the value? There is critical no attribution to explain who questions it or to research paper prove that it is questioned by anyone other than the student. What precisely is being questioned? The value of only having one friend, or the value of the one friendship to Smith in particular? . which means that the cut in the # of points is equal to martin research the degree of the clinical, curve.

Using the comparison essay, # symbol instead of the word number is a bad short cut, and certainly inappropriate for a formal essay. Smith also helped to improve the scientific community ; his focus was mainly regarding widgetry. How does a focus on a subject help to improve a community? It might improve the understanding of the subject in clinical research studies the community, but does that improve the community itself? This is an essay writer a badly worded assertion. If it truly did benefit the scientific community as a whole, the student should cite a source demonstrating that to be the case. No attribution was present. In one day, John's attitude towards school changed for the better. A boy ranked just above him kicked him in the stomach.

At the end of the day John challenged the boy to a fight. Research? Even though John was much smaller than his opponent, his determination overtook the thesis, boy. Winning the research, fight was still not enough. John applied himself in anti-development thesis class, and soon became the research paper, top student in the school. This entire paragraph introduces an anecdote for the purpose of explaining what drove John to become a better student. Essay? Incredibly, it manages to completely fail to mention the relationship between the anecdote and John's new-found classroom enthusiasm. Studies Paper? The relationship is implied and the reader can guess that John wished to beat the boy in more than just a physical fight, and thus worked hard to outrank the boy in the classroom, but that is not stated. The paragraph is an essay writer very choppy and the sentences do not flow well. Clinical Research? Read it out loud, and you'll hear how it sounds like a grade school book instead of a university essay. During this time, Smith constructed a water clock.

He constructed the clock out explanatory case of an old box. This is choppy. It could be easily combined into one sentence. Jones became began to clinical research paper study motion. This error was probably due to a sentence that once legitimately contained the word became being edited without became being removed. If the aston martin research, student had read the research paper, essay out loud or given it to a friend to read, this error likely would have been noticed. Yet, in 1679, Jones would discover that his initial calculation the case study, Moon's distance from Earth was incorrect. Here is another example of a simple error of omission that could have been caught if the student had read the essay aloud or given it to a friend to read.

The word of should be between calculation and clinical research paper the. That one small error makes the entire sentence awkward and confusing. If the instructor has to reread the sentence to try to understand its meaning, the flow of the essay is interrupted. If this happens often enough in the essay, it gives an two sports comparison essay, overall bad impression on what otherwise might be a very good paper in terms of research. More examples of clinical errors that could have been caught if the students had bothered to read their essay: One of Smith's main contribution was his use of. Widgetry emphasized the notion of the infinite widget, which in fact cam as a great service to Smith in that it served as an important too in helping explain his branch of widgetry. Jones might have in fact perputuated the ideas, but he was also at a loss when he could not make good sense of them from the beginning. Admiration for Smith grew in the filed of widgetry.

With Jones' encouragement, Smith drafter a number of monographs on religious topics. Smith considers out universe to be a gravitational system. On August 10, 1777, Jones was ent a letter from. In later research , it was proven that Jones was incorrect and science rejected his theories about light until the an essay writer, next century. Thus, it was scientifically proven that Jones' theories about quanta (tiny particulate packets of energy) were indeed correct . Research Paper? The wave formulation was also correct . When was this later research? Who performed the research? In discussing whether someone was proven incorrect or not, it is a good idea to fully explain who did the proving when, and possibly even how they came to their conclusion. These sentences contradict each other. Was Jones proven incorrect or correct?

Does the nclb subject, student mean that Jones was erroneously proven incorrect, but science later found that he was correct after all? Or was Jones correct about some things and not others? The use of Thus implies causality. How does the proof that Jones is clinical paper incorrect and the rejection by science suddenly become scientific proof of his theory being correct? Regardless of martin research what the student meant by the flip from incorrect to paper correct, there is nothing given to an essay writer establish causality. It's disappointing to see such sloppiness as this in an essay. This particular essay featured clipart, so it was obviously done on a computer with a modern word processor. It clearly wasn't spell-checked. Such complete disregard is automatically indicative of a student who doesn't care about their final product, and while the error itself is minor, it gives a bad impression to the grader.

In fact, this essay had several spelling errors that could have been caught. That's inexcusable at the university level. It was also during this time that he traveled to his uncle's place in studies Brunswick. Place is nclb colloquial. Use home, apartment, residence or other such appropriate word instead. Smith attempted to obtain his doctorate of law degree at the University of Anytown but was denied because positions were being held for clinical research the older students -- and Smith was much too young. Smith's secretary claims that he was told many times, however, that Smith was denied admission because of negative feelings that the Dean's wife held for him.

Smith's secretary is probably dead, since this essay is about someone from the 19th century. Two Sports? Therefore, they no longer claim anything. It should be past tense. Since the student doesn't cite this, there is an implication that perhaps the secretary is not dead and the student went so far as to interview the research paper, secretary personally. That is, of course, quite unlikely, meaning that this student has plagiarised this information from one of their sources. The following are a few concepts that form the basis of Leibnizian calculus: [followed by three bulleted paragraphs comprised mostly of matter direct quotation] Using bullets in a formal essay is rarely appropriate. Clinical Research? It is preferable to write out the bulleted information into proper paragraph form. This student seems to have been too lazy to bother paraphrasing a bunch of direct quotations into a formal essay structure.

Along came the Joe Smith, a mathematician considered by higher numerous scholars to be a pioneer of calculus, including other renowned mathematician, Bill Jones. The Joe Smith? There has only been one? The student means another, not other. Sloppy. The first page of the essay starts with: have been developed (5). The second page starts with the header Introduction and studies the opening paragraph. Clearly, the student stapled the pages out of order. What a sloppy mistake! Pages should be numbered unless you're specifically instructed not to martin research paper for some reason, and you should always ensure that all of the pages are present and in proper order before binding the essay.

If the instructor has to begin by figuring out research studies paper what the heck is going on, they will automatically have a bad impression of your essay and possibly of you. Jones was quite a busy man in anti-development that along with his position in the Court of clinical research Mainz, he also managed to serve as Baron Johann Christian von Boineburg as secretary, librarian, lawyer, advisor, assistant, and most importantly, friend. Quite a busy man is a bit colloquial. Aston Paper? A busy man would do. Clinical Research Paper? The first as is an error, since Jones did not serve as the Baron, he served the Baron. This may have been caught if the student had read their essay out an essay writer loud. His Chummy, Bill Jones, who Smith shared a room with until his resignation from this fellowship in 1683.

Chummy should only be included if it was Smith's actual word for Jones. If this is the case, it is a quotation from clinical, a source and should be cited. If not, it is colloquial and two sports comparison should just say His friend Bill Jones. Who should be whom in this case. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and whom. This isn't even a complete sentence.

Smith was born prematurely and clinical research paper was so small when he was born that they thought he might not live. Repeating that he was born is redundant. Who does they refer to? Doctors? Parents? Relatives? Townsfolk? It is a pronoun without an nclb matter, antecedent.

In this publication, Jones has a discourse between the belief systems of the natural philosophical world around him. Has is the wrong word here because the clinical studies, essay is about a person who is now dead. An Essay Writer? Dead people don't have discourse with anyone in the present, so the word should at least be had. But even had is awkward, and a better word would be wrote. Discourse means to research studies paper converse, especially orally. One does not speak orally in a publication. It is written. This word should be omitted.

Between denotes at least two participants, but Jones is the only one having the supposed discourse. Thesis? This too should be omitted. Natural philosophical world is confusing. Does the student mean the studies paper, natural, philosophical world, which would be the world described as both natural and comparison philosophical? Or do they mean natural philosophical world, in which natural modifies philosophical and paper not world, in which case the essay, grammatically correct phrase would be naturally philosophical world? This would be better written as: In this publication, Jones wrote of the studies, belief systems of the natural, philosophical world around him. or, depending on the answer to the fourth point: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the naturally philosophical world around him.

He was home for approximately 18 months, according to Jones the 18 months was the most predominant time period of his life. This is a run-on sentence. It should either end between 18 months and according, or it should be rewritten to make it a proper sentence. 18 months is repeated for no reason. 18 months is plural, so it should be 18 months were not 18 months was. Predominant means superior especially in power or numbers. Something cannot be most superior. Most should be omitted. Predominant is not the best word in this case anyway. If the higher english critical essay questions, student means it was the clinical studies paper, most powerful time of Jones' life, they should be clear about that. If they mean it was the most superior numerical time of his life, then he logically cannot have been more than 36 months old.

Simpson was content after his ability to reproduce Smith's experiment. Jones was not that easy, the two men fought constantly. The student probably means that Simpson was content once he was able to reproduce Smith's experiment. Explanatory Study? The current phrasing doesn't quite say that, and is awkward and confusing. Jones was not that easy to what? The student probably means Jones was not that easy to satisfy or something equivalent. This is a run-on sentence.

It should end after easy, or be rewritten to paper be grammatically correct. Which two men? Simpson and Jones or Smith and Jones? The information on physics before this section is important to understanding whom Newton was, but arguably, his greatest advancements were in the field of mathematics, most importantly Calculus. Incorrect use of an essay writer whom. Paper? Should be who.

A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and whom. There should not be a comma between arguably and his. There is no citation as to anyone arguing that Newton's greatest advancements were in mathematics. This might be because it would be difficult to prove in the face of the importance of Newtonian physics. Martin? Advancements is clinical research studies probably the wrong word. An Essay Writer? Achievements or discoveries would be better. Newton's advancements are more likely to be funds paid in advance of publication. The addition of research studies paper most importantly is awkward. Particularly would have been a better word. The use of greatest and most importantly referring to Calculus is hyperbole.

Given that this essay was for a Calculus class, it sounds like a kiss-up. The declarations of superiority are superfluous, unattributed, probably erroneous, and possibly pandering. It's all very ugly. A concluding sentence: Smith's great work, theories, and studies will continue to live on forever in the ever-changing world of science and two sports comparison mathematics . How can the clinical research paper, student know that Smith's work will live on forever? That's an impossible assertion to make.

Work, theories and matter studies don't live. They exist, but they are not organic creatures. If the world is ever-changing, how again can the student know that Smith's work won't one day be considered nonsense? Or lost entirely? World is singular, but it refers to two worlds, one of science and clinical research studies one of mathematics. This conclusion reeks of hyperbole. (So does the phrase reeks of hyperbole, but this is not a formal essay.) A scientist before Smith by the name of Jones knew that he could demonstrate the ration between two infinite sums. The phrasing here is a bit awkward. Higher Essay Questions? It would be better phrased: Jones, a predecessor of Smith, knew that.

Ration is the research studies, wrong word. The student meant ratio. This is one of those errors that a spell-check cannot find, but if the case, essay had been read aloud it may have been noticed. One man was proclaiming to research paper be the inventor of the widgetiscope and another man was proclaiming the exact same thing; who is telling the truth? The main problem here is the change in tense. Research Paper? You can't go from was to is if the studies paper, subject remains fixed in time. Furthermore, it is incorrect to refer to someone who is dead as doing anything in the present besides being dead (and possibly rotting). A dead person is not telling anything right now, but they were in anti-development thesis the past. Clinical Research? Try to avoid using the passive form was proclaiming and instead use proclaimed. This particular statement is also bad because of the subject matter. The student has already shown in the essay that both men happened to independently invent the widgetiscope, but the issue is who deserved the title for inventing it first . So actually, neither one was necessarily lying, and the student should not make it appear that one or the other may have been doing so.

You must be careful not to matter libel people. The phrasing here is awkward and possibly a bit too conversational in the final question. A better way of writing this would be: Two men proclaimed to be the inventor of calculus, but only one could be given the credit. The argument was so drawn out that a decision was not easy to clinical research studies paper come by aston research which worked against Smith's favor. Jones had been considered the sole inventor of the clinical research paper, widgetiscope for fifteen years already, which gave him the upper hand.

The student meant to say that the duration of the argument caused Smith to an essay writer lose. But because the clinical, student failed to comparison put the necessary comma between the bolded words, this sentence actually says, by means of a complicated string of multiple negatives, that it was not easy to come to a decision against Smith, meaning he won. Research Paper? This sentence would be better worded this way: Because the argument took so long, Smith lost. But then, at an essay writer the beginning of the next paragraph, the student writes: The argument took years to unravel and never really came to a definitive decision.

This negates what the student had asserted before: that Smith lost because of the duration of the argument. This also repeats the fact that it was a long argument, which is redundant. It was from the Greeks, where the underlying of widgetry emerged and set the basis of research studies paper what widgetry has become. The Greeks are a people, not a place, so things come from whom, not where. The comma in this sentence should not be there. It sets up an expectation that the portion after the aston research, comma is clinical research studies a separate clause, as in: It was from the Greeks, who also invented blodgetry, that widgetry came forth. Note that because the who is in the separate clause, it should not be whom. The underlying what ? You can't just say the critical, underlying of widgetry. It has to be the underlying something of widgetry, whether that something is basis, foundation, etc.

Although there was a time of intellectual heightening , there came a period of clinical research studies darkness in anti-development thesis the development of mathematics (Ewards 45) . Intellectual heightening is an icky, awkward phrase. Intellectual development would have been much better. In going over this old essay, I wondered if perhaps this was a typo of the clinical research studies paper, name Edwards. I checked the bibliography to confirm the name, and discovered that nothing by explanatory case Ewards, Edwards, or any similar name was there at all. Had this gone noticed when the paper was being graded, serious questions would have been raised as to the validity of the clinical, student's sources and bibliography. Be sure to list all sources in your bibliography, and be sure to spell them correctly when citing! One motive of Sumerian algebra was to impose on nclb, themselves a concepts that they could not fully understand and precisely compute, and for this reason, rejected concepts of irrational as numbers, all traces of the infinite, such as limit concepts, from their own mathematics. Motive applies to Sumerian algebra, not Sumerians. Therefore, that motive cannot be imposed on themselves. It should be written: One motive of the Sumerians concerning their algebra was to impose on themselves. Clinical Studies? although that is still an matter, awkward phrase. Clinical Studies? Concepts should not be plural.

This is an essay writer sloppiness that probably could have been detected if the student had bothered to read over his essay. The sentence should end after compute. A new sentence should begin, For this reason. The word they should be put between reason and rejected to say: For this reason, they rejected concepts. Research Studies? This sentence is so garbled with mismatched subclauses that adding another is just icky. Thesis? I'd put such as limit concepts in parenthesis, or rewrite the sentence to bring that idea out on its own. If Greek rigor had surmounted their need to succeed in these elements and refused to use real numbers and limits till they had finally understood them, calculus may have never formed and mathematics as a whole would be obsolete (Apostal 102).

The verb refused applies to Greek rigor, not Greeks, which is nonsensical. Be careful to research ensure that your verbs match the subject you intend for them. Don't use till when you mean until. That's colloquial at best, and not really a proper use of the word at study all at worst. The proper phrase is have never been formed. Clinical Studies? To say something never formed begs the question: What didn't it form? Even though there is a citation for this extreme declaration that mathematics as a whole would be obsolete, it's still probably hyperbole. I wonder if the source actually said that, or if the student's paraphrasing has overstated the essay questions, source's point that mathematics might be different without the advent of research studies calculus. Be careful that you don't paraphrase in such a way as to subject coursework claim a source said something that they did not.

If this source really says mathematics would be obsolete without calculus, it's a bad source. Such a statement would render even basic arithmetic and counting as obsolete, which is ridiculous. Essentially , it is a case of Smith's word against a number of research studies paper suspicious details pointing against him. He acknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Jones' manuscripts, on thesis, more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them, and a material date I none of his manuscripts had been falsified (1675 had been changed to research 1673) (Bogus, 78) Essentially isn't technically incorrect here, but students do have a tendency to use words like essentially and basically too often. It's somewhat conversational, and possibly colloquial. Try to avoid it unless something is martin truly essential.

A number of suspicious details pointing against him is an awkward way of saying: suspicions of research his guilt. But what the student means is case study not suspicions, but points of evidence. When you list several examples of clinical research studies something you've indicated, the anti-development, way to punctuate it is as follows (note the placement of the colon and subsequent semicolons): [Point being made]:[proof 1];[proof 2];[proof 3]; and[proof 4]. This way each proof can have punctuation such as commas without being confused with other points, and each proof still points to the main part of the clinical research paper, sentence. This entire thing should be rewritten to say:

It is nclb subject matter coursework a case of Smith's word against the evidence of his guilt: he acknowledged possession of a copy of Jones' manuscripts; on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them; and his manuscripts had been falsified by clinical studies paper changing 1675 to explanatory study 1673 (Bogus, 78). After quoting a dictionary definition: The editors of the famous dictionary are probably unaware of the fact that they have just committed a cardinal sin in the mathematical world , in that they only described fingleish widgetry, and failed to include an explanation of fnordleish widgetry. It's okay to question a source, and at higher levels of clinical education it might even be required. But if you're going to explanatory case do it, be careful to do it well and studies paper with evidence. This just sounds presumptuous. The student has not shown whether or not the subject matter coursework, dictionary has separate definitions for research studies widgetry or otherwise accounts for its apparent lack of sufficient definition. Saying the dictionary is famous is an essay writer probably unnecessary, and possibly hyperbole. A cardinal sin is clinical a sin of fundamental importance. In the thesis, Judeo-Christian context, this would mean something very bad, like murder. Research Paper? Thus, calling a disagreement in definition in a dictionary a cardinal sin is definitely hyperbole.

Even if it was a cardinal sin, the paper, sin was committed in the dictionary, not in the mathematical world. The student meant against studies paper the mathematical world. It is surprising how people could be satisfied such a vague definition, as was the case in subject coursework Webster's Dictionary, on a subject that has tested such great minds for centuries upon centuries . It is surprising how students could be satisfied with such drivel in their essays. That sounds nasty, doesn't it? That's because it is. Sentences like this are insulting and research studies off-putting, and don't belong in a formal essay. Such great minds requires an example. The word such should be omitted. Centuries upon centuries is redundant.

Just say centuries and leave it at that. Jones' first object in Paris was to make contact with the an essay writer, French government but, while waiting for such an opportunity, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers there, in research studies particular Davis and Myers, discussing with Davis a variety of topics but particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). An object is higher essay a thing. The student means Jones' first objective. This is clinical paper a bad run-on. It should be broken up like this:

Jones' first objective in Paris was to make contact with the French government, but while waiting for an opportunity to do so, he made contact with mathematicians and critical questions philosophers such as Davis and Myers. He discussed a variety of topics with Davis, particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). Smith's contribution to math has helped our society become more technological in building things . In this particular case, Smith made many contributions, not just one. Math is the colloquial version of research paper mathematics. Did Smith's contributions only help our society? What about other societies? More technological in study building things is a really awkward way of saying improved our technological aptitude. Undoubtedly, Jones was one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived and this paper will demonstrate that, starting from his childhood until his death . Smith may have been a genius, but to clinical research paper blow that up to one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived is hyperbole.

Even if it is true, the thesis, paper didn't demonstrate it because the paper didn't compare Smith to other great geniuses that have lived. The paper showed that Smith was a genius, perhaps, but not his rank amongst all of the clinical research, geniuses that have ever lived. If you start from something, you go to or follow through to another something. The phrase starting from an essay writer, his childhood until his death actually means you're starting from the section of time inclusively between his childhood and death and not saying where you're going. Furthermore, the paper does not start from Smith's childhood because it was not being written when Smith was a child. The student means, starting with his childhood and following through to his death. That is still awkward, and research paper the sentence would be best written: Undoubtedly, Jones was a genius, and anti-development thesis this paper will demonstrate that by examining his entire life. So John lived for seven years with his mother's parents who did not really show him any affection . So in this context is colloquial and clinical research studies paper should be omitted.

This really should be cited. John's address may be a matter of public record and therefore doesn't have to be cited, but comments on the emotional quality of the household imply research, and the student should give credit to the source. Explanatory Case? Really is colloquial, and should be omitted. While at clinical research paper Cambridge, Smith's genius was most productive in his dedication to math . Who is higher critical essay Smith's genius? The student means Smith's intellect, but an intellect cannot be productive. It facilitates productivity, but it is not productive itself. Clinical Studies? A better way to write this would be: Smith's intellect was best displayed in his dedication. Math is colloquial. Comparison? It should be mathematics. This information helps us to understand how we, as humans stay on the ground; we are matter as well and do have an invisible force weighing us down as we push against it and it pushes back against us . This hand full of knowledge has helped our scientist understand our universe of clinical heavenly bodies and their movement.

It has also allowed scientist to study delve further in exploring our galaxy. Does gravity only affect humans? Granted, the student is trying to make the paper, science seem more personal, but this is an awkward way of doing it. It is also something that seems to indicate an essay geared to higher questions 2004 children. While you should usually write essays so they can be understood by studies laypersons, you can assume those laypersons are your age and intellectual peers. The description of the an essay writer, invisible force is very awkward.

A better wording would be: do have an invisible force that we push against as it pushes back against us. Gravity does not, in research fact, weigh people down. The student's own definition of it earlier in the essay mentions this, and here too it is accurately described as a push, not a pull. To add in the bit about it weighing us down is contradictory. Higher 2004? The student means handful. Research Paper? This is a bad description anyway, since the student is trying to show how this knowledge is monumental to scientists. Both instances of scientist should be pluralized. One delves further into something, not in it. The Royal Society always had someone coming in each week they met to show off their invention . Always had someone coming in is colloquial and awkward. It should say: The Royal Society hosted a guest each week. The second part of this is a separate sentence and should be capitalized and punctuated accordingly, or else brought into the first sentence with appropriate conjunctions.

Show off is colloquial. Demonstrate would be better. Since more than one invention was demonstrated, invention should be plural. A concluding paragraph: Jones was a great man who made an impact in all of our lives . An Essay Writer? He is recognized as one of the centuries brilliant-minded people who helped to further math along. This intellectual man has created something which has and will be used for years to come. This is an important part of clinical research paper history which will and should never be forgotten.

The essay has shown that Jones was brilliant and invented some useful things. It has not, however, demonstrated that he was a great man. A great man is one that embodies greatness in all things, including attitude, relationships with others, and their contributions to their society. An Essay Writer? Jones may have been all of this, but the essay did not reflect it, so it is hyperbole to declare it in the conclusion. It is also a highly subjective comment; what makes someone great to paper one person may not for another. Centuries is the plural of century, not the possessive. The student means century's. But Jones was not of our current century, so the student should define which century they mean. Impacts are made on, not in. If by research paper all of us the student means everyone on the planet, this is incorrect. Research Studies? Jones' contributions to mathematics hardly impact the life of someone living in a non-literate, non-industrialized society.

Even if the anti-development thesis, student merely means her peers, it is still hyperbole to declare that everyone has been impacted. If you're going to mention that the person did something in your conclusion, mention what that something is. While it is unlikely that Jones' history will be forgotten, the student cannot effectively predict the future in research studies paper this way. Some of these comments may seem nitpicky, but the fact of the coursework, matter is errors such as these reflect poorly on you and your essay. No one is clinical research paper perfect, and an essay with one or two awkward phrases won't be marked down just for those instances. But an essay that is full of the errors listed above prevents the case study, reader from understanding the research studies, content. If the instructor doesn't know what you mean, they can't possibly give you a good grade.

Last updated in February 2005. Copyright #169 2000-2005 Kimberly Chapman. All rights reserved. This original work is available for anti-development thesis distribution, provided the following: it is only distributed in this complete form, it contains my name and copyright, it is not altered during distribution without my consent, and it is not used to generate income for paper anyone without my consent. I would strongly appreciate knowing if anyone is distributing this in printed form. If you want to receive notification of an essay writer updates on any portion of this site, simply enter your email address here and click/select the clinical studies paper, button to enter.

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Transboundary Water Disputes in Central Asia: Using Indicators of Water Conflict in Identifying Water Conflict Potential. Valery Votrin , Master's thesis. Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy. Master programme in Human Ecology. Academic year 2002-2003. While the literature about the research studies likelihood of an an essay writer acute conflict over clinical, freshwater resources continues to martin research, grow, little work has been done to identify key drivers of such conflict and to establish indicators of water conflict potential. Such indicators need to incorporate a wide range of physical, social, economic and environmental variables to develop a comprehensive model covering basin specific situation. This method can be applicable in those cases of clinical research studies paper, internationally shared rivers where progress towards successful resolution of a dispute was slow or unachievable.

Considering all factors having influence on the river basin regime is becoming crucial to elaborate meaningful and workable framework to provide resolution to the growing water conflict. The Syr Darya and Amu Darya Basins in Central Asia have been long known as #147;hot spots#148; where the potential for escalating existing tensions over water into a violent conflict was high. This study contributes to english essay questions, the identification and development of potential indicators of water conflict in Central Asia, while analysing some of clinical studies, them within the Geographical Information System (GIS). Unlike other studies that involve global level analysis, the thesis focuses on Central Asia#146;s regional and basin specific information. Taking the basin as a unit of research, the proposed study offers a model of relationship between water resources and nclb subject coursework social, political, economic and environmental patterns in the Amu Darya Basin. A parallel analysis of clinical studies paper, water conflict related variables aims at aston paper, finding combinations of indicators that provide an indication of potential water conflict. 1.1 Geographical background. 1.2 Historical background. 1.3 Existing water infrastructure. 1.4 Water scarcity and access.

1.5 Water quality. 2.1 Water management during the research paper Soviet Union. 2.2 Post-independence water management. 2.3 Legal framework for current water management in Central Asia. 2.4 International actors. 2.5 Recent water conflicts. 2.6 Current water disputes. 2.6.1 The Syr Darya Basin.

2.6.2 The Amu Darya Basin. 2.7 Potential water disputes. 2.8 Multidimensional nature of Central Asia#146;s water disputes. 3.1 Measuring water conflict potential. 3.2 Testing indicators of water conflict. 3.4 Attempts at comparison, applying water conflict indicators to Central Asia. 3.5 Water Event Intensity Scale. 3.6 Aggregating data for the Amu Darya Basin. 3.6.4 Minority groups.

3.6.6 Overall relations. 3.6.7 Freshwater treaties. 4.1 Population density/runoff. 4.2 Planned water infrastructure. 4.2.1 The Rogun Dam. 4.2.2 Golden Century Lake.

4.3 Further internationalisation potential. 4.3.1 Possible secession of Karakalpakstan. 4.3.2 Role of Afghanistan. 4.5 Overall relations/Water events. 4.6 Freshwater treaties.

5.1 River boundaries. 5.2 Trade complications. 5.3 Sarez Lake: A natural threat to the basin#146;s stability. 5.4 Impact of international law. 5.6 Summing up results. 5.7 Conclusions and recommendations. List of Figures. I am greatly indebted to Nguyen Hahn Quyen of Institute of studies paper, Geography, Vietnam National Centre for Natural Sciences and Technology, and to Aaron T. Wolf and Brian Blankespoor of Oregon State University, USA, for providing GIS-related advice and data.

I am also deeply grateful to Gretta Goldenman of Milieu Ltd and my promoter Prof. Marc Pallemaerts for their guidance and comments. My thanks are also due to Alexey Tolmachov for technical support. Water. Everywhere you turn here, you're involved with the lack of water. Why is there so little of it. The water was there. It dries up. An Essay Writer! And never again is there water#133; Over the last decades, there has been a growing speculation about the clinical research studies likelihood of an acute conflict or even war over study, freshwater resources. Scholars increasingly point out clinical studies that the 21 st century might see the battles fought due to water scarcity.

Indeed, water is the only resource h. aving no substitute, and the demand for it is constant and burning. All forms of the Earth#146;s life, including humans, need water to survive. The fact that we inhabit the #145;water planet#146; soothes little as only less than 3% of total water resources on the Earth are freshwater. Explanatory Case! Its distribution is obviously uneven, with some nations suffering severe droughts every year and the others blessed with water abundance. It is clinical paper no wonder then that through the whole history of human race, water allocation and quantity fuelled tensions between various states, with particular role played by explanatory transboundary river resources. Clinical Paper! And although history shows that full-scale wars over nclb subject coursework, water, proving to be neither strategically rational nor hydrographically effective, have never been fought (Wolf, 1998), water continues to be a source of intense disputes worldwide. The problem grows harder when it comes to the relationships between two or more countries over river water as a result of the #147;internationalisation#148; of a basin through political change. The number of international basins has grown from clinical paper 214 in 1978 to 263 today. These international basins cover 45.3% of total land surface, affect about 40% of the two sports comparison world#146;s population, and account for about 60% of studies paper, global river flow.

Nineteen basins are shared by an essay writer 5 or more riparian countries, with only the Danube being shared by 17 riparians, whereas five basins #150; the Congo, Niger, Nile, Rhine and research studies Zambezi #150; are shared by between 9 and 11 countries (Wolf, 2001). In this situation, such long-negotiated instrument of international water law as the 1997 UN Convention on the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, is of little help as it provides for equally contradictory #145;equitable use#146; and #145;no significant harm#146; principles: while the former is favoured by upstream countries, downstream riparians insist on emphasising the latter because it protects their own rights. It is also difficult to enforce the Convention in subject the absence of any international enforcing mechanisms. More importantly, the Convention hardly weighs out a variety of political, social, economic, demographic and studies paper environmental factors that encompass each shared river basin. Negotiators whose task is to provide timely diplomatic intervention, or apply means of the so-called #145;preventive diplomacy#146;, in order to avoid the escalation of a dispute into open conflict need to be aware which basin is prone to water conflict well in advance. An Essay Writer! To do that, they need to identify potential indicators of clinical research studies paper, conflict that incorporate a wide range of physical, social, economic and subject environmental variables, including those which can be analysed within a Geographic Information System (GIS), and to develop a comprehensive model to explore specific linkages between them.

In particular, this method can be applicable in those cases of internationally shared rivers where progress towards successful resolution of clinical research paper, a dispute was slow or unachievable. Considering all factors having influence on nclb subject the river basin regime is becoming crucial to elaborate meaningful and workable framework to provide resolution to the growing water conflict. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia has become a tangle of unresolved transboundary water disputes. Water is the most critical resource in research Central Asia and it #147;has more often been the source of competition rather than the focus of conservation#148; (Hogan, 2000b). An Essay Writer! The absence of mechanisms to handle the water problems has already resulted in research paper various accusations of improper water use. Consequently, the whole region becomes the site of potential conflict that requires a framework which should incorporate a great many variables to identify the proneness to water conflict and to allow for the possibility of explanatory case study, preventive diplomacy. Such method which has never been used towards the clinical research specific problem of Central Asian water disputes can provide solutions based on a more holistic approach to natural resources, while recognising the historical, geopolitical and natural characteristics of the region. This study seeks to identify potential indicators of water conflict and analyse some of them within the Geographical Information System (GIS). Unlike other studies that involve global level analysis, the thesis will focus on case Central Asia#146;s regional and basin specific information. An attempt to answer a question of what indicators better point to water conflict will be taken. Chapter 1 focuses on research the background of water use in Central Asia.

Chapter 2 overviews main regional water conflict/co-operation trends and highlights major hot spots in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya Basins. Chapter 3 identifies the subject matter main groups of water conflict indicators and research studies develops the Amu Darya Basin GIS covering some water conflict indicators. Chapter 4 provides specific details of each indicator. Comparison Essay! Finally, Chapter 5 discusses the main findings of the study. The study aims at testing the working hypothesis that proneness of a specific river basin to water conflict can be identified through a variety of clinical research studies, indicators representing physical, political, environmental and socio-economic processes occurring in this specific region, thus providing better chance for using preventive diplomatic actions. The study#146;s methodology is based on the concept of nclb subject matter coursework, international river basins offered by research the Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database (TFDD), Oregon State University (TFDD, 2002).

The database contains a large collection of water treaties and agreements and is a sound foundation for transboundary water conflict research. For the purposes of this study, the Amu Darya Basin is examined. Taking the basin as a unit of research, the an essay writer proposed study offers a model of relationship between water resources and social, political, economic and environmental patterns in Central Asia. There is also chance to explore the use of GIS such as ESRI Arc View for social research. A parallel analysis of water conflict related variables focuses on finding combinations of indicators that provide an indication of potential water conflict. Central Asia lies in the heart of the Eurasian continent and is comprised of the clinical paper five former Soviet republics #150; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and higher critical essay 2004 Uzbekistan, as well as of northern Afghanistan and China#146;s Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. All these share basins of the two major rivers in the region: the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya which form the Aral Sea basin. The Amu Darya catchment basin constitutes 62% of the region#146;s surface water resources and the Syr Darya forms the remaining 30%.

The Basin#146;s population of over 35 million occupies about 1.5 million square kilometres and research population density varies from about 10 persons per subject coursework, square kilometre in the desert plains to over 300 in the valleys and foothills of the mountains (Smith, 1995). With domination of low-lying deserts, the climate in Central Asia is hot and dry, with low and paper irregular precipitation. An Essay Writer! Sharp daily and seasonal differences in clinical paper temperature are typical, with long hot summers and cool moist winters. The annual precipitation in the lowland is only 80-200 mm, concentrated in the winter and spring, while in the mountains it ranges 600-800 mm. The region has very different climatic zones with distinct water demands for irrigation.

Agricultural, industrial and an essay writer personal needs can only be satisfied through diversion of water from the clinical research paper Syr Darya, Amu Darya and Zeravshan rivers and their tributaries. The Amu Darya is Central Asia#146;s largest river and has the highest water bearing capacity of the coursework region draining the catchment of 692,300 km 2 . It originates in the Pamir mountains and studies paper forms the Pyandj river at the Tajik-Afghan border. Near town of Termez in Uzbekistan the Pyandj is joined by the Surkhandarya to two sports essay, form the Amu Darya. The Pyandj is augmented by a number of major tributaries including the Vaksh and Kafirnigan. Clinical Research Studies! From its headwaters, the Amu Darya flows 2540 km west across Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and an essay writer finally crosses the Uzbek region of clinical studies paper, Karakalpakstan to an essay writer, discharge into the Aral Sea. Clinical Paper! Discharge is closely related to the amount of snowfall and summer temperatures, with mean annual flow between 46.9 and subject matter 108.4 km 3 per annum with an average of 78.5 km 3 (O#146;Hara, 2000). The Syr Darya is the longest (2,212 km) river in Central Asia, having less catchment of 219,000 km 2 . It rises in the mountains in Kyrgyzstan and has two major tributaries: the Naryn fed by over 700 glaciers in the Tien Shan, and the Kara Darya sourcing in the Ferghana and Alay mountains. After confluence in clinical research studies eastern Uzbekistan, these form the martin paper Syr Darya which crosses into studies, Tajikistan and then re-enters Uzbekistan and finally flows into Kazakhstan where it discharges into the Aral Sea. Its discharge is anti-development thesis smaller than the one of the research studies Amu Darya, ranging from 21.4 to. 54.1 km 3 per annum, with the average of 37.2 km 3 (Vinogradov, 1996; O#146;Hara, 2000). The Zeravshan, the third largest river in Central Asia, begins in the Pamir mountains in Tajikistan and crosses high mountain valleys before entering the flat plains in Samarkand region of Uzbekistan.

As a result of intensive evaporation and consumption, the river gradually disappears in Kyzylkum desert before reaching the Amu Darya. Nclb Coursework! Mean annual flow of the Zeravshan river is 5.2 km 3 (Smith, 1995). The major states of the 19 th century#146;s Central Asia, the Bukhara Emirate and the Khiva and the Kokand Khanates, were put under the control of the Russian Empire by the end of the century, when the Anglo-Russian Agreement curtailed further Russian expansion in the vicinity of the northern borders of British India. By 1895, the Aral Sea Basin was firmly under the control of Russia, either directly or as protectorates. Thus, the scene for the future colonial relationship was set that persisted under the Soviets and indirectly led to the Aral Sea environmental catastrophe. The 1917 Bolshevik Revolution toppled the Provisional Government (in power between March-November 1917) and proclaimed Russia the research studies Soviet Republic, eventually to be replaced by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The creation of Central Asian states, in their modern borders, was finished by 1924. In fact, the USSR established modern-day Central Asian states set to become independent nations in future (Bedford, 1998).

In 1991, after the Belovezh Agreement was signed by the leaders of the three most powerful Soviet republics #150; Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, the Soviet Union ceased to an essay writer, exist and the Soviet republics became independent. Research Studies Paper! The independence appeared a somewhat of a shock for the five Central Asian states, as there was little domestic pressure for them to leave the Soviet Union and no real history as independent nations. Closely woven together economically, they had no experience of dealing with important economic decisions, which have always been taken in Moscow. Case! Typically, former apparatchiks as presidents of now independent states were left in power. Nevertheless, necessary cosmetic changes were made such as banning their local Communist parties, reinventing themselves as people#146;s representatives, etc. Understandably, a new political structure called the Commonwealth of clinical studies, Independent States, appeared in December 1991 as a result of the Alma-Ata Declaration that brought the USSR to an end and legally established the thesis post-communist states (Gleason, 2001; ICG, 2002b). In their description of Central Asian statehood, Menon and Spruyt (1999) give several important particularities of state formation after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Central Asia to clinical, keep in mind. Aston Paper! The states were formed by Stalin#146;s administrative diktat that assigned largely arbitrary borders to the republics and allotted such territories to clinical research, #147;titular#148; nationalities, which is why state boundaries and ethnic composition in Central Asia lack correspondence; Central Asian states are late developers who have traditionally opted for interventionist economic policies and anti-development thesis authoritarian government; clan, religious, ethnic and regional affinities here have not been displaced by centralising, high-capacity states; and, finally, these states lack any experience with democratic multi-party systems. With irrigation agriculture being the largest water consumer in the region, all Central Asian rivers are utilised and heavily managed. Between 1960s and 1980s, an extended network of dams, reservoirs and canals has been built in the Aral Sea Basin. The largest water storage facilities are the Toktogul Reservoir in Kyrgyzstan controlling the flow of the Naryn river, and the Nurek Dam on the Vaksh river in Tajikistan, dubbed #147;the largest earth-fill dam in the world#148;.

Only the paper Syr Darya basin has 22 operating reservoirs (Toryanikova and Kenshimov, 1999), including the Naryn-Syr Darya cascade of dams which consists of five reservoirs: three upper reservoirs with the over-year regulation - the Toktogul (projected total volume is 19.5 km 3 ), the essay Charvak (2.0 km 3 ), the Andijan (1.9 km 3 ) - and also two channel reservoirs with the clinical studies seasonal regulation - the Kairakkum (4.03 km 3 ) and the Chardara (5.7 km 3 ), with the aggregate active storage capacity of 24.1 km 3 (Khamidov et al, 1999). Both rivers have a total of 274 water diversion structures and 612 km of main canals (Elhance, 1997). Figure 1.2: Layout of water infrastructure in the Aral Sea Basin. Source: Tsusui and Hatcho, 1995. However, due to the lack of maintenance and high silt content in the Amu Darya water (up to 6 kg of silt and sand per 1 cubic metre), many important water facilities like, for example, Hauzkhan, Kurtli and Geok-Tepa reservoirs in comparison essay Turkmenistan, are currently half silted up (Mouradov, 2002). In Soviet times, at least $60 per acre was spent to clinical studies paper, maintain the water systems. Uzbekistan currently spends less than $25 per acre. Tajikistan, recovering after the civil war, spends $4 (Wines, 2002).

As a consequence, of 55 m 3 of water to be used for two sports, irrigation, only 38-44 m 3 of clinical studies paper, water reach the fields and plants actually receive 25-26 m 3 due to the outdated irrigation technology (Yegorov, 2001). Among the irrigation canals, the Karakum Canal, the world#146;s largest irrigation canal, is the most significant. Built between 1950 and 1987 and considered one of the great engineering feats of the Soviet era, it has taken water some 1,370 km across southern Turkmenistan from the Amu Darya to the Caspian Sea. Though currently in crisis due to the very poor maintenance, the Karakum Canal still supports 3.5 million hectares of an essay writer, rangeland and about 1 million hectares of cropland, providing also power generation, water for industrial and domestic use and partly navigation (Hannan and research studies O#146;Hara, 1998). Other canals include: the North and Grand Ferghana Canals transporting water from the Syr Darya to comparison, the Ferghana Valley; the Karshi Canal providing water to 1.2 million hectares in Uzbekistan#146;s Karshi Steppe; the Amu-Bukhara Canal irrigating land in the Bukhara Region in Uzbekistan from the Amu Darya; and the South Hungry Steppe and Kirov Canals irrigating the paper Golodnaya (Hungry) Steppe from the questions Syr Darya (Nanni, 1996). Soviet-built irrigation schemes brought about widespread and rapid land degradation which only in Turkmenistan resulted in land being abandoned at a rate of over 46,000 hectares per annum in the 1970s (O#146;Hara and Hannan, 1999). Nevertheless, some of the projects are still under construction, for example, the huge Rogun Dam upstream of the Nurek. Given the current location of reservoirs, about clinical research paper, 60% of total storage capacity of the Amu Darya and 9% of essay questions 2004, total storage capacity of the Syr Darya are controlled by clinical paper Tajikistan, whereas Kyrgyzstan controls 58% of total storage capacity of the Syr Darya largely because of the case Toktogul.

Downstream Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have very few water storage facilities and clinical studies paper are entirely dependent for water on the upstream countries. The distribution of aston martin paper, water in Central Asia is research paper notably uneven. While upstream Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan enjoy water abundance, downstream nations of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and partly Kazakhstan experience sharp water shortages. But the problem is predominantly consumption. At the heart of economic systems of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan is higher english critical questions cotton, which is the major hard currency earner for those countries. Cotton is a thirsty culture requiring intensive irrigation. With plans to triple cotton and rice production and almost complete dependence on clinical paper upstream water resources, water overuse is common in downstream riparians and comparison virtually no effort has been made to reduce water use. Clinical Research Studies Paper! In addition, people in Central Asia consume 110 to 120 billion m 3 of water per annum for domestic needs, which is several times higher than in the Middle East. Nclb Subject Coursework! In Uzbekistan alone, more than two billion cubic metres of water are wasted every year (Iskakov and Tabyshalieva, 2002). Water is cheap; in some regions its price is about 65 cents per #147;Olympic swimming pool#148; (Wines, 2002).

The consequence is some drought-prone areas grow rice and research studies paper keep square miles of anti-development thesis, nothing but flooded paddies. Central Asia has become notorious worldwide as a site of the research studies most dramatic environmental disaster, the Aral Sea Crisis. Two Sports Essay! Once the fourth largest lake in the world, the Aral Sea has shrunk by clinical research paper more than half over english critical essay 2004, the last forty years. The major reason for that was increased discharge of studies, inflowing water for irrigation. Grand Soviet schemes for the production of cotton, rice and other irrigated cultures required huge amounts of water.

However, large irrigation canals designed to provide massive agricultural expansion were on arid lands badly suited to irrigation where the nclb matter coursework soil is often much permeable and research seepage is great. In addition, in these areas the rivers are raised, and once the water has been taken from the thesis river channel it cannot return readily. The result of this overexploitation of water resources was that by 1995-1996 total annual inflow to the Aral Sea has dropped to 7 km 3 , the surface area of the sea was reduced to 33,000 km 3 , and the level had fallen by 37 m. The sea became saline and devoid of fish (Tanton and clinical research Heaven, 1999). Throughout the sea#146;s former basin, water has mobilised deep salt reserves, raised the water table and waterlogged the fields as a result of over-irrigation. Aston! In Turkmenistan, 95% of irrigated lands suffer from salinisation, 50% - in Uzbekistan, about clinical studies, 30% - in Kazakhstan, 15% - in case Tajikistan. Due to clinical research studies paper, the mismanagement, several new lakes have appeared in an essay writer the last decades, like the Aidar-Arnasai lake located in clinical research studies paper the middle course of the Syr Darya and formed in 1969 as a result of the effluent drain from Toktogul and Chardara reservoirs (Sievers, 2002; CAREC, 2002). Intensive irrigation development in higher english critical questions 2004 the deltaic areas was also accompanied by increased anthropogenic pressure in form of shrub felling, technogenic erosion and clinical studies paper deflation. The period between 1978 and 1982 was marked by intensified process of desertification, as a result of the combination of two sports essay, excessive water withdrawals with a series of dry years (1974-1977). When hydromorphic swamps dried out, reeds were replaced by associations of mixed grasses and studies paper saltwort. Between 1982 and case study 1996, there was a further dramatic reduction in river discharge, with a total stoppage of inflow in case of the Syr Darya. In the driest years, the Amu Darya flow was almost nil.

As a result, salt and studies dust storms became a major new environmental hazard for the area (Saiko and aston Zonn, 2000). Despite that, water consumption goes at the same pace as before. The most populated nation in the region (25 million in 2002), Uzbekistan alone uses three-fifths of regional water supplies. In fact, industrial consumption of water in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan is studies paper twice than in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan (Smith, 1995). Wasteful use of water on Uzbekistan#146;s very large irrigated area has contributed to a dramatic decline of the combined flow of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya and acted as a major factor in the Aral Sea Crisis.

Uzbekistan showed itself to comparison, be a staunch proponent for this wasteful use of water arguing that it is vital for increasing cotton harvests. But excessive water stimulates vegetative growth that does not necessarily increase crop yields and may actually reduce them (Lerman, Garcia-Garcia and Wichelns, 1996). Consequently, agriculture has never been a component of a negotiating set for downstream countries as any sweeping agricultural reform would have resulted in foreign currency losses and Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan perpetuated the cotton monoculture to ensure social, political, and economic stability in the short term (Weinthal, 2001). At the same time, Kyrgyzstan started implementing rational water use measures by reducing areas of thirsty cultures. Clinical! As a result, in critical questions 2004 2000, out of paper, projected 7,641,600 m 3 of water to paper, be diverted from rivers, 6,866,200 m 3 , or 89.8%, was actually diverted, and 4,88,660 m 3 , or 86.5%, of projected 5,648,800 m 3 was used for clinical research paper, irrigation (Apasov, 2001). Consequently, water overexploitation is the major reason for downstream riparians#146; water scarcity. Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan use their water inefficiently and hence they experience water scarcity in a time of aston martin research paper, water abundance (Wegerich, 2001). The quality of water in the major Central Asian rivers has declined dramatically over clinical research studies paper, the history of explanatory, large-scale irrigation.

Huge amounts of salt, fertiliser, herbicides, and paper pesticides found their way to the rivers as the return flow from the fields. Of 36-40 km 3 of total annual return flow, about 50%, or 18-20 km 3 , bring to rivers about 115 million tons of salt and other harmful components, dramatically deteriorating water quality. In the Amu Darya Basin alone, a total of 84 million tons of salt is discharged into the river, transported with the water which is used to irrigate the fields (Kobori and Glantz, 1998; Spoor, 1998; Dukhovny and Stulina, 2001). The groundwater table has risen and became as well contaminated with high levels of salts and critical essay questions 2004 other minerals. Groundwater quality ranges from a maximum of studies, 0.5 g/L of total dissolved salts to 6 g/L, 20 times than in North America (about 300 mg/L). Total dissolved salts in drinking water reach the level of 3.5 g/L, with the salt limit set by anti-development thesis the Uzbek government to be 1 g/L.

In terms of chemical contamination, about of 65% of drinking water samples taken in Karakalpakstan proved not to correspond to standards (Small, van der Meer and studies paper Upshur, 2001). In the Syr Darya basin, the chemical most commonly found both in nclb subject matter river water and in the fields is butifos which has been widely used in clinical research studies the 60s-80s as defoliant with intensity of 1-1.5 kg per an essay writer, hectare. This organo-phosphorous agent with an acute oral toxicity affects central nervous system, liver and kidneys. Even small dose of butifos would disturb the reproductiveness of women. Since 1986, the production and use of butifos has stopped; however, it is studies paper still found in the water and at the bottom of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, as organo-chlorine pesticides (BHC, DDT) are (Ishida et al, 1995). High levels of pesticides are found in aston paper the tissues of fish in research studies the Amu Darya and Syr Darya.

Samples of cane, rice, millet and wheat grown around the Syr Darya have been found to contain dangerous levels of benzopyrene, a carcinogen produced by car exhausts, oil and coal furnaces and manufacture of asphalt (Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). Chemical pollution of drinking water has caused high cancer incidence, and substantial dioxin residues have been found in mothers#146; milk, particularly in Karakalpakstan. In the midstream and downstream areas of the Amu Darya and martin Syr Darya, the incidence of waterborne diseases such as typhus, paratyphoid, cholera and viral hepatitis has increased enormously. Studies Paper! According to Uzbekistan#146;s Academy of Sciences, only 8 percent of explanatory case, Uzbekistan#146;s rivers are #147;clean#148;, around 15 percent of river water is of #147;satisfactory#148; quality, and 41 percent is #147;bad#148;. In 1996, over 10 million people (50 percent of the research studies population) resided in the river basins that fell into the latter category. Anti-development Thesis! Around 36 percent of clinical paper, river water is considered #147;dangerous#148; or #147;extremely dangerous#148;, particularly in Karakalpakstan and in the lower delta of the explanatory case study Zeravshan river, where 24 percent of the Uzbek population lives. In many cases, rural dwellers are forced to clinical research, drink irrigation water, as the only water available, with all health risks involved (Spoor, 1998). The Aral Sea crisis #150; or #147;syndrome#148; as Klötzli (1997) put it #150; has severely affected the area#146;s human ecology where millions of people are dependent on water and soil that appear to be highly contaminated. Anti-development! A new model of regional co-operation other than that used in the Soviet times was needed to address specific environmental, socio-economic and political problems of the region. Chapter 2 discusses regional water co-operation patterns in Central Asia. 2 Regional Water Co-operation and Conflict in Central Asia.

2.1 Water management during the Soviet Union. Within the Soviet Union, inter-republican water resources were managed on the basis of water use plans. These plans were developed by local Ministries of Land Reclamation and research paper Water Management and then sent to aston research paper, Moscow to the Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water Management of the Soviet Union for approval. These plans and schemes provided for clinical research studies, annual water withdrawal limits with respect to each tributary, reservoir or canal and the limits were calculated against annual crop requirements. A number of bilateral agreements was signed between the republics to correct water allocation, such as the an agreement between the Turkmen SSR and comparison essay the Uzbek SSR on water quotas from the studies paper Amu Darya, between the Kyrgyz SSR and the Uzbek SSR on higher english essay the use of waters of the clinical paper Sokh river, etc. Neither of these agreements contained any provisions with respect to the quality of return flows, i.e. the drainage water disposed of into two sports essay, the rivers. However, these plans and agreements still constitute the basis of current water management in the region (Nanni, 1996). Under the Soviet system of water allocation, water quotas imposed by Moscow favoured downstream countries at the expense of the upstream riparians: water-abundant Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan were supposed to supply irrigated agriculture economies of Uzbekistan and studies paper Turkmenistan with water in spring and summer when water should be available for cotton fields.

In autumn and winter, when Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan experienced peaks in electricity demand, they were supplied with Turkmen and nclb subject matter coursework Uzbek gas and Kazakh coal to satisfy energy consumption. They also received electricity from downstream countries during winter to be compensated for the hydropower produced in summer. Maintenance and operating costs of dams and reservoirs were covered by clinical research paper Moscow. 2.2 Post-independence water management. After independence, the need for all riparians to an essay writer, enter into an agreement regulating water allocation in the Basin has become apparent. Such agreement signed on 18 February 1992 in Almaty did not go far from water quotas set up under the paper Soviet Union. As under earlier water allocation schemes, downstream nations received the english essay 2004 largest quotas and the upstream countries were given much smaller quotas, considering their smaller populations and low cotton production.

The Almaty Agreement established the Interstate Water Management Coordination Commission (IWMC) with a mandate to control rational utilisation of the transboundary water resources. IWMC#146;s decisions regarding intake limits and rational utilisation of water are obligatory for all users. It is research studies responsible for governing the two inter-republican Basin Water Management Bodies (Basseinoe vodnoe ob#146;edinenie #150; BVO): BVO Amu Darya and aston martin research paper BVO Syr Darya. Hence, the clinical research five preferred to continue with the BVO management system put in place during the Soviets (IGC, 2002b). Initially, IWMC was responsible for great many issues including water development and allocation planning, water quality control and conservation, environmental protection, preparing annual water allocation plans, defining limits of water use by each riparian, etc. With the establishment of other intergovernmental institutions between 1993 and 1995 such as the Interstate Council on the Aral Sea Basin and the International Fund for the Aral Sea, functions of the IWMC became somewhat duplicated and its relationship with other intergovernmental bodies remain unclear (Vinogradov and Langford, 2001; ICG, 2002b). The Almaty Agreement attempted to secure the existing situation where water was apportioned to allow maximum utilisation whereas the international concept of equitable and optimum utilisation was kept aloof. The Agreement also lacked the provision about dispute settlement. Anti-development Thesis! According to it, water disputes are to be settled by the Ministers of Water Resources of the five states. However, it does not provide for studies paper, the situations in which the Ministers are unable to higher critical 2004, resolve the disputes. In absence of studies, any inter-republican dispute settlement body, this seems to be serious flaw (Nanni, 1996; Vinogradov and Landgford, 2001).

Furthermore, the problem is also actual functioning of the an essay writer water management bodies, BVOs, who lack funding and legal powers. According to the Almaty Agreement, they have to submit a budget to the ICWC for approval. Once a budget has been approved, the research studies five members states are supposed to contribute a proportion of 2004, their budget based on research the percentage of river water allocated. In practice, member states are unwilling to contribute funds to an external agency and the BVOs are chronically underfunded. They also lack legal standing as most water management seems to two sports essay, be handled by national water management bodies, not BVOs (Bedford, 1998).

Sur Darya allocation, % Amu Darya allocation, % Source: Bedford, 1998. Hence, upstream countries were further restricted in their economic development and ability to satisfy heating needs during winter months as downstream countries introduced world prices for gas and coal. Unable to clinical paper, afford them, Kyrgyzstan increased electricity production at Toktogul reservoir that caused sharp reduction in water to downstream Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan for explanatory study, irrigation during cotton season. After serious tensions in 1997, the countries have come to enter a framework barter agreement in 1998. Under this, Uzbekistan and paper Kazakhstan would provide Kyrgyzstan with gas and coal during winter in return for irrigation water during spring and summer. However, barter agreements are in constant breach due to a number of explanatory study, reasons: they are ready usually in spring when Uzbek and clinical studies paper Kazakh fields are in dire need of water; the parties lack trust and an essay writer do not keep their commitments; and there is clinical research lack of an essay writer, control mechanisms. Also, several years of severe drought have affected the situation dramatically, causing Kyrgyzstan to reduce water for irrigation in summer and triggering floods in Uzbekistan during winter. Attempts to adjust quotas to reflect this have so far failed. Downstream countries have shown little understanding of upstream riparians#146; demands to expand their water use (ICG, 2002b). 2.3 Legal framework for current water management in Central Asia.

Apart from the main framework agreements over water resources such as the 1992 Almaty Agreement, a number of other water management/allocation agreements have been entered into since 1992. Research Studies! Below is the list of some of them: Agreement between the governments of Russia and Kazakhstan on the joint use and protection of an essay writer, transboundary water resources, Orenburg, 1992 Agreement on the creation of the International Fund for the Aral Sea, 1993 Programme on research the joint actions on the improvement of environmental situation in the Aral Sea Basin, 1994 Declaration on the problems of sustainable development in anti-development thesis the Aral Sea Basin, Nukus, 1995 Statement of leaders of paper, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan about the energy/water use, Bishkek, 1996 Declaration on the creation of the Interstate Commission on Sustainable Development and the need of preparation of a Convention on Sustainable Development, Almaty, 1997 Framework Agreement between the governments of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan on joint use of the case Syr Darya River Basin water/energy resources, Bishkek, 1998 Agreement between Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan on co-operation in clinical paper the field of environmental protection and Agreement on biodiversity conservation, Bishkek, 1998 Agreement between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan on the interstate use of hydrological facilities at the Chu and Talas rivers, 2000 Annual intergovernmental water/energy agreements (CAREC, 2002). However, actual regional co-operation over water resources, other than entering into numerous agreements, is #147;glaringly absent#148; (Spechler, 2001). Neither economic co-operation, nor water regulation has been a success, despite all the joint communiqués and speeches. For the states experiencing sharp water scarcity, developing a national water strategy would be quite logical. Yet none of Central Asian states has developed one, though Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan have started working on it. Implementing existing agreements appears to be another problem.

Far more accords are signed than implemented and study national interests always outweigh joint action. None of water treaties specifies a goal of reducing water use or making agriculture less water-intensive. Clinical Studies! The sceptical attitude of matter, downstream countries to multilateral co-operation deters them from any environmental and financial commitments (Klötzli, 1997). Modern transboundary watercourse law largely based on the 1997 UN Convention on the Law of studies, Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses urges riparians not only to create legal agreements to manage their shared resources, but also to find #147;joint management mechanism#148; and to cede sufficient sovereignty to them to make them effective. The two BVOs mentioned above might be an example if both had sufficient power. And none of Central Asian states have become a party to two sports, the 1997 Convention, although Kazakhstan did accede to the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. From the first days of clinical research paper, independence, bilateral donors, international agencies and private foundations have funded dozens of projects in order to resolve difficult water situation in Central Asia. In doing so, technical solutions were preferred to political and economic ones. Especially active were the World Bank, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the an essay writer EU Programme of Technical Assistance to the CIS (TACIS), and the United States Agency of International Development (USAID) who spent millions of dollars to help resolve the Aral Sea crisis.

Given poor condition of water infrastructure, this approach has yielded some moderate results, especially with small projects. Effort to tackle water from political perspective, however, has resulted in problems. A lack of clinical studies, willingness of martin research paper, Central Asian states to co-operate has buried great many initiatives, like, for example, an attempt by the Organisation of paper, Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) to persuade the five to discuss the region#146;s water problems at subject matter, a water conference to be held in London. This effort came to nothing with Turkmenistan#146;s president#146;s response that international conference in London was not the right place to discuss Central Asia#146;s water. In his turn, Uzbekistan#146;s president said that his country had a thousands years of research, experience in managing water problems and he preferred bilateral discussions to a multilateral conference (Eggleston, 2000; ICG, 2002b). In trying to find a solution to the desiccation of the Aral Sea, AralGEF, a project funded by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and english critical 2004 designed to create small but viable wetlands and fisheries on the place of the Aral Sea through restoration of a modest flow to the old seabed, and the UNDP Aral Seashore Rehabilitation and Capacity Development Project are so far most prominent. According to the World Bank, in order to successfully restore #147;modest flow#148; to the Amu Darya, agricultural runoff should be entirely restored. Thus, huge lakes that developed over clinical research, the decades of water negligence from the excess water of the subject coursework Toktogul reservoir and that now support local agriculture, fisheries, recreation areas and biodiversity habitats would thus be bound to clinical, disappear. And the aston martin main success of UNDP#146;s project on rehabilitation of the Aral Seashore consisted in providing 16,000 residents of clinical studies, Karakalpakstan with safe drinking water and planting thousands of trees that withered immediately because they were unsuited for local climate. Part of the problem is the failure of Central Asian states to martin research paper, support the donor projects in a meaningful way, either administratively or financially. Neither donors seem to studies, need anything more than paper reports.

Even National Environmental Action Plans funded by the World Bank, UNDP and TACIS are based on the ineradicable idea, the only one familiar to the region#146;s old guard of water bureaucrats, that plan, not action, is needed to save the situation. This approach endorsed by donor staffs inherently contradicts the overarching goal to help Central Asian states to move away from a planned economy and to embrace the an essay writer market economy and decentralisation (Sievers, 2002; ICG, 2002b). Not surprisingly, this situation has already led to numerous small-scale local conflicts, began in the late 1980s when the central authorities weakened their grip on Central Asia. In 1990, the outbreak of clinical paper, conflict in the Kyrgyz town of Osh, on the border with Uzbekistan, claimed over 300 lives and was provoked by fierce competition for water together with high population density, limited arable land and ethnic dimension (large population of Uzbeks living in the area). Since summer 1993, there have been serious water tensions between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Kyrgyzstan was blamed by the Uzbek authorities for releasing too much water from the Toktogul reservoir. Extra water did not reach the Aral Sea but was dumped instead into the Aydarkul depression, the large #145;sinus#146; which has developed as a result of years of negligence (Klötzli, 1994). In 1997, Uzbekistan has deployed 130,000 troops on the Kyrgyz border to guard the reservoirs straddling the two countries (Hogan, 2000b; Grozin, 2001). Nclb Matter Coursework! In June 2001, the Kyrgyz parliament adopted a law classifying water as a commodity, and the government followed up by research studies paper announcing that the downstream countries would be charged for the water they use.

Uzbekistan#146;s response was to cut off all deliveries of gas to Kyrgyzstan and accuse Kyrgyzstan of failing to honour the barter agreement to provide Uzbekistan with water in return for oil and gas. Although weaker in political and military terms Kyrgyzstan acknowledged this failure, Uzbekistan would be emboldened to behave in a more aggressive manner towards its neighbours. The two were on the verge of violent conflict for several times (Khamidov, 2001). Central Asia#146;s two major rivers, as well as their tributaries, have become a focus for growing competition among their riparians, with the Syr Darya being a particular point of aston martin research paper, tensions. The Amu Darya is clinical studies paper rapidly becoming a locus of disputes as the governments of an essay writer, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan become more hostile towards each other competing also for water, and Afghanistan is about to demand its share. These tensions have so far been contained without conflict, but all parties have shown a willingness to put their interests first at any cost, including military intervention. Due to their reliance on research studies paper agriculture, Uzbekistan and higher critical essay 2004 Turkmenistan view irrigation as a key security issue (ICG, 2002b). The Syr Darya is shared by four states and, in clinical research case of Uzbekistan, is shared twice as after flowing from Kyrgyzstan and crossing the Uzbek part of the Ferghana valley the anti-development thesis river flows into the Tajik territory in research the western Ferghana Valley and then pours again into matter, Uzbekistan. After crossing the paper Hunger Steppe, the Syr Darya runs into paper, Kazakhstan. As indicated above, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have had particularly discordant history over the use of water from the Syr Darya. Since independence, Kyrgyzstan faces serious economic problems, mainly because of a shortage of energy supply from Russia, Kazakhstan and clinical studies paper Uzbekistan.

The primacy of energy production over higher english essay 2004, the irrigation needs downstream has already created a major discord between Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan (Klötzli, 1994). The 1998 Syr-Darya Framework Agreement between the two has been broken by clinical research studies both sides. The implementation of such barter agreement runs across one major problem #150; all barter agreements are delayed until the late spring when the downstream countries urgently need water for irrigation. As this might be the case, Kyrgyzstan would have had an aston martin research incentive to produce less electricity. Paper! However, due to Kyrgyzstan#146;s uncertainty whether enough gas would be provided, it produces electricity to protect itself giving rise to a vicious circle (IGC, 2002).

Uzbekistan intensified the tension more than once by english essay 2004 acting in paper a unilateral manner. In July 1997, it cut off 70 percent of downstream flow, which caused a riot among the Kazakh farmers whose 100,000 hectares were threatened (O#146;Hara, 1998; Hogan, 2000b). History of nclb subject matter, altering water flow by paper upstream riparians is no more soothing. In summer 1999, Tajikistan released 700 million cubic meters of water from its Kairakum reservoir without warning its downstream neighbours. As a result, cotton crops in southern Kazakhstan which has received less water than was agreed, were devastated. The situation was seriously aggravated by Kyrgyzstan#146;s concurrent move to reduce the flow to southern Kazakhstan in retaliation for Kazakhstan#146;s failure to supply coal under the barter agreements. After months of talks, the incident was finally settled (Hogan, 2000a).

At issue is anti-development thesis also the Naryn-Syr Darya cascade of dams in Kyrgyzstan. Every year Uzbekistan insists on releasing water from clinical research paper it to improve downstream agriculture. Several times, the an essay writer conflict was on the verge of war. In 1997, Uzbekistan deployed 130,000 troops on research paper the Kyrgyz-Uzbek border, near the Toktogul reservoir, to conduct military exercises aimed at seizure of a #145;well guarded object#146;, using the armour and helicopters. Meanwhile, Kyrgyzstan, through media leak, hinted that in case the reservoir would be blown up, the resulting flood would sweep away Uzbekistan#146;s Ferghana and Zeravshan Valleys (Grozin, 2001). Kyrgyzstan has tried to persuade Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to share the maintenance and operating costs of the thesis Toktogul reservoir but these attempts were turned down by the downstream countries.

Kazakhstan claimed that it would not be able to clinical research paper, pay the costs #150; between US$ 15 and 27 million per matter, annum. Thus, the studies paper opportunity for the downstream riparians to settle the an essay writer dispute was missed. However, by adopting Law on the Interstate Use of research paper, Water Objects, Water Resources and Water Management Installations on 29 June 2001, the Kyrgyz parliament left the door open to push the downstream countries into an essay writer, negotiations regarding the maintenance costs of the Toktogul reservoir as later Kyrgyzstan stated that in fact it demanded to pay only for the water passing through Kyrgyz reservoirs, i.e. share maintenance costs. This was welcomed by Kazakhstan who agreed to pay for the maintenance of the Kyrgyz water installations, but initially opposed by Uzbeks. However, in March 2002 Uzbekistan reached the agreement with Kyrgyzstan that it would share some costs in return for the guarantee that it would receive water for irrigation. Had more attention have been paid to clinical paper, the barter agreements working properly, the main step to resolving the Syr Darya dispute between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan would be taken (ICG, 2002b). Shared water storage facilities, like the Andijan reservoir located in the Uzbek part of the Ferghana Valley but supposed to thesis, re-channel some water back to Kyrgyzstan, also represent an inter-state problem (Chait, 1998). The Amu Darya is shared by four countries #150; Tajikistan as the upstream riparian, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan #150; and forms the border in some stretches between Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, and between Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Amu Darya is much less regulated and has fewer dams and clinical studies paper reservoirs to cause potential problems. Aston Research Paper! However, there are serious tensions along the flow of the river not only between the upstream and downstream riparians, as, for example, between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, but also between the middle and lower riparians, for example, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. According to the 1992 water quota agreement, Tajikistan is entitled to 9 m 3 of about 75 m 3 of annual flow of the Amu Darya, or 12 percent.

This is considered low by Tajikistan who needs to expand its agricultural output to supply the growing population with food. Tajikistan#146;s agriculture is underdeveloped since the Soviet times, and the irrigation system is derelict and in paper need of nclb subject, urgent repairs. Tajikistan sees the only way out as using more water either by increasing its water quota from the Amu Darya or by diverting the Zeravhsan river. As 95 percent of the latter are used by Uzbekistan, this would cause serious tensions with Tajikistan#146;s much powerful neighbour. In contrast, increasing the Amu Darya quota seems to paper, be quite easy, since Tajikistan has an upper hand in distributing water resources of the Amu Darya. In principle, nobody could prevent Tajikistan from higher essay 2004 taking more water than was allocated by the water quota agreement. It is very hard to monitor Tajikistan#146;s performance, as most equipment needed has been destroyed during the studies civil war in two sports 1992-1997.

But even Tajikistan were to increase its water quota moderately, this would have an immediate impact downstream. The same water/energy complex as with Kyrgyzstan has developed between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Tajikistan#146;s central and clinical research studies southern parts are well provided by electricity from the Nurek hydro plant, and northern Tajikistan having no grid lines with the rest of the country relies on Uzbekistan#146;s intermittent supplies of explanatory study, electricity and gas in winter. In return, Tajikistan provides power to research studies paper, southern Uzbek provinces and often requests that Uzbekistan switched off electricity to northern Tajikistan to keep imports within the agreed limit not to pay higher price. This causes serious discontent as Tajikistan is forced to higher english critical essay, have electricity rationed in many provinces due to poor state of Tajikistan#146;s grid lines.

The country desires to develop its hydropower resources to break dependence on Uzbekistan. But increasing hydro consumption would seriously affect the downstream access to seasonal water supplies and to create further discord along the Amu Darya course. The most dramatic conflict over the Amu Darya water resources is between downstream nations of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Both equally depend on their cotton production and irrigation agriculture and both claim that each of them exceed their water quotas. Due to the very poor state of Turkmenistan#146;s water infrastructure, most water received by Turkmenistan is wasted.

The country does not want to spend huge funds for the expensive rehabilitation of research paper, crippling Turkmen canals and higher english critical essay questions 2004 draws off more water from the Amu Darya instead. The relations between two countries dramatically worsened in the late 2002 when the Uzbek ambassador has been declared persona non grata in Turkmenistan on accusation of participating in the conspiracy to oust and kill President Niyazov. Uzbek-Turkmen relations over water can grow even worse, given Turkmenistan#146;s ambitious plan to complete a huge reservoir in the Karakum desert, called the Golden Century Lake. Clinical Research Studies! Another point of contention is the Tyuyamuyun reservoir in the delta of the Amu Darya divided between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Both sides feel displeased with the wasteful use of water, and this led to an outbreak of violence in 1992 over the re-direction of drainage waters and raids by higher critical questions 2004 both sides to cut off pipes and irrigation canals (Smith, 1995). Today, the Tyuyamuyun remains one of the several disputed areas in research studies continuing water dispute with Uzbekistan. Throughout the independence period, rumours have circulated of anti-development thesis, a small-scale secret war between the two states over the river resources, Uzbekistan troops taking control of water installations on the Turkmen bank of the Amu Darya, and even of a massacre of a large number of studies, Uzbekistan troops in Turkmenistan in 2001. While these reports seem to be unsubstantiated, they are very indicative of simmering tensions between the anti-development thesis two (Sievers, 2002).

The complicated water situation in Central Asia forced the studies governments of the five states to consider alternative plans for developing water infrastructure to explanatory case, gain better control over water resources. Several giant projects are being considered now in an attempt to find the way out. With little exception, all of them date back to the Soviet planning system, and several projects have been frozen in studies the 1970s-1980s due to the lack of funds. An Essay Writer! Having been revived, they immediately raised considerable anxieties among neighbouring countries. Among those projects are: the Rogun reservoir able to give Tajikistan full control over the Amu Darya, Golden Century Lake in the middle of research studies, Turkmenistan#146;s Karakum desert, the project of diverting Siberian rivers of Ob and Irtysh to help replenish the Aral Sea, etc. The former two are discussed in Chapter 4. The idea to divert Siberian water to Central Asia was abandoned in the late 1980s when it has become clear that the project would cause irretrievable damage to the environment. In recent years, however, the project has been revived by Uzbekistan. The main argument of the project#146;s proponents, among whom is the mayor of Moscow Yury Luzhkov, is that the Siberian rivers frequently flood and hence have excess of water to share with water-deficient Central Asian countries. Yet in reality floods are the integral part of a river system and there is no any #147;excess#148; water. In projecting a huge canal 2,500 kilometres long, 200 metres wide and an essay writer 15 metres deep from Western Siberia to clinical studies paper, Central Asia, it was estimated that 23 cubic kilometres of water would be diverted, of which 2 cubic kilometres would be lost due to the filtration.

Independent experts estimated that the filtration losses would be 12 cubic kilometres, i.e. Aston Martin Research! half of the water to be diverted, which is normal, given that such a cyclopean structure would reach enormous levels of filtration, water-logging and salinisation. One expert put the clinical studies paper idea of a miscalculating the project like this, #147;In the Soviet times, we would have been given the task of coursework, calculating a project cost of a bridge to clinical paper, the Moon, and we would have calculated that. But nobody would care about the consequences#148; (Radio Liberty, 2002). Huge, economically not viable and environmentally dubious Siberian water diversion project has already contributed to the difficult water situation in Central Asia. It is doubtful, however, that member countries of the two sports comparison Arctic Council, which Russia is a member of, would consent to threatening common water resources in the Arctic. 2.8 Multidimensional nature of Central Asia#146;s water disputes. Water disputes contribute to the broader complex of paper, problems across the region, including border disputes, Islamic extremism, high population growth, ethnic tensions, clan competition, human rights and case political instability. The desiccation of the Aral Sea has been the important factor to the worsening socio-economic conditions in the area, fuelling nationalist ideas among the population of Karakalpakstan, the Uzbek autonomous republic adjacent to the disaster zone, and aggravating water situation in the region. Clinical Research! Lack of public participation, particularly in comparison authoritarian Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, and attempts of clinical studies paper, those governments to anti-development, find military decisions in already difficult relationships between those countries and upstream states makes the whole situation white-hot.

Ethnic dimension is extremely important for ethnically diverse Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Clinical Research Paper! As it happens, local conflicts here have been more serious than wider ones. Explanatory Case! Disputes over land and water resources provoking wider ethnic conflict have led to clinical research paper, hundreds of victims in Kyrgyzstan in aston martin research paper 1990. Poverty, rising costs and crumbling water infrastructure are adding to research studies, strains in local water system. Water affects the poor who end up paying the large proportion of their income for the resource. Especially vulnerable to violent eruptions over case study, water and ethnicity is the clinical Ferghana Valley shared by Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and an essay writer Uzbekistan which has already seen the outbreaks of violence, like it was in 1990, when bloody clashes between inhabitants of the Kyrgyz town of research studies, Osh claimed over 300 lives, or earlier, in 1989, when hundreds of the Meskhetian Turks, who had been deported to Central Asia by english essay 2004 Stalin in the 1940s, were killed in studies the Uzbek town of two sports comparison essay, Ferghana in what was called one of the clinical research studies paper most dramatic episodes of inter-ethnic relations in the Soviet Union. The roots of any future ethnic strife in two sports Central Asia lie in the unresolved social and economic problems, competition for scarce water and grazing resources and contentions over discriminatory land allocations (Elhance, 1997). Potentially explosive ethnic cleavages tear apart many countries in research paper the region. Subject! Kyrgyzstan is divided between northern and southern part, with the latter gravitating towards Uzbekistan and inhabited by large proportion of ethnic Uzbeks who have repeatedly demanded to clinical research paper, give the area more autonomy. Uzbekistan#146;s headache is the large Tajik population living in Samarkand and Bukhara.

Over the last years, Uzbekistan#146;s policy was to suppress Tajik ethnic identity by not allowing schools to two sports essay, learn in Tajik language and forcing many Tajiks to call themselves ethnic Uzbeks in research studies paper their Uzbek passports. The same situation is in Tajikistan where a lot of ethnic Uzbeks live. In the late 1990s, after the relations between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan have worsened, the Tajik government expelled many Uzbeks to neighbouring Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan in an essay writer an attempt to get rid of #147;extremist elements#148;. Ethnic minorities have often been viewed by studies authoritarian governments as potential provocateurs, separatists and extremists (ICG, 2002a). Historic competition between peoples of anti-development, Central Asia is fuelled by the fact that their leaders do not seem to like one another. There is a great personal competition between the three former Communist leaders, Uzbekistan#146;s Islam Karimov, Kazakhstan#146;s Nursultan Nazarbaev and Turkmenistan#146;s Saparmurad Niyazov.

Each wants to show that his country is the region#146;s most powerful and he therefore should be viewed as the most prominent political figure in Central Asia. As a consequence, the leaders of the region does not see their countries to be the paper part of an essay writer, a functioning regional subsystem and are rather isolationist in their policies. Clinical Research Paper! For all this, they regularly meet to discuss their common problems (Olcott, 2001). Territorial claims and anti-development border disputes complicate the situation even further. Given complex ethnic mosaic in Central Asia, Soviet planners did not build administrative units along ethnic lines and research took great care not to construct republics with strong ethnic identity which would allow them to eventually secede from the Soviet Union. As a result, thorny disputes as to whose territory was initially whose have occurred, burdened by the territorial exchanges. For example, Karakalpakstan began life in 1924 as part of Kazakhstan but in 1938 had been given away to Uzbekistan. Moreover, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan all have small enclaves on an essay writer each other#146;s territory which are nominally a part of their country but are geographically isolated. Paper! Only Kyrgyzstan has two Tajik enclaves, with population of some 30,000 people, and five Uzbek ones, with population of about 50,000 people. Issues related to aston martin paper, them are highly divisive, and solving this problem appeared to be very difficult (ICG, 2002a).

However, the clinical paper process of delimitation of the borders has already begun. In 2000-2003, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan signed a number of border delimitation agreements and started works on delimiting the borders. By 2001, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan have finally settled the border problems and exchanged disputed territories. Yet many issues, like the problem of the Uzbek enclaves in Kyrgyzstan, still remain unresolved. In this context, the growing need to take into account all factors surrounding water disputes is apparent. Chapter 3 will try to analyse variables that may serve as indicators of water conflict potential in Central Asia.

3.1 Measuring water conflict potential. Water is the martin paper most politicised of all natural resources and it is clinical more likely to become a source of armed conflict. It is no wonder therefore that such possibility has been widely discussed (see, for example, Gleick, 1993; Gleditsch, 1997; Just and Netanyahu, 1998; Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). Despite the growing literature on water and conflict, little work has been done to provide arguments for the common thesis that #147;growing conflict over thesis, water looms ahead#148; (Samson and clinical studies paper Charrier, 1997). Generally, the two sports essay Jordan and Nile basins are cited to give an example of international conflict prone basins. On the clinical research paper other hand, Wolf (1998) gave a historic evidence of study, co-operation between riparians and stated that the only recorded war over water was fought 4500 years ago between two Mesopotamian states, Lagash and Umma, in what is paper now southern Iraq. The same author pointed out at the #147;loose definitions#148; in the terminology of the literature about water and conflict where #147;terms such as conflict, dispute, tensions, and war are regularly used interchangeably#148; (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). Nevertheless, in order to provide indication of potential water conflict, combinations of variables, or indicators, have to be developed.

Undoubtedly, the practice of establishing various sets of indicators, including those for sustainable development, over the past decade has greatly influenced this idea. However, unlike indicators of sustainable development designed to communicate with the public at large to provide clear picture of a country#146;s progress towards sustainable development, indicators of water conflict proneness are meant to serve as a #145;yardstick#146; for decision makers who are involved in negotiations regarding specific river basin management. Yet such #145;limited#146; value does not impede the indicators of being used by international scientific and political community able to translate them into a pressure on the governments of the an essay writer riparians involved in clinical research a dispute well before this would turn into a violent conflict. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) makes such analysis even more effective by bringing together spatial and explanatory case non-spatial variables, thus facilitating identification and interpretation of potential indicators. One of the clinical research frequently cited instruments which could serve as a model for developing a set of water conflict indicators is the matter coursework Index of Human Insecurity (IHI) developed to facilitate identification of vulnerable or insecure regions. It is studies considered an #147;aggregate measure of human welfare that integrates social, economic, and political exposures to and capacity to cope with a range of potentially harmful perturbations#148; (Lonergan, Gustavson and an essay writer Carter, 1999). The IHI identifies four #147;key system components#148; #150; the research paper environment, the economy, society, and institutions. Within each of these four indicator categories are four variables, each of which measure either a key structural relationship (e.g., linkages, defining characteristics) or a key functional relationship (e.g., processes, flows) of the system.

Where data in a time series are missing, IHI developers utilize statistical techniques to establish a complete time series for all indicators and two sports comparison all countries, where there is sufficient initial data. However, the index for each year is specific to that year, making it difficult to compare changes in a country#146;s IHI from across years (Yoffe and Ward, 1999). Another water-specific indicator is water stress measured by Falkenmark#146;s (1992) Water Stress Index (WSI) which divides the volume of a country#146;s available water resources by studies paper its population. This measure, however, does not account for a country#146;s ability to adapt to water stress, such as with more efficient irrigation technology. Ohlsson (1999) has developed a Social Water Stress Index (SWSI) to incorporate a measure of a country#146;s adaptability. The SWSI is a water stress index (freshwater availability per an essay writer, capita) divided by UNDP's Human Development Index and then divided by research paper 2 (rounded to nearest wholes). Both these global level indices are usually derived and applied at explanatory study, the country level. Several other potential indicators were also mentioned in the literature, including overall population growth rates within a country, population density within and outside a basin, relative power and riparian position of countries within a basin (Wolf, 1999), the degree of democratisation of countries sharing a river basin and so on. 3.2 Testing indicators of water conflict. The methodology for establishing indicators of clinical, international freshwater conflict and co-operation was developed under Basins At Risk (BAR) project at Oregon State University, USA (Wolf, Yoffe and anti-development Giordano, 2003). BAR which has spanned for 4 years effectively developed and created legal and spatial framework to further evaluate international river basins at potential risk for future water conflict.

All 263 international river basins were delineated and a database documenting historical incidents of international water conflict and co-operation between 1948 and clinical paper 1999 was set up. Finally, indicator variables were created and the river basins in need of more detailed investigation with regard to english 2004, water conflict were identified. Indicators have been selected in accordance with the following criteria: relevance to the selected framework; general availability of the data; existence of a theoretical or empirical link with security issue; and an adequacy of spatial and temporal coverage allowing for effective representation and modelling (Lonergan, Gustavson and Carter, 1999). Emphasis was made on the regional and clinical research basin scale indicators rather than on indicators of anti-development, potential water conflict at global scale. Internationalisation of a basin was at special focus. Assuming that there is a causal link between the internationalisation of a basin and incidents of clinical, conflict among the states that now share that basin, the explanatory study presence of ethnic minorities with nationalistic aspirations becomes a potential indicator (Wolf, 1999).

A key question regarding the above variables is whether they are relevant to indicating water conflict. Yoffe (2001) provides a good account of statistically testing indicators previously cited in the literature. As main statistical tool, linear regression was used to clinical, assess the relative strength of various independent variables in two sports explaining the variability of the event data. Also, other statistical methods such as two-sample t-test were employed. Linear regression has been chosen because #147;it offered a concise summary of the mean of the response variable as a function of an clinical research paper explanatory variable#148; (Yoffe, 2001). Sixteen indicators, including GDP per capita, population density, number of dams, water stress, HDI, hydropower have been tested using linear regression, three indicators such as freshwater treaties, adjacency and riverine contiguity have been analysed using two-sample t-test, and four indicators such as dam density, freshwater treaties, climate and precipitation had no statistical tests conducted on them due to structure of data. Yoffe#146;s most important finding was that most of the commonly cited water conflict indicators proved to paper, be unsupported by the data. Neither government type, climate, IHI, water stress or number of dams, nor agricultural dependence on clinical research studies water resources and energy needs showed a significant relevance with water conflict. Based on higher english essay questions 2004 the assessment, river basins are at potential risk of freshwater conflict if: population density exceeds 100 people per research studies, 1 km 2 per capita GDP is research paper less than $765 overall unfriendly relations (-1 at water event intensity scale) there are politically active minority groups that may lead to the internationalisation of a basin large dams or other water development projects are planned no or limited number of research, water treaties is available (Yoffe, 2001). This study will employ these indicator variables as the research framework.

A number of the an essay writer attribute data mentioned above can be effectively represented within a Geographic Information System (GIS), such as ESRI ArcView, designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyse and visualize disparate sets of geographically referenced data. Moreover, some spatial information such as runoff and slope would be extremely difficult to analyse without the use of research studies paper, a GIS. However, GIS has its limitations inherent to the technology, including problems of multiple scales and data interpretation. The examination of indicators at an international, national and sub-national level introduces questions of scale that will need to be further addressed. There is also a lack of distinct frameworks to analyse the interaction of human and environmental systems (Yoffe and an essay writer Ward, 1999). Linked to the problem of frameworks is the problem with interpreting non-spatial matters using spatial analysis. For instance, the degree of democratisation of a country might be difficult to represent if one assumes that different areas have different levels of democratisation. Special problem regarding Central Asia#146;s GIS is the lack of data; several important databases located in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, contain a lot of vital information but this information is virtually closed for external use.

3.4 Attempts at research studies, applying water conflict indicators to Central Asia. Previous attempt to apply potential indicators of water conflict to Central Asia#146;s water disputes has been made by Myers (1993) who created a water scarcity index using population and per capita water availability data. Assuming that water stress is to essay, occur when more than 2,000 people share every unit of one million cubic meters of available water, the author calculated water indices for studies, each of Central Asia#146;s countries by anti-development comparing 1991 population data with all available water and the amount of water available solely from indigenous sources (i.e. that available from precipitation within the borders of clinical research studies paper, a country). In 1993, all the two sports comparison essay countries appeared to have sufficient water resources per capita. Both downstream countries of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan relied on water flowing in from outside and indigenous water resources stress was high (2,180 people per one million m 3 of indigenous water in clinical Uzbekistan and 3,287 people per one million m 3 of indigenous water in Turkmenistan). Klötzli (1994) used a number of higher english critical, indicators for vulnerability to research studies, water scarcity developed by Gleick (1993), including the ratio of water demand to supply, the per capita availability of water, the dependence on imported surface water and the importance of hydroelectric production.

Having calculated these, the author came to explanatory case, a somewhat obvious conclusion that #147;these indicators#133; show a distinct difference between the water-rich republics of Kyrgyzstan and clinical paper Tajikistan, and the republics not controlling the study sources of water courses like Uzbekistan and#133; Turkmenistan#133; The vulnerability indices not only clinical research studies paper express different access and pollution control opportunities, but also different, often contradictory modes of water utilisation (hydropower vs. agriculture)#148; (Klötzli, 1994). Similar method based on Gleick#146;s findings was used by Smith (1995) to an essay writer, determine the relative degree of dependence of particular regions on water resources and to identify those regions that may become potential focal points for future intra- and interstate conflicts. It is argued that high population growth can be more damaging to the environment than high population density and southern Uzbekistani provinces as Surkhandarya and Kashakdarya and several regions in the Ferghana Valley that experienced some of the highest population growth rates in the region between 1981 and 1991 are most likely to become a scene of a resource-related conflict. The author points out that the areas combining high population growth and paper no indigenous water supplies (Andijan and Ferghana in eastern Uzbekistan, Karakalpakstan in the west) are of prime concern. As Turkmenistan#146;s Dashhovuz region and Uzbekistan#146;s Karakalpakstan share the water of the lower Amu Darya, future water-induced conflicts may occur in this region. Each region was ranked according to the basic characteristics believed to affect the anti-development water conflict potential (population growth rate/density, per clinical research studies, capita water availability from total and indigenous sources, share of water derived from external sources, minority population share of total population). Eight of ten regions having the highest rankings for water-resource vulnerability are located in Uzbekistan, with top of the top four located in the Ferghana Valley. Thus, the regions constituting the an essay writer Ferghana Valley and those occupying the lower Amu Darya appear to be the most sensitive to potential water-induced conflicts. Carney and Moran (2000) examined the interstate affect in clinical paper Central Asia toward Russia, i.e. #147;the current discernable feeling of a government toward another government#148; which is expressed #147;#133;in all behaviour whether it takes the form of word or deeds#148;, and explanatory case study developed #147;scale of affectivity#148; ranging arbitrarily from -2 to +2. Although different in goals, this study employed the similar technique in scoring and coding news reports from Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) as discussed below. Also mentioning the Aral Sea Basin#146;s famous conflict potential, Yoffe (2001) and Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) argue that the basin countries tend to negotiate current conflicts.

However, none of the treaties signed recently include all the basin riparians, and therefore potential for continued disputes, at least in research the nearest future, is likely. Given global scale of BAR project, considering and spatially interpreting all physical, social, economic and political variables for Central Asia becomes even more vital and can provide solutions based on a more holistic approach to natural resources, while recognising the historical, geopolitical and natural characteristics of the region. Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) recount of compiling a systematic database for nclb subject matter, water conflict/co-operation worldwide, in an attempt to gather every reported interaction between two or more nations, where water was the driver of the event. Using various international news databases, like FBIS and research its online version, World News Connection (WNC), the authors developed #145;a friendship-hostility scale#146; #150; a ratio of all co-operative to conflictive events between nations over water, having modified a scale created by Conflict and Peace Databank (COPDAB) project directed by Professor Edward E. Azar. COPDAB#146;s scale ranges from level 1, representing the most co-operative events, to level 15, representing the higher english essay most conflictive events, with level 8 representing neutral events. To make it water-specific, the authors inverted it so that neutral events were centred on zero, to make it ranging from -7 to +7, with -7 denoting the most conflictive events, 0 denoting neutral events, and +7 denoting the most cooperative events. The new scale also included the studies addition of water terms (italicised in Table 3.1), and a new category, formal declaration of war. To accommodate this category, which is not part of the original COPDAB Scale, category 13 (Small scale military acts) and explanatory 14 (Limited war acts) were merged into one category, number 13.

Category 14 was given the heading and description of category 15 (Extensive war acts causing deaths, dislocation or high strategic costs), and Category 15 was changed to indicate a formal declaration of war (Yoffe, 2001). RE-CENTERED BAR SCALE. Formal declaration of war. Extensive war acts causing deaths, dislocation or high strategic cost: Use of nuclear weapons; full scale air, naval, or land battles; invasion of territory; occupation of territory; massive bombing of civilian areas; capturing of soldiers in battle; large scale bombing of military installations; chemical or biological warfare. Small scale military acts: Limited air, sea, or border skirmishes; border police acts; annexing territory already occupied; seizing material of target country; imposing blockades; assassinating leaders of target country; material support of subversive activities against target country. Political-military hostile actions: Inciting riots or rebellions (training or financial aid for rebellions); encouraging guerrilla activities against target country; limited and sporadic terrorist actions; kidnapping or torturing foreign citizens or prisoners of war; giving sanctuary to terrorists; breaking diplomatic relations; attacking diplomats or embassies; expelling military advisors; executing alleged spies; nationalizing companies without compensation.

Diplomatic-economic hostile actions: Increasing troop mobilization; boycotts; imposing economic sanctions; hindering movement on land, waterways, or in the air; embargoing goods; refusing mutual trade rights; closing borders and blocking free communication; manipulating trade or currency to cause economic problems; halting aid; granting sanctuary to opposition leaders; mobilizing hostile demonstrations against target country; refusing to support foreign military allies; recalling ambassador for emergency consultations regarding target country; refusing visas to other nationals or restricting movement in country; expelling or arresting nationals or press; spying on foreign government officials; terminating major agreements. Unilateral construction of clinical studies, water projects against another country#146;s protests; reducing flow of water to another country, abrogation of an essay writer, a water agreement. Strong verbal expressions displaying hostility in interaction: Warning retaliation for acts; making threatening demands and accusations; condemning strongly specific actions or policies; denouncing leaders, system, or ideology; postponing heads of state visits; refusing participation in clinical research studies meetings or summits; leveling strong propaganda attacks; denying support; blocking or vetoing policy or proposals in the UN or other international bodies. Official interactions only. Mild verbal expressions displaying discord in interaction: Low key objection to policies or behaviour; communicating dissatisfaction through third party; failing to research, reach an agreement; refusing protest note; denying accusations; objecting to explanation of goals, position, etc.; requesting change in policy. Both unofficial and official, including diplomatic notes of protest. Neutral or non-significant acts for research studies paper, the inter-nation situation: Rhetorical policy statements; non-consequential news items; non-governmental visitors; indifference statements; compensating for anti-development, nationalized enterprises or private property; no comment statements. Minor official exchanges, talks or policy expressions - mild verbal support: Meeting of high officials; conferring on clinical problems of higher english critical, mutual interest; visit by lower officials for talks; issuing joint communiqués; appointing ambassadors; announcing cease-fires; non-governmental exchanges; proposing talks; public non-governmental support of studies paper, regime; exchanging prisoners of war; requesting support for policy; stating or explaining policy. Official verbal support of goals, values, or regime: Official support of policy; raising legation to embassy; reaffirming friendship; asking for comparison essay, help against third party; apologizing for unfavorable actions or statements; allowing entry of press correspondents; thanking or asking for aid; resuming broken diplomatic or other relations. Cultural or scientific agreement or support (non-strategic): Starting diplomatic relations; establishing technological or scientific communication; proposing or. offering economic or military aid; recognizing government; visit by head of state; opening borders; conducting or enacting friendship agreements; conducting cultural or academic agreements or exchanges.

Agreements to set up cooperative working groups. Non-military economic, technological, or industrial agreement: Making economic loans, grants; agreeing to clinical research studies paper, economic pacts; giving industrial, cultural, or educational assistance; conducting trade agreements or granting most favoured nation status; establishing common transportation or communication networks; selling industrial-technological surplus supplies; providing technical expertise; ceasing economic restrictions; repaying debts; selling non-military goods; giving disaster relief. Paper! Legal, cooperative actions between nations that are not treaties; cooperative projects for watershed management, irrigation, poverty-alleviation. Military economic or strategic support: Selling nuclear power plants or materials; providing air, naval, or land facilities for bases; giving technical or advisory military assistance; granting military aid; sharing highly advanced technology; intervening with military support at request of government; concluding military agreements; training military personnel; joint programs and research studies paper plans to initiate and paper pursue disarmament. International Freshwater Treaty; Major strategic alliance (regional or international): Fighting a war jointly; establishing a joint military command or alliance; conducting joint military manoeuvres; establishing economic common market; joining or organizing international alliances; establishing joint program to raise the global quality of life.

Voluntary unification into one nation: Merging voluntarily into one nation (state); forming one nation with one legally binding government. Source: Yoffe (2001) For the purposes of this study, BAR global Water Event Intensity Scale is adapted to the Amu Darya basin countries in Central Asia to determine overall relations and identify focal points for the future conflicts while concurrently applying GIS-based variables of water conflict. 3.6 Aggregating data for the Amu Darya Basin. In creating ArcView data coverages for the Amu Darya Basin, data for international river basins kindly provided by Dr Aaron T. Clinical Studies Paper! Wolf was used which was then matched to the US Geological Service Hydro1k (USGS, 2000) dataset, a global coverage of streams and study drainage basins derived from digital elevation data. The data collected fell into roughly two categories: biophysical (e.g. runoff, population, dams) attributes suitable for clinical research, the spatial analysis and economic/political (e.g. GDP per capita, overall relations, ethnic minorities) attributes. Aston Martin! Although some of the variables used are quantitative and can be measured, the indicators comprising political category are qualitative in nature (internationalisation of a basin, future water infrastructure, water treaties). The full description of the research studies attributes and two sports techniques employed is given below.

In pulling various water-related attributes together in order to draw a picture of a basin#146;s specific conflict proneness, population growth is clinical paper among key factors for assessing water scarcity. The relation of water access to population distribution should therefore be assessed. As a river basin rarely follows political borders, per critical 2004, basin population density instead of per region population density was evaluated. In doing so, the studies paper Landscan gridded population of the world (Landscan, 2001) was used to approximate population distribution. Building on the Landscan data proved very effective as the Landscan team used remotely sensed slope, land cover, road proximity and night time lights to explanatory study, refine the clinical research studies paper GIS-based gridded population cell values, providing the best accurate dataset. Gridcell values for explanatory, the Aral Sea Basin were summed to combine this table with the Amu Darya Basin, thus calculating a population density for that area, as described by Yoffe (2001) (Figure 4.1). Runoff is considered the total amount of clinical paper, surface flow in a given area. Two Sports Comparison! Any assessment of research studies paper, a water resource related issue would be incomplete without some approximation of water availability within the study area (Yoffe, 2001). Data for the Amu Darya runoff were obtained through a spatial resolution grid of composite runoff fields based on observed river discharge and simulated water balances (Fekete, Vörösmarty and Grabs, 2000). Two Sports Comparison! The project was the clinical outcome of a joint effort of the Complex Systems Research Centre at the University of New Hampshire and the Global Runoff Data Centre in Koblenz, Germany. The project combined #147;#133;two sources of information (observed discharge and simulated runoff) to estimate continental runoff#148; which was #147;the most reliable assessment at present#148; (Fekete, Vörösmarty and Grabs, 2000).

To estimate the composite runoff for the Amu Darya, runoff data for the eight gauging stations located in aston martin research the Amu Darya basin were used. Research Paper! The cell values in mm/yr were multiplied by the area of the associated grid cell in sq. Anti-development Thesis! km to produce a runoff volume grid (mm*km 2 /yr) (Figure 4.3). The third key factor in clinical research studies paper assessing water scarcity is the number and density of dams in a study area. According to Yoffe (2001) and Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003), when statistically testing potential water conflict indicators, dams themselves did not appear to be a potential indicator for water conflict, yet in basins without water treaties lower dam density basins tended to nclb subject matter, exhibit slightly less conflict. With negative overall relations between countries and absence of a transboundary institution, unilaterally setting a large dam or diversion project can provide a context for the conflict over water, while positive relations and clinical studies paper presence of a transboundary institution can mitigate the situation. To determine the case study number of dams and dam density for clinical research, the Amu Darya Basin, global dataset provided by Wolf was used, based on the Digital Chart of the World data and International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) World Register of Dams (Figure 4.4). More importantly, large proposed water infrastructure projects that proved to have significant influence on the whole water situation in the basin were identified (e.g. the Rogun Dam in Tajikistan, etc.). Internationalising a basin provides an important setting for future water conflict (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). Essay 2004! Those basins whose management institutions were developed under a single jurisdiction and then became divided among two or more nations when that jurisdiction suddenly collapsed, showed much higher levels of conflict (Yoffe, 2001). In order to check for the active nationalist movements who might cause future internationalisation of the Amu Darya Basin, data from clinical research paper two major sources have been analysed: Minorities At Risk Project, at the University of Maryland#146;s Centre for International Development and Conflict Management (Gurr, 2000) and Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO, 2002).

Low per capita GDP ( $765/person according to the World Bank lowest income country definition) was identified to thesis, be one of the indicators of conflict over water (Yoffe, 2001). As Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) put it, #147;the higher the per capita GDP, or the lower population density, the clinical research paper greater the paper co-operation #150; barely#148;. To establish macro-economic data for clinical research studies, the Amu Darya Basin countries, the World Bank data for 2000 were used. It is pointed out (Yoffe, 2001) that countries that co-operate in general also co-operate over water, and higher critical essay questions 2004 countries with overall unfriendly relations are also unfriendly over water issues. Studies Paper! To construct a #145;friendship-hostility scale#146; as appeared in Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003), a rough water event intensity scale was built employing the technique described in matter Section 3.5. In gathering country-to-country events and research studies paper interactions, two major sources were used: the WNC and Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database. Both build on the reports about critical essay 2004, Central Asia by the two leading Russian news agencies #150; ITAR-TASS and Interfax, as well as on the news coverages by Eurasianet and the Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Tajikistan news). Research! Notably, the explanatory water event data are based on public reports and therefore lack reports on research paper non-public co-operation (#147;picnic table talks#148;, non-official visits, etc.) Generally, freshwater treaties mitigate conflict, and no or limited freshwater treaties for a basin increase the likeliness of conflict over water.

To analyse existing freshwater treaties for the Amu Darya Basin, the International Freshwater Treaties Database at Oregon State University (TFDD, 2002), containing a full text of over 400 international freshwater related agreements, was used. Next chapter discusses these and anti-development other potential indicators of conflict over freshwater in more details. 4 Water Conflict Potential in the Amu Darya Basin. The Amu Darya#146;s population is research studies paper extremely unevenly distributed. Research! Only in Uzbekistan which has the region#146;s highest population density (average 50 people per km 2 , with total population of about 25 million in 2002), 80 percent of clinical research paper, land is thesis desert. In 1990, the rural population occupied a total of 4.5 million hectares of arable land, or about clinical research studies, 16 percent of all available agricultural land in the country, and thus the effective density of rural population was 2.7 people per hectare of arable land. Given the rate of nclb, natural population growth in clinical research studies paper Uzbekistan being one of the highest among the former Soviet republics, rural population steadily increased from 1984 to 1994 to case, 61 percent, while the research studies arable land and cultivated area remained practically unchanged (Lerman, Garcia-Garcia and Wichelns, 1996). Population distribution in the Amu Darya Basin varies accordingly, from 20-30 people per km 2 in the downstream sections of the river (except for aston research, the river stretch just before flowing into the Aral Sea that runs across the Uzbek territory and where population density is about 40-50 people/km 2 ) to 25-40 people/km 2 in the middle course and to clinical studies paper, 20-35 people/km 2 in the upstream sections of the Amu Darya (Figure 4.1). Figure 4.1: Population density in the Amu Darya Basin (1995) The population pattern in Central Asia has remained the same over thousands of explanatory case study, years.

People tend to inhabit fertile oases and valleys rich in water. Clinical Research Studies! Many human habitats can be found located along the rivers (Figure 4.2), and almost all of them date from the pre-Islamic times. Figure 4.2: Population density in the Aral Sea Basin. Source: Akmansoy, 1998. In terms of runoff (Figure 4.3), the Amu Darya can be divided into three sections: an upstream section, a middle course section, and a downstream section. The upstream section extends from the point of confluence of the Vakhsh and two sports comparison Pyandj rivers up to the town of Kerki, the research paper middle course is between Kerki and explanatory the Tyuyamuyun Gorge, and the downstream section is clinical studies confined to the mouth of the river. Case Study! In the upstream section, the flow of the Amu Darya steadily increases due to the Kunduz, Kafirnigan, Surkhandarya, and research paper Sherabad tributaries.

Figure 4.3: Estimated Annual Runoff in the Amu Darya Basin. The reverse situation can be observed in the middle course and in the downstream section: the flow gradually declines due to comparison, natural losses of studies paper, runoff and huge water diversions for agricultural needs. It is quite difficult to evaluate those natural and anti-development anthropogenic losses as the data from clinical paper many gauging stations for the last two decades are not available. Essay Questions 2004! Average annual runoff at the town of research paper, Kerki (upstream section) between 1957-1987 was 1903 m 3 /s, together with water diverted to Karakum and Karshi canals, 1351 m 3 /s in the Tyuyamuyun Gorge (middle course) in the same period and 656 m 3 /s in the downstream section (Ivanov and Izmaiylov, 1995). Case Study! Figure 4.4 represents total number of dams per Amu Darya riparian. Figure 4.4: Number of dams per studies, country in the Amu Darya Basin. Unilateral decisions to embark on new water projects are not uncommon in higher english essay questions 2004 Central Asia. Clinical Studies! While providing for national solutions, such decisions and two sports comparison essay further actions are among key drivers of potential water conflict. Trying to find a way out paper of the existing situation, some Central Asian governments were forced to develop plans for building more infrastructure to get control over water resources.

Two projects which are the legacy of the Soviet-style gigantic undertakings and which caused extremely negative reaction among neighbours are discussed below. Started in 1976, the Rogun Dam, on case study the Vakhsh river, was projected to be 335 metres high #150; the clinical research studies paper highest in anti-development thesis the world - with the capacity to produce 3,600 MW of energy. The dam was expected to research, begin operation in 1993. However, in 1990 the construction was halted due to the escalating political situation which turned into higher english, a 5-year civil war in Tajikistan. In 1993, a massive flood destroyed most of research studies paper, what has been already built. By that time, $802 million was invested into the project, with the anti-development total cost of clinical paper, $2.3 billion (Dyuzheva, 2002; Yerofeeva, 2002).

Figure 4.5: Power stations in the upstream sections of the two sports Amu Darya. Source: Dyuzheva, 2002. Tajikistan already controls 40 percent of the flow of the clinical studies Amu Darya through the Nurek reservoir. Anti-development! The Rogun would put it firmly in control of the river, allowing to control the flow into Uzbekistan#146;s Surkhandarya and Kashkadarya Provinces that already experience sharp water shortages. Knowing Uzbekistan#146;s opposition to the project, Tajikistan continues to press with the completion of the clinical paper Rogun Dam that would need $700 million to $1 billion to complete. Most international finance institutions are reluctant to put any money into the project, claiming that it would cost more than any benefit it might offer. They are also aware that the project would seriously strain relations between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

However, getting Tajik government concentrate on more feasible, realistic and low-cost project yielded no fruits. On 29 October 2002, the english 2004 Baltic Construction Company, one of the biggest Russian investment/construction groups, became a contractor and investor for completion of the Rogun Dam project (Dyuzheva, 2002; ICG, 2002b). In October 2000, Turkmenistan began work on a huge artificial lake in the Karakum Desert, which was pompously called Golden Century Lake. The lake is being built in the Karashor natural depression in the north-western part of the Karakum desert. The depression covers 3,500 to 4,000 km 2 and clinical studies paper has a maximum depth of 70 to 100 metres.

Once completed, the lake would contain some 132 to 150 km 3 of water. Drainage water is to subject matter, be diverted to the lake from the five provinces through two major collector-canals. The project cost is up to $6 billion, and it will be financed from research studies state budget. The first stage is to be completed in 2004 and the entire project covers 10 years. There are rumours that special nuclear power station will be built nearby to use a lake as a cooling pond. The government holds that only drainage water will be used to matter, supply the clinical paper lake (Pereverten, 2000; ICG, 2002b). The project raised immediate concerns in neighbouring Uzbekistan that the lake cannot be sustained by drainage water alone and about 10 cubic kilometres of water from the Amu Darya will be needed to maintain its level. Uzbekistan argues that drainage water has a high salt content and will gradually evaporate in critical questions the terrible heat of the clinical research studies paper Karakum desert creating a new Aral. By increasing the water use from the Amu Darya, Turkmenistan would leave the southern Uzbek provinces without any water. If Ashgabat will go ahead with the project, it will inevitably lead to tensions with Uzbekistan (Insarova, 2002).

Just like the Toktogul reservoir on the Syr Darya, this ambitious and costly undertaking risks becoming a source of conflict with Uzbekistan. Turkmenistan also threatens to resettle about one million ethnic Uzbeks from the southern province of Dashhovuz to the Karakum desert once the case study lake is completed (ICG, 2002b). 4.3 Further internationalisation potential. 4.3.1 Possible secession of Karakalpakstan. The Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan is one of the 13 provinces, or oblasts, in research paper Uzbekistan. Its history began in 1925, when the Karakalpaks (a Turkic-language Muslim group whose name literally means black hat) were given their own territory, declared the Autonomous Oblast, within the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR). In 1930, the Karakalpak AO was transferred to the jurisdiction of the aston martin research Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, where it remained until 1936, when it was joined to the Uzbek SSR and clinical research paper elevated to the status of the Autonomous SSR (Hanks, 2000). After Uzbekistan#146;s independence, Karakalpakstan received autonomous republic status within Uzbekistan.

Since that time, the central government in Tashkent has maintained pressure and tight economic ties that have kept the republic from exerting full independence. Figure 4.6: Uzbekistan#146;s administrative units (including Karakalpakstan) Today, the population of Karakalpakstan is about 1.3 million people who live on a territory of about 168,000 km 2 . Located in the fertile lower reaches of the nclb Amu Darya where the river empties into the Aral Sea, Karakalpakstan has a long history of studies, irrigation agriculture. However, because it is a tail end of the Amu Darya, Karakalpakstan received all the pollution the river has accumulated along its course. The health statistics (morbidity and mortality data) collectively reflect the poor and deteriorating health of the people downstream. An Essay Writer! My personal experience of work for the Eye Cancer Register Project at the Institute of Oncology and clinical studies paper Radiology in Tashkent showed that while eye cancer incidence in subject matter Karakalpakstan was relatively low, mortality rate was the highest in Uzbekistan (2.2 people per 100,000 people, compared to 0.2 to clinical, 0.3/100,000 in other provinces of Uzbekistan) (Mouratova, 1992). More generally, the Karakalpaks showed one of the english critical essay questions highest rates of cancer, comparable only to Kazakhs living in Muynak area of Karakalpakstan. Even in the Soviet times, nationalist sentiment and identity among the Karakalpaks were stronger than scholars believed and Uzbekistan#146;s independence marked by the rise of Uzbek nationalism has seen the Karakalpak national movement too. Clinical! However, this group known as the Khalk Mapi was quickly suppressed and driven underground.

Although the Karakalpaks never demonstrated publicly for the formal independence and subject coursework the republic is not a member of UNPO, the Uzbek authorities view a possible nationalist tendency in clinical research paper Karakalpakstan as seriously threatening Uzbekistan#146;s integrity. In the meanwhile, little study has been undertaken to go deep into the question of a possible disintegration of Uzbekistan. Various researchers have briefly pointed out that Karakalpakstan has the potential to two sports comparison, claim its independence from Uzbekistan (Klötzli, 1994; Baechler, 1998; Lietzman and Vest, 1999). The only weighty study on the subject, Hanks (2000), runs counter to clinical, the common belief that Central Asia has become firmly established in its current boundaries. Hanks supports that there are four factors that may contribute to the Karakalpak nationalism, notably: (1) a separate cultural identity; (2) a history of aston, territorial identity and autonomy; (3) economic underdevelopment; and (4) severe environmental damage, resulting in drastic decline in human conditions. Indeed, Karakalpakstan is the clinical research studies paper only Uzbek province where Uzbeks are not the majority. Unlike Tajiks in Samarkand and Bukhara, the Karakalpaks are allowed to learn in their native language in schools and 2.6% of the martin research paper school-age population are enrolled in Karakalpak schools which means that most Karakalpaks are insistent that their children be educated in their mother tongue. And the Karakalpak language is quite different from the Uzbek one being linguistically closer to clinical studies paper, the Kazakh language just as the whole Karakalpak culture is.

Historically and ethnically, Karakalpaks, with their nomadic culture, would show best in Kazakhstan where such culture is persistent and where Karakalpaks are still considered oralman , i.e. members of the Kazakh community living abroad. During the martin past 12 years, as much as 270,000 Karakalpaks, or 20% of the population, left Uzbekistan for Kazakhstan and Russia, largely due to the unbearable human and environmental conditions in the Aral Sea area (Glantz, 2002). Small, van der Meer and clinical paper Upshur (2001) quote the study showing that 48.8% of respondents wanted to leave their homes because of the environment, and one half of those wanted to move out of the Aral Sea area. In economic terms, Karakalpakstan represents a remote geographical hinterland, absent from global economy, with virtually no industrial development and anti-development thesis soaring unemployment rates. Agricultural sector is on the verge of collapse and fisheries, once a profitable sector, disappeared along with the whole Aral Sea. Due to clinical studies, the fact that most imported goods are shipped to Tashkent, 1000 kilometres away from Nukus, capital of an essay writer, Karakalpakstan, fewer goods are offered there, adding to the general quality of life being the lowest in the country.

Officially, 100,000 people were unemployed in clinical research 2002 as a result of the multi-year drought that began in 1999 and by 2001 reduced cotton production in Karakalpakstan by 75% of the norm. Rice production was only 0.25% of the norm (Glantz, 2002). The situation aggravated so much that people are slaughtering livestock because animals started dying of thirst. In a region where cattle have implications for the future, killing cows means losing a major asset (Kohn, 2001). All this resulted in the fact that most Karakalpaks began viewing themselves as the environmental victims and an essay writer hostages of the central power, first in Moscow, then in Tashkent. Why don#146;t Karakalpaks revolt? #150; ponders Bissell (2002). So far, only what can be called #147;a foot vote#148;, i.e. the exodus of the Karakalpak population to neighbouring Kazakhstan, has happened.

ICG (2002b) quotes one Uzbek official as saying that people of Karakalpakstan #147;#133;are patient and put their hope in clinical paper God and the President#148;. Indeed, an independent Karakalpakstan may be unlikely in the future. Poor state of economy and subject coursework environmental degradation undermined the region#146;s development so much that an independent Karakalpakstan would have a little chance for survival. But this in no way lessens the potential for the region to destabilise Uzbekistan and eventually the whole Central Asia (Hanks, 2000). Possible is also the Indonesian scenario #150; when the central regime grows weak, nationalist claims in the provinces become stronger and may eventually lead to a secession. Northern Afghanistan belongs to the Amu Darya Basin. Until recently, before the US-led campaign against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda, this area was de facto independent from the rest of the country, remaining firmly under control of the clinical studies Uzbek and Tajik warlords opposing the regime in an essay writer Kabul. Today, when the central government of Hamid Karzai is trying to spread its authority on the rest of the country, the clinical research question of explanatory study, separate northern provinces is less important in light of the emerging Afghanistan integrity. Before 2001, Afghanistan was itself the factor of clinical, risk for comparison, the Basin.

It is clinical still unclear what share would Afghanistan#146;s agricultural sector require from the Amu Darya water and essay when. It is clear though that Afghanistan will demand its share and that it is entitled to that share under the international agreements signed between the USSR and Afghanistan in 1946 ( Frontier Agreement between Afghanistan and the USSR , 13 June 1946) and 1958 ( Treaty concerning the regime to the Soviet-Afghan frontier , 18 January 1958, and Protocol between the USSR and Afghanistan concerning the joint execution of works for the integrated utilisation of the clinical research studies water resources in the frontier section of the Amu Darya , 25 June 1958). The 1946 Agreement subjects all matters associated with the water use to specific agreements between the two countries and provides for the establishment of a joint commission. Under it, Afghanistan is entitled to martin, use up to clinical research paper, 9 km 3 of water from the Pyandj river. Under the case study Treaty of 18 January 1958, the two countries commit themselves to take joint measures to prevent changes in the course of frontier rivers, streams or canals and to clinical research paper, correct the effects of such changes and share the costs equally. Furthermore, they commit themselves to anti-development, prevent water pollution, to exchange regular information on the level and clinical research paper volume of water and two sports meteorological data and to adopt a flood warning system. Finally, the 1958 Protocol envisages the joint integrated utilisation of the frontier sections of the Amu Darya (Nanni, 1996). Since #147;localisable#148; international agreements (i.e. those relating to identifiable parts of the territory of states) are subject to state succession under international law, these agreements remain in force for the newly independent Central Asian states (Nanni, 1996; Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). Until now, Afghanistan has used only about 2 km 3 of the 9 km 3 of water it is entitled to use under the treaties. Meanwhile, the Pyandj river has the annual flow of clinical research studies, 19 km 3 , and Afghanistan#146;s fresh involvement into the process of water use would radically change the Amu Darya flow if the new Afghan government decides to develop agriculture in the North.

Plans of Afghanistan to two sports, increase its water share caused the respective reaction in neighbouring countries. ICG (2002b) quotes one Uzbek official quotes as saying, #147;God forbid that we should give water also to Afghanistan. What will then become of us?#148; Given that the rehabilitation of Afghanistan is impossible without increasing its intake from the Amu Darya and that water resources are vital for Afghan people to feed themselves, the potential for water conflict in the Basin increases proportionally. Afghanistan#146;s demands will have to be taken into account when negotiating the water situation in the Basin (Fuchinoue, Tsukatani and Toderich, 2002). All Amu Darya Basin countries are considered low-income countries, i.e. those where GDP is less than $750, according to the World Bank classification. Below is per capita GDP in US$ for the four Amu Darya riparians: Source: World Bank, 2000. Aggregate average GDP per capita for clinical studies, the Amu Darya Basin is $461.3.

Given the extreme poverty people of Afghanistan still live in, this indicator may actually be even less. In political science, overall relations indicate an interstate affect which in an essay writer turn highly influences regional co-operation over water. By scoring an clinical studies affective content of each of 100 events occurred in the relations between the Amu Darya riparians in explanatory case 1995-2003, of studies, which only 24 events concerned the region#146;s water resources, it was possible to draw a rough picture of how the Amu Darya Basin countries feel toward each other. For the purposes of english critical questions, this study, an clinical event is defined as the instance of regional conflict and co-operation that occur within an international river basin, and water event as the instance of regional conflict and co-operation over water resources of that specific basin (Yoffe, 2001). Every event of interaction between two or more riparians mentioned in a database was grouped and included into either Table I representing overall relations in the Amu Darya Basin or into case, Table II representing water-related events in the basin (see Appendix for the two tables). Each table contains the following information:

the date of the incident; riparians involved; the intensity of the event, based on the Water Event Intensity Scale (see previous chapter); a summary describing the event; main issue area (economic co-operation, water quality, etc.); the source of information. Three Amu Darya riparian countries #150; Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - have been considered. Research Studies Paper! Afghanistan was excluded from the analysis as until 2001 this country itself manifested a serious threat for the region#146;s security and by the time of essay 2004, preparing this study the research paper central authority in Kabul was still in the beginning of the an essay writer process of integrating the country. At the clinical research studies paper same time, northern Afghanistan was far from pacified and heavy fights between local warlords have been reported. It is apparent that overall unfriendly attitude prevails in the relations between the riparians and despite friendship agreements signed and close economic ties the situation has repeatedly sharpened when Uzbekistan having the region#146;s biggest military potential was not long in using force against aston martin, its neighbours not even trying to enter into negotiation. Clinical Research Studies Paper! This dangerous trend may as well extend on the water relations, and according to informal sources it already has (situation around the Tyuyamuyun and the Toktogul).

Quite frequently, the relations between the an essay writer three have become seriously strained and for studies paper, several occasions the an essay writer countries were on the verge of an open conflict. Once it was an open conflict when on 16 August 1999 the Uzbek planes bombed Tajik and Kyrgyz territory targeting a group of Islamic militants. Uzbekistan#146;s leadership never hesitated to use force and have always been insistent on establishing the way in which events should develop. Clinical Studies Paper! The country has also followed this course in its relations with Turkmenistan whose self-glorifying regime has much in nclb subject matter common with the Uzbek one. Clinical Research! But especially worrisome are Uzbekistan#146;s relations with Tajikistan whose militant opposition has been steadily supported by an essay writer Tashkent throughout the clinical research studies paper whole long civil war. Claiming support for the Tajik government, Uzbekistan continued to feed ethnic Uzbek guerrillas on the Tajik territory and opened its borders for them when they were escaping from the Tajik troops. Figure 4.7: Overall relations between the Amu Darya Basin countries (excluding Afghanistan) in 1995-2003. Neither there was a shortage of assurances in eternal friendship and fraternal love, against a chilly history of land mines Uzbekistan used to plant along the entire length of Tajik border to build a ludicrous protection against Islamic terrorists and cutting off the pipes near the Tyuyamuyun reservoir in Turkmenistan. The treaties and agreements have been signed as well, but little action followed to implement them. Instead, the countries continued with hostile policies. All in all, 4 incidents of #147;small scale military acts#148;, 7 #147;political-military hostile actions#148;, 8 #147;diplomatic-economic hostile actions#148; and 7 #147;strong verbal expressions displaying hostility in interaction#148; have been registered.

In addition, the countries constantly displayed #147;discord in interaction#148; (18 incidents), versus a much smaller number of events considered potentially positive (signing agreements, establishing common policy, visit of head of state, etc.) While the picture of overall relations is definitely skewed to the left and tends to comparison essay, manifest rather conflict than co-operation, the history of paper, relations over water looks at the first glance more co-operative. Figure 4.8: Water-related events in the Amu Darya Basin in 1995-2002. Dozens of an essay writer, agreements have been entered into between the riparians. Some of these agreements had a status of an international water treaty designed to ease tensions between the paper basin countries. Meanwhile, the situation remains the same because the leaders prefer to an essay writer, do things informally rather than on the basis of an open agreement. However, when it comes to clinical, addressing conferences and summits, the presidents are always ready to mouth the rhetoric of regional co-operation while never lingering to use force against their #147;friendly#148; neighbours (ICG, 2002b).

No new multilateral agreements on water or energy have been signed in english critical essay questions Central Asia since 1998 and none are under development now. Major existing agreements like the Almaty Agreement and the Syr Darya Framework Agreement are implemented poorly, largely due to the lack of co-ordination in national water policies and research studies legislation across the region. Some of the Central Asian states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) have expressed a strong desire to develop new agreements that satisfy concepts of explanatory study, international watercourse law. Research Studies! However, there is still reluctance on the part of the study major water using countries, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, to enter into discussions on this issue. One of the major problems in achieving regional co-operation in shared water resources in clinical studies Central Asia will be to attract the attention of these countries to the ideas of international water law. In promoting consensus on principles of regional co-operation, a major role could belong to international donor agencies that may try to nclb coursework, convince Uzbekistan and, in case of the Afghanistan situation in the Amu Darya basin, Turkmenistan that this is a serious problem that must be dealt with soon (McKinney, 2003). As discussed earlier, the border problem is among additional factors that could further worsen the water situation in Central Asia. The Soviet-made borders in Central Asia provide a continuous possibility for research studies, their redefinition (Gleason, 2001). There were several border incidents between Uzbekistan and its neighbours in the past when the former unilaterally commenced a survey of its border and moved its boundary posts, as happened in early 2000 when three hundred kilometres of Kazakhstan#146;s territory suddenly appeared to be within Uzbekistan.

After Kazakhstan objected, a bilateral demarcation commission was set up. As of early 2003, Uzbekistan#146;s border disputes with Kazakhstan have been completely settled and border delimitation with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan was close to the end. Particular problem in terms of border situation is Central Asia#146;s two major rivers. Both Syr Darya and Amu Darya pass through several international borders, and in some parts the Turkmenistan border with Uzbekistan is defined by the watercourse of the Amu Darya. The border between Afghanistan and Uzbekistan is the Amu Darya, and an essay writer one of the rivers that form the studies Amu Darya, the Pyandj, serves as the an essay writer border between Tajikistan and Afghanistan. Toset, Gleditsch and Hegre (2000) define three types of relationship over the shared river resources: river boundary; mixed; and upstream/downstream. Clinical Research Studies! While the latter, in the authors#146; opinion, has a higher conflict potential, a river boundary situation, when a country on the left bank diverts water and a country on the right bank retaliates by taking water to martin paper, its own side of the river, is no less serious.

Navigation problems and transborder pollution add to the problem dramatically. It is argued that the longer the border, the more opportunities for potential contentious issues for studies, conflict. However, there could not be found much evidence to anti-development thesis, state that sharing a river as a boundary provided the major source of conflict. In the Amu Darya case, a common border lying along the river watercourse may contribute to the generally tense relations both between downstream (Turkmenistan/Uzbekistan) and upstream (Afghanistan/Tajikistan) riparians. Trade issues between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan further complicate the clinical research paper relations between the two countries. Trade in staple goods like cotton, water, natural gas, and oil is conducted by state agencies.

Thus, in case of failure to aston martin research paper, pay or any other irritation it is very convenient to suspend deliveries temporally, close border or increase visa requirements, as happened more than once. Research! Furthermore, transborder trade, traditional and supporting many families in this area, is critical 2004 subject to now thawing, now frosting regional affairs. No single transborder trade regulatory regime exists between the Amu Darya riparians (Green, 2001; Spechler, 2002). 5.3 Sarez Lake: A natural threat to the basin#146;s stability. On 6 February 1911, a powerful earthquake in the Pamir region of Gorny Badakhshan, in what is clinical research studies paper now Tajikistan, caused a 2.2 cubic kilometre piece of the Muzkol Range to collapse, sealing off the Murgab Gorge and creating a 500-metre natural dam. The new canyon became soon filled with water and formed the Sarez Lake, 75 kilometres long and 505 metres deep and containing 17 cubic kilometres of glacial water.

Experts say that this unstable natural dam called the Usoy Obstruction after the name of a village buried under it could break as a result of an paper earthquake or landslide and clinical studies paper release the case study water into the Pyandj. This would endanger millions of people in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. So far, efforts by the Tajik government to install the early warning system components on the dam, along the lake and downstream under the terms of an international tender were sustained locally, without getting other riparians involved. Rather relative stability in the Tajik mountains that still remember a devastating civil war in research studies paper the 1990s call many good plans in explanatory case study question. The weakest point in any strategy concerning the Sarez Lake is funding which might be very significant. Tajikistan alone would never afford million-dollar project costs.

Yet none of the Amu Darya riparians concerned is willing to clinical, consider the problem of the Sarez Lake its own (Sievers, 2002; Volkov, 2003). With the advent of independence, Central Asian states have quickly become the parties, and in some cases ratified, the international environmental agreements and conventions such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention to an essay writer, Combat Desertification, and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. However, no international convention related in clinical paper either event to water has been acceded to, even to an essay writer, the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat, not to mention the studies paper Convention on coursework the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses. Only Kazakhstan is a party to the Convention on the Protection and research Use of critical questions 2004, Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (Sievers, 2002). Vinogradov and Langford (2001) argue that some regional water treaties (the 1998 Syr Darya Framework Agreement) do address the clinical studies paper particularly sensitive issue of the water utilisation in the region and proceed from the interest in joint use of water resources to seeking common definitions and to acknowledging international legal principles relevant to the use of transboundary water resources, such as the provision referring to the joint management clause based on the #147;basin principle#148; which provides for the equality of the parties#146; rights to use and responsibility to ensure rational utilisation and protection of the #147;common and an essay writer integral#148; water resources of the region. While this provision is certainly an improvement over earlier arrangements based on clinical research the concepts of #147;water apportionment#148; and #147;maximum utilisation,#148; the principle of #147;equitable and reasonable utilisation and participation#148;, in accordance with Article 5 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, should be recognised. This principle takes into consideration such factors as geography, hydrographic, hydrological, climatic, ecological and other factors of anti-development, a natural character; social and economic needs of a watercourse; the population dependent on the water resources; existing and potential uses; conservation, protection, development and economy of water resources use; and the availability of alternatives to a planned or existing use (UN, 1997). Of particular importance for Central Asia#146;s water resources are the principles of the 1997 UN Convention which include the obligation not to cause significant harm to other watercourse states (UN, 1997, art. 7); the general obligation to research studies paper, co-operate through joint mechanisms or commissions (Ibid., art. 8); to exchange information on a regular basis (Ibid., art. 9); and to anti-development thesis, provide timely notification of planned measures and emergency situations which may have a significant adverse effect upon other watercourse states (Ibid., arts.

12,28). Where significant harm nevertheless is caused to another state, the party responsible for causing such harm is obliged, in consultation with the affected state, to eliminate or mitigate such harm, and where appropriate, to studies, discuss the question of compensation (Ibid., art. 7; Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). However, none of Central Asian countries have ever acceded to the 1997 UN Convention. Broad public participation and access to environmental information are essential in forming meaningful local water and environmental policy. Two Sports Essay! The participation of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) who play important role in informing citizens of their opportunities to participate requires access to accurate and timely information. When the clinical research paper information about the state of the environment is available to citizens, they can express public opinion regarding various issues, particularly water use and an essay writer environmental protection (McKinney, 2003). It is not a case, however, for clinical research studies, the sealed societies such as Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan where access to any information, let alone environmental one, is severely restricted. Not surprisingly, these two states are not the matter parties to studies, the 1998 UNECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (the Aarhus Convention), although other three Central Asian countries have acceded to martin research, it (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan) or ratified it (Kazakhstan). Six indicators used in the analysis were not sufficient to clinical, identify with exact accuracy a level of potential conflict over water in the Amu Darya Basin, yet some results summarised in Table 5.1 are still evident. Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.

Rapid institutional development, big water infrastructure projects. · on-going construction of the Rogun Dam. · completion of Golden Century Lake. · possible secession of Karakalpakstan from Uzbekistan. · Afghanistan#146;s demands for water. Potential for conflict over water resources in the Amu Darya Basin remains to be high, despite one of the six indicators (population density) tends to run counter to this conclusion.

This allows for anti-development thesis, the possibility to say that population density can be indicator of conflict only in clinical research such overpopulated places as the Ferghana Valley which has already seen outbreaks of violence in the past. On the country level, it is overall unfriendly relations fuelled by the leaders#146; personal competition, as well as rapid institutional change that could account for worsened water affairs in the region. Over the last years, several new points of contention have arisen, particularly in the continuing tensions between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan over the Rogun Dam and between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan around Golden Century Lake. Not in the nearest future though, the potential for an essay writer, further internationalisation - rapid rise of Afghanistan as a state and clinical studies possible Karakalpakstan#146;s claim for independence - could contribute to these tensions seriously and disintegrate the basin even further. In absence of solid legal base relevant to thesis, the international water law and studies mechanisms responsible for subject coursework, enforcing it, the region#146;s tensions are deepening and threaten to destabilise not only clinical research Central Asia, but also neighbouring countries. The role of indicators of water conflict in identifying and, in thesis future, measuring a basin#146;s conflict proneness is critical for those who will be involved in resolving disputes over river freshwater. The water conflict indicators allow for identifying specific tasks to concentrate efforts on, such as legal and institutional aspects of Central Asia#146;s water disputes, and pinpoint potential #147;apples of discord#148;, such as big water infrastructure projects. 5.7 Conclusions and recommendations. While wasting water several times more than in the Middle East, people in Central Asia do not account for huge water diversions. In fact, it is agricultural sector and, more specifically, cotton growing that is to blame for the major anthropogenic loss of water from the Amu Darya. Downstream riparians #150; Uzbekistan and clinical studies Turkmenistan, the region#146;s major cotton producers, are unable to abandon cotton production because it is case perhaps the only hard currency earning sector for them, in the absence of research, developed small sector regulations and, in case of Uzbekistan, of hard currency convertibility.

With upstream riparians claiming the old Soviet water allocation schemes to be limiting the development of their own agriculture, downstream countries should reconsider their attitudes towards cotton and rice irrigation and comparison essay embark on a real reform of research paper, small and medium sector, including farmland privatisation. Cotton is a root of evil in Central Asia, not its saviour from hardships of economic underdevelopment. Central Asian governments did not give up their plans to develop the martin research paper Soviet-style giant projects which are costly and environmentally devastating. It is fair to clinical studies, say that these would offer only short-term relief and would destabilise already fragile situation. Tajikistan should terminate the contract with the Baltic Construction Company for the construction of the Rogun Dam. Turkmenistan should abandon the higher questions marantic idea of clinical research paper, building the Golden Century Lake which is two sports comparison being built in research the desert where water will simply evaporate. Any idea of diverting Siberian rivers to Central Asia should be immediately shelved as environmentally dubious and hugely expensive. It is time for Central Asia to think globally while acting locally. Whereas Karakalpakstan is aston research unlikely to research paper, secede from Uzbekistan today, this in no way lessens such a potential for the area in future. Sad experience of the former Yugoslavia which continues to break down ten years after the initial disintegration shows that any multiethnic state is prone to sudden and irreversible change in its structure. This is especially indicative of the former Soviet Union on which territory there are still several unrecognised statelets claiming their independence, and higher essay questions there will be more, as a result of arbitrary Soviet boundary planning.

The priorities of people of Karakalpakstan should be taken into account when it comes to the water allocation and use, and a real Karakalpak autonomy enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic of paper, Uzbekistan should be given to the region. Nonetheless, existing repressive regime in Uzbekistan is very unlikely to loose its grip on the Karakalpaks and tensions are expected to grow. Given that Afghanistan#146;s rehabilitation is unlikely without increasing its intake from the Amu Darya, Afghanistan#146;s water demands will have to be taken into consideration when negotiating the water situation in the Basin. In promoting consensus on principles of regional co-operation, a major role could belong to international donor agencies that may try to convince Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan that the paper Afghanistan situation is a serious problem that must be dealt with soon. Interstate legislative co-ordination for the Amu Darya water resources should be tailored to fit sustainable development of the clinical research studies paper Amu Darya Basin before proceeding with reconstruction assistance in Afghanistan. Since independence, dozens of agreements regarding joint water use have been signed. However, fewer agreements are implemented.

Lack of regional co-operation in Central Asia has become problem so serious that in environmental terms it has global implications. Fearful of disrupting existing patterns of two sports comparison essay, water use in their agricultural policies, two most stubborn riparians, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, claimed their commitment to paper, bilateral relations. One of the major problems in achieving regional co-operation in english essay questions 2004 shared water resources in clinical studies paper Central Asia will be to attract the attention of these countries to the ideas of international water law and to a multilateral approach. International donor agencies should continue their efforts to bring downstream countries to the round table to discuss the water issues in Central Asia and to press them to drop the projects that could potentially harm their neighbours. That is anti-development possible only if adequate and sufficient information on the environment is available to clinical research studies paper, any party concerned. Unless single information network regarding the state of the environment exists in Central Asia, with the reference to anti-development thesis, the Aarhus Convention, local repressive regimes will be certain about their last word in the never-ending story of Central Asian water crisis. Akmansoy Sandra. 1998. Aral Sea Water Rights. Clinical Paper! Online Report No 3, Center in higher essay questions 2004 Research in Water Resources, The University of Texas at Austin, available at:

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Criteria for Equitable Allocations: The Hearth of International Water Conflict. Natural Resources Forum, 21(1): 3-30. Wolf Aaron T. 2001. Transboundary Waters: Sharing Benefits, Lessons Learned. Thematic Background Paper, International Conference on Freshwater, Bonn, available at:

Wolf Aaron T., Yoffe Shira B. and Mark Giordano. 2003. International waters: identifying basins at risk. Water Policy , 5: 29-60. World Bank. 2000. World Bank Atlas Method: World News Connection (WNC), National Technical Information Service, Department of Commerce, United States of America:

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2001. Managing Transboundary Resources in the Aral Sea Basin: In Search of a Solution. Subject Coursework! International Journal of Global Environmental Issues 1(3/4). Volkov Vitaly. 2003.

Sarezskoe ozero #150; bomba zamedlennogo deistviya? Deutsche Welle , 22 May: Yegorov Yury. 2001. Clinical Research! Perspektivy neuteshitelny. Nezavisimaya gazeta , 12 July. Yerofeeva Nataliya. 2002. Rogunskaya GES budet dostroena. Case Study! Rossiyskaya gazeta , 7 February.

Yoffe Shira and Brian Ward. 1999. Water Resources and Indicators of Conflict: A Proposed Spatial Analysis. Water International 24(4): 54-61. Yoffe Shira. 2001. Basins At Risk: Conflict and Co-operation Over International Freshwater Resources. Clinical Research! PhD diss., Oregon State University, USA.

TJK president issued a decree on nationalization of an essay writer, power lines and paper major gas supplies which UZB used to supply power and gas to aston martin research, its Ferghana Valley. Decree had political implications, against a cold spell in relations between TJK and UZB. TJK and UZB signed an intergovernmental agreement on the development and deepening of economic co-operation; UZB undertook to consider the possibility of reducing the natural gas prices to TJK in 1996. TJK and UZB signed a deal on natural gas, freight transit and the development of communications links. UZB said it wanted to become another guarantor of the peace process in TJK, called on the TJK opposition to search for research paper, the consensus with all regions and conflicting forces in TJK. TJK media reported that part of the UZB senior military establishment is supporting the antigovernment forces in TJK. UZB denied media allegations that UZB interferes in TJK#146;s internal affairs, said UZB committed to the principle of non-interference in english questions domestic affairs of studies paper, TJK. A group of essay, unidentified attackers infiltrated from UZB assaulted TJK border post; two border guards killed. The first such incident occurred in March. An exchange of fire between the border posts of TJK and UZB; there were wounded. TJK and UZB officials met to discuss stabilisation of political and military situation on the border.

The meeting proceeded in the #147;atmosphere of good-neighbourly relations#148;, against continuing TJK allegations that insurgents were supported by UZB. UZB described as false reports saying that militant group came to TJK from UZB, said that #147;UZB, like no other, is interested in the establishment of long-lasting#133; peace and stability in UZB#148;. Phone talks between the presidents; congratulated each other and #147;fraternal#148; people of TJK and UZB with the New Year. TJK president arrived with one-day working visit in UZB; five documents, including an intergovernmental agreement on mutual payments for the delivery of goods and gas supplies in 1998 and TJK#146;s national debt. Joint communiqué and clinical research paper agreements on co-operation in public health, culture, humanitarian aid, science, technology and an essay writer information also signed. UZB foreign minister at his meeting with TJK#146;s president discussed various aspects of regional security and the progress in the implementation of the inter-Tajik peace agreement, the fulfilment of the treaties and studies agreements signed during the visit of TJK president to UZB. Joint statement signed. Meeting of TKM-UZB commission on trade, economic, scientific, technical and cultural co-operation. UZB governmental delegation co-ordinated a mechanism for payment of explanatory case study, $24 million debt to TKM for 1997 railway and clinical research communications services; interest in buying TKM supplies expressed. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan.

During the Tashkent summit, the presidents adopted a number of documents, including that on the entry of TJK into the single economic space of Central Asia, and over 50 projects in chemical and oil and gas sectors, communications and electrical industries. Agreement on setting up of international consortia and accords on formation of research paper, securities markets signed. Statement on further deepening of regional integration and the Tashkent declaration on the UN special programme for CA issued. An official appeal to TJK by studies paper UZB demands that TJK take effective measures to arrest and hand over to UZB members of case, Uzbek criminal groups hiding in TJK and trained to carry out terrorist actions in UZB in studies line with an existing agreement. UZB president said he would do his best to help restore normal life in explanatory study TJK, opening days of TJK in Tashkent. TJK president also attended. Days of TJK is a confirmation of #147;fraternal co-operation which will lay a solid foundation for eternal friendship#148;, UZB president said. A group of unidentified persons attacked the mayor of clinical studies paper, TJK town of Tursunzade, killing five and wounding four, and research fled to UZB. Clinical Research! TJK said it hoped for further co-operation with UZB in tracing and seizing the criminals. UZB president said at aston martin paper, a session of clinical paper, UZB parliament he would do everything possible the aston martin research relations between the clinical research paper two countries remained stable and solid; peace in TJK should be established by political means. In phone talks with TJK president, UZB president condemned recent developments in TJK town of Khodjent, where insurgents attacked government buildings, said those trying to undermine the peace process#133; should realise that UZB#133; is ready to provide necessary assistance#133; UZB will continue to support TJK government.

UZB denied individuals involved in organising antigovernment coup in TJK#146;s Khodjent are now in UZB, described TJK allegations as #147;slander#148;. TJK refuted UZB statements denying its involvement in an attempted coup in Khodjent, called them #147;a deliberate attempt to mislead the world community as regards the an essay writer true situation#148;, said rebels were trained in Djizak region of UZB and helped by UZB secret services. UZB made a statement calling rumours about the rebels hiding in UZB #147;groundless#148;. #147;UZB#133; is clinical studies paper interested in peace and stability in TJK more than anybody else#133; TJK president#146;s statements are poorly thought-out actions and may lead to serious complications and inter-ethnic discord#133; The Uzbek battalion of the CIS collective peacekeeping forces in TJK left its positions. Official sources have not disclosed the reasons for higher critical questions 2004, the sudden transfer of the battalion. An armed invasion of Khodjent was started and supported by clinical research studies paper UZB, 16 captured attackers announced at an essay writer, a press conference. Military specialists from UZB were the instructors in a planned assault on TJK region. The rebels were trained on the territory of UZB. UZB president made a statement denying his country having a hand in the recent armed mutiny in TJK, said recent statement by TJK president has nothing to do with reality. UZB suspended gas supplies to TJK citing technical causes. Research Studies Paper! Supplies were said to be restarted immediately after repairs on the gas mainlines are over; no date specified.

Economic Co-operation, Security. TJK governmental delegation discussed with UZB government the ways of further deepening of co-operation. Higher English Critical Essay 2004! An intergovernmental agreement on mutual payments for the transportation of cargoes and supply of gas in 1999, agreement on paper TJK#146;s national debt signed, as well as a protocol adopting practical measures for implementing earlier signed bilateral agreements. TJK president condemned terrorist attacks in UZB capital, Tashkent, expressed his condolences to the families of the subject victims. UZB unilaterally closed the border with TJK after terrorist attacks rocked the capital.

The border was reopened in a few weeks, after bewildered track drivers protested. UZB president expressed his grievances towards setting up a Russian military base in TJK. #147;The neighbouring countries may ask who this base is aimed at#148;, he said. Research Studies! Extremely negative and emotionally excessive reaction of UZB president caused some annoyance in TJK: #147;UZB should finally accept the idea that TJK is case a sovereign state and not an autonomous area within its influential neighbour#148;. During the Aral Summit in Ashgabat, the clinical research presidents confirmed their mutual interest in bilateral co-operation. UZB foreign minister met with TJK president to discuss bilateral relations and regional stability. Concerning relations between the two countries, minister said, #147;We are ready to solve them on a bilateral basis without mediators and third parties#148;. An intergovernmental agreement on co-operation to combat terrorism, political, religious and other extremism and anti-development thesis illegal drugs trafficking signed. When visiting UZB, TJK foreign minister said he couldn#146;t see any problems in UZB-TJK relations, described as significant words of UZB president who emphasized on many occasions that Uzbeks and research Tajiks are one people who simply speak two different languages. TJK voiced concern over thesis, the presence of clinical research paper, about 1,000 Uzbeks who call themselves refugees and who should be disarmed and expelled from TJK as those who are able to bear arms and threaten joint security. New UZB ambassador to TJK stated the leaders of UZB and TJK are ready to effectively strengthen bilateral relations, said it was not correct to raise the question of so-called Uzbek refugees in TJK as there are communities of migrants living in eastern TJK who #147;appeared here as a result of force and propaganda pressure#148;. Unidentified planes bombed targets in north-eastern TJK; no human casualties reported.

About 15 cattle killed. UZB official sources refused to comment on the incident. Russian sources said the planes involved were Uzbek SU-24 light bombers who allegedly targeted a terrorist group operating in close vicinity of the TJK-UZB border. TJK blamed UZB for bombing and aston martin paper issued a note of protest; said the incident was an #147;unprecedented act#148;, demanded that UZB take #147;undelayed measures to prevent the repetition of such actions that run counter to the principles and nature of relations between the two countries#148;. Clinical Studies! In the same incident, bombs hit Osh region of neighbouring Kyrgyzstan. In response to a TJK note, UZB officially stated that it #147;does not know anything about the facts of comparison essay, alleged bomb strikes by aircraft belonging to the Air Force of#133; UZB against the territory of#133; TJK#148;. UZB expressed support for TJK#146;s policy towards reconciliation with the opposition, said it would be right #147;to once again request that TJK government destroys the saboteurs#146; bases#133; and evicts#133; the bandits and clinical research all those who have not yet laid down their arms and who continue their fight not only against TJK, but also against its neighbours#148;. TJK denied the presence of terrorist training camps in TJK, said those anti-government groups who have remained were ordered to disarm or be destroyed. UZB accused TJK opposition of involvement in recent events in southern Kyrgyzstan, when a big group of Islamic militants tried to enter UZB to overthrow the government, said there were grounds to believe that the #147;bandit formations were backed by english essay TJK opposition#148;. Phone talks between the presidents discussing regional security and combating organised crime, held in #147;traditionally frank spirit#148;.

UZB president reiterated UZB position #147;to support TJK policy in issues of democratic reforms and bringing the peace process to a successful completion#148;. Security, Economic Co-operation. United TJK Opposition statement made clear that #147;despite there were no Uzbek opposition figures on clinical paper TJK territory, UZB decided to two sports, launch bomb attacks#133; UZB Air Forces dropped 2 bombs on Tandikul on Oct 2, 3 bombs on Darai-Chor on Oct 3, 6 bombs on clinical research studies paper Sultag and aston 13 on Gushagba on research Oct 4#133; raided Nushor and Nushori-Bolo in Tajikabad region and several communities in Garm region, causing loss of life#133; Such actions undermine the peace process, national reconciliation#133;#148; UZB Foreign Ministry said UZB is explanatory study prepared to research, forge closer ties with TJK in ensuring stability and protecting borders, hopeful the TJK government #147;will comply with its commitments#133; to neutralise the bandit formations which had infiltrated southern Kyrgyzstan#148;; reaffirmed its crucial interest in restoring durable and lasting peace in#133; TJK. An intergovernmental agreement on mutual payments for the transportation of cargo and supply of higher english critical essay questions 2004, gas in 2000 signed. TJK#146;s chairman of the State Border Protection Committee condemned UZB for taking unilateral measures to determine the territorial borders between the two countries by setting up barriers in studies northern TJK and subject matter occupying hundreds of hectares of TJK territory, added establishment of barriers contradicts international law and may sully the relations between the two countries. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. The presidents signed a Treaty of Eternal Friendship and clinical research paper a memorandum on essay delimitation of the research border between the two countries. A joint delimitation commission set up to overlook the delimitation and start talks. A treaty on extradition of criminals and agreements on the exchange of study, legal information and co-operation in forensic testing also signed.

UZB ambassador to studies, TJK was recalled home in anti-development connection with the clinical research studies situation in the Surkhandarya Region of UZB where a large #147;bandit#148; group initiated action against government forces. Official TJK stressed commitment to a policy of good-neighbourly relations with UZB. UZB president accused TJK of the connivance with extremists saying that #147;no matter how#133; TJK denies that, we have plenty of facts to confirm the higher english questions situation. If TJK continues to research studies, say that terrorists did not come#133; from territory of TJK, we wiil have to publish official testimonies of the an essay writer captured and other documents#133; What else is needed for an official announcement of the TJK leadership#133; that terrorists have settled on their territory and they need help to destroy the terrorists and their centres? In that case, I can assure you, both UZB and clinical research other CA republics will give the assistance to anti-development thesis, TJK#148;. Responding to a proposal by a leading TJK opposition figure to mediate in TJK-UZB conflict, UZB president sharply denounced his help by saying, #147;We have no need of talks or mediation from anyone#148;, did not refrain from such words like wicked, mean, etc, speaking about the candidate mediator. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. Visa regime between TJK and clinical research studies paper UZB introduced, causing concern among transit passengers, traders, etc. Security, Economic Co-operation. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of comparison, Iran, WNC. TJK officially confirmed earlier reports that UZB border guards plant mines along the entire length of the 1,100-km border with TJK to clinical studies paper, prevent penetration of TJK-based militants, said such actions contradict international laws.

Since the beginning of the nclb matter coursework War of Mines, over research studies, 50 people have been killed. TKM and UZB signed intergovernmental tax legislation co-operation agreement; co-operation agreement in coursework the field of transit movement of cargoes by studies paper rail; a treaty on the delimitation of border between TKM and UZB. TJK ambassador to UZB filed a note of protest over the closure of border roads to UZB linking TJK villages, said UZB military imposed a ban on critical essay questions the traffic of TJK transport to and through UZB #147;under the pretext#148; of clinical research studies, preparations for anti-development, independence anniversary celebrations. UZB Foreign Ministry did not react. Security, Economic Co-operation. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. UZB extended visa-free border-crossing regime for TJK until 1 Jan 2001, in studies response to the request from the TJK embassy, in connection with mass appeals from TJK citizens returning home after seasonal work. UZB president declared TJK#146;s government must admit it cannot provide security in border areas and martin identify areas where it is not in control, said UZB would increase the upkeep of the army as it is the only way to maintain peace and stability in the region. #147;We must detect threats to our security and effectively protect the country from them#148;, he said.

Phone talks between the presidents to follow up the border delimitation treaty and to discuss border guards, customs and sanitary control; focused on the ways to foster economic partnership and congratulated each other on the 10 th anniversary of their countries#146; independence. Simplification by TKM of the studies paper border crossing regime with UZB. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. Phone talks between the presidents focusing on regional security issues, the situation in Afghanistan; underlined the importance of close co-operation in efforts to ensure regional security, touched on the most pressing bilateral co-operation issues #147;at this stage in the development of an essay writer, relations#148;. During his visit to UZB, TJK president signed a joint statement confirming the presidents#146; #147;true devotion to development of clinical, multifaceted co-operation on the principles of equality, non-interference into internal affairs, mutual assistance, respect for each other#146;s sovereignty and territorial integrity, and peaceful settlement of disputes#148;. UZB prime minister statement: #147;TKM does not understand the seriousness of transporting gas to Ukraine and Russia#133; The only way for higher critical essay, TKM to supply gas#133; is through the transit systems of UZB#133;#148; Phone talks between the presidents on joint steps to strengthen border co-operation; agreed to build trading centres for trans-border trade.

Search of UZB embassy by TKM security forces in an attempt to research, find suspects involved in the attack on the TKM president. Protest note by UZB following a search of aston, UZB embassy in research paper Asghabat. TKM accuses UZB of hiding the leaders of conspiracy against nclb subject matter, TKM president in the UZB embassy; UZB insisted on explanations. Armies of the clinical studies paper two countries had been moved closer to the border; cross-border trade halted. TKM declares UZB ambassador persona non grata and demands that he left the country within 24 hours.

Long-standing dispute over the Kokdumalak oil and aston research gas field settled; the agreement signed to jointly develop the clinical studies paper field. UZB set to accelerate the an essay writer construction of a new railroad to its southern regions bypassing TKM. Economic Development, Security. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on Co-operation in the Management, Utilisation and clinical Protection of Interstate Water Resources; establishment of the Interstate Council for Aral Sea Basin problems (ICAS).

Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on the establishment of the International Fund of the Aral Sea (IFAS) Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Presidents met to essay, discuss environmental problems of the Aral Sea; decided to set up Aral Ecobank to clinical paper, keep money allocated for joint projects and critical questions ensure more economical uses of water from the Amu Darya and Syr Darya. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.

Agreement on paper joint actions for addressing the problems of the Aral Sea, improving the environment and ensuring the social and economic development of the region. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. A long-term Concept and a short-term Program for the Aral Sea adopted at a meeting of the presidents. The Concept describes a new approach to development of the Aral Sea basin, including a strict policy of water conservation. The Aral Sea itself was recognized as a legitimate water user for the first time. Explanatory Case Study! The Program has four major objectives: to stabilize the environment of the Aral Sea; to rehabilitate the disaster zone around the Sea; to improve the clinical research paper management of international waters of the basin; and to build the capacity of regional institutions to plan and nclb matter implement these programs. Wolf-Aral Sea Case Study, TFDD. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Nukus Declaration on the problems of sustainable development of the Aral Sea Basin. UZB and research paper TKM sign a package of 21 co-operation agreements, including an outline political treaty and agreements on border protection, water use, oil exploitation, etc.

Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Almaty Declaration on the creation of Interstate Commission on Sustainable Development and the need of preparation of common Convention on Sustainable Development. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Deputy Prime Ministers of KA, KZ, TJK, TKM and case study UZB met to consider financing international fund to paper, save Aral Sea. KA, TKM and UZB will transmit to an essay writer, the fund 3% of their budget revenue, while KZ and TJK will hand over 1% of state budget revenue. Fund's board also considered present environmental/ epidemic situation in clinical research studies paper basin of Aral Sea, implementation of two sports comparison essay, national program to research studies paper, supply region with clear drinking water. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. An interstate water resources commission representing these countries decided to anti-development thesis, set up a Central Asian water and energy consortium; agreed on clinical paper the common water for energy generation strategy; the installation of the water measuring equipment to subject matter coursework, control water flow into the Aral Sea; water quotas for clinical research studies, every country. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. The summit held behind closed doors discussed prospects for co-operation in the communications, transport, aviation and petroleum sectors; also focused on problems of the Aral Sea and an essay writer regional security. Joint statement on long-term co-operation signed.

Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use. A number of other agreements signed, including that on clinical paper restructuring TJK#146;s debts to UZB, on legal aid and aston research co-operation between prosecutor generals, on co-operation and research studies mutual assistance between the security services, on combating crime, etc. Moscow ITAR-TASS World Service, WNC. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on anti-development Co-operation in the Area of Environment and clinical studies paper Rational Nature Use.

Talks between the presidents concerning regional security, including the use of the Amu Darya, resulting in signing a communiqué. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Ashgabat Declaration urging more international attention to the Aral Sea region. Agreement on Co-operation in 2004 the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use in 1999. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan.

Agreement on Co-operation in the Sphere of Hydrometeorology. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on the Parallel Operation of the Energy Systems of Central Asia. Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use in 2000. During talks, the presidents described water issue as most pressing topic of current time, rejected OSCE initiative to convene international conference to discuss water issue stating that states should rely on own potential and work at bilateral level. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Some progress in clinical research studies paper water issues was made at a recent meeting of 5 deputy water ministers in UZB city of Nukus in Karakalpakstan. UZB blamed the spread of infectious diseases in the country on the health situation in TJK, where new outbreak of typhoid fever has been registered. UZB Deputy Prime Minister said the water in english questions 2004 the rivers flowing into UZB from TJK was a major factor in the spread of infectious diseases and the sanitary and hygienic conditions on the banks of these rivers were appalling. TJK dismissed the statement by saying that no outbreak of typhoid fever had been registered in studies TJK that year and the water in the Syr Darya river flowing into anti-development, UZB was monitored constantly, added diseases cannot spread to UZB from TJK simply because UZB banned TJK residents to enter the country without obtaining a permission.

Water Quality, Health. Mashhad Voice of the research studies paper Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of nclb matter coursework, Rational Water and Energy Use in 2002. Intergovernmental talks on the rehabilitation and joint management of the Karshi pump station cascade; development of the Kokdumalak oil and gas field; agreement on settling the mutual arrears of TKM and UZB firm and research paper interaction between the two railway networks reached.

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21 Tips for UC Personal Insight Questions and studies paper Essays. If you#8217;re applying to aston martin research any of the University of California schools, you need to write four short essays. To start, read through all eight of the Personal Insight Questions you have to choose from. (Find specific ideas and strategies for each of the clinical research studies paper 8 new Personal Insight Questions at comparison, the bottom of this post!) The goal is to research paper write four short essays that as a whole will provide the nclb matter coursework UC admissions deciders with a picture of what makes you unique and clinical research paper special#8212;and help set you apart from the competition. Think of each short piece (no longer than 350 each) as a lens for them to see and understand different parts of you. Also, keep in mind how these four pieces fit together to essay showcase your character and personality as a whole. Each short piece for your Personal Insight Questions should feature an interesting topic on its own. And all four topics should complement each other to paint a varied and balanced picture.

In effect, these four short essays will serve as your one personal statement, which colleges and universities use to help decide if you will be a fit at their institution. The best ones are engaging (especially at the start), meaningful and memorable. Here are some strategies, tips and ideas on how to pull this off. and ace your Personal Insight Questions: Read all eight questions first. Then read them again. The UC Admissions Department has worked hard to provide you many tips and brainstorming ideas to help you respond to their Personal Insight Questions. Make sure to use them. There#8217;s no better way to learn what they want from studies paper, you, and critical 2004 how to paper give it to them.

Start with the Personal Insight Questions and related instructions, then read about each prompt on the PDF writing worksheet, and two sports comparison also check out their Writing Tips, especially the tips on Avoiding Common Mistakes in sidebar box (below). It can be overwhelming, but they cover everything. Note which ones you like the best right off the research studies top, and take notes of an essay writer, any ideas that pop out on your first read. For each prompt, figure out what it wants you to write about, and then brainstorm specific examples from real-life to illustrate your topic. This will make sure each mini-essay has a clear topic and focus, and isn#8217;t too general and dull. Pick your favorite prompt and write it out. It doesn#8217;t have to be perfect. Clinical Research Studies Paper! That#8217;s a great starting point, since you will see that these aren#8217;t that hard and embolden you to move to the next.

As you get ideas for the different prompts, start to think about how your topics will work together. Make sure your topics don#8217;t overlap and that you highlight something distinctly different about yourself in each essay. Look for thesis topics that showcase parts of you or your experiences and clinical studies paper accomplishments that admissions officers would not learn about in other parts of higher essay questions, your application. Use those! Let yourself write in different styles and paper tones with these essays. Some might be more serious and others lighter in an essay writer nature. Paper! That#8217;s a good way to higher english essay add variety and interest to your total essay package. Even though these are shorter essays, you still need to make them interesting to read, especially at the start. Make sure not to simply answer directly each question. For example, don#8217;t start your essay for Prompt 6 (about your favorite subject) with something like: #8220;My favorite academic subject is math. Clinical Research Studies Paper! It has influenced me in many ways#8230;#8221; Instead, think of your favorite subject, and then brainstorm what first inspired you or excited you about it, and start with that specific example of the #8220;time.#8221; Or start with a specific example of #8220;a time#8221; you were challenged in that subject, and why you then got hooked on comparison it.

Since there are four separate essays, consider taking more of a risk with at clinical research, least one of the essays. Think a little out of the box for your topic idea, or use a more creative writing style or approach. Even short essays can be dull. One of the anti-development thesis best ways to research studies paper inject interest is to think of some type of coursework, problem that relates to your topic, whether it#8217;s leadership, creativity, talent, skill, favorite subjects or volunteer work. Clinical Studies Paper! Start by relating that specific problematic #8220;time#8221; or incident and go from there. Consider starting with the an essay writer last of the Personal Insight Questions, Prompt 8, about clinical studies paper, what #8220;sets you apart.#8221; It is the most open-ended, and brainstorming for topic ideas can spark ideas for the other UC prompts, or even prompts for other longer essays, such as The Common Application or Coalition main essay. (In fact, you can use any or all of the 8 UC prompts to inspire topic ideas for your other required essays!) If you faced some type of hardship in your life or background, strongly consider writing one of an essay writer, your essays about Personal Insight Question 5. This is your chance to show the UC what obstacles or barriers you have overcome to achieve your current accomplishments. It makes a big difference when they understand how far you have come! If you are considering writing about Personal Insight Questions Prompt 4 and your educational experiences, notice that it#8217;s really two separate questions asking about either an education opportunity or an educational barrier.

Don#8217;t try to answer both questions in your one essay. Pick one or the other to make sure you have a focused essay. The best way to avoid a dull essay is to clinical look for ways to #8220;show#8221; about your point instead of just #8220;tell#8221; about it. (Showing uses examples; telling explains.) For example, for research paper Prompt 3 (about a talent or skill), instead of research studies paper, explaining how and why you are great at the piano, think of #8220;a time#8221; or moment that you faced some type of challenge involving your piano playing and start with that. Don#8217;t just tell (explain) how you got good at martin research paper, it and how good you are. That would not go over well. Give specific examples so the readers can see for themselves. This #8220;Show First#8221; approach applies to almost all eight prompts. Every student works differently when it comes to thinking and writing. Clinical Studies Paper! Some might like to pick the four that appeal to higher critical questions them and crank out four, rough short essays, and then go back and see how they fit together, and edit and change them to produce a strong mix.

Others might want to start with the one they feel the strongest about, polish it up and then go onto studies the second and study do the same. No matter what your style, at some point, read your four essays to clinical paper look for overlap and make sure you have diversity and balance. Remember that the UC is weighing all four essays equally . So don#8217;t put all your energy into an essay writer just one or even two of the essays. Make sure they can each stand alone as interesting and complete essays about one main point. The word limit is 350 for each Personal Insight Questions essay. There#8217;s no minimum. I would make sure to studies write at an essay writer, least 250 for each essay, and best to shoot for 300-350 to take advantage of the space. Research Studies Paper! Why waste a single word? (The total word count is 1,400) I would write your essays on a Word doc or by hand, and then transfer the higher essay questions final essays to the UC application only clinical when you are finished. Don#8217;t include the an essay writer entire prompt; just the number, such as #8220;Prompt 3.#8221; Consider how to order your Personal Insight Questions essays. You could go in the order of the numbers of the ones you wrote about. Clinical Research! My opinion, however, would be to put your strongest (most engaging and interesting) essay at the top, and aston research work down by variety and strength from there.

Don#8217;t stress about this; just something to try. Paper! Write these short essays as you would a longer personal essay. Use the first person (#8220;I#8221; and #8220;me#8221; and #8220;my#8221; and #8220;us.#8221; Avoid #8220;you#8221;!). Do not simply list accomplishments, achievements, awards and work. Avoid overdone or cliche topics. Seek feedback from a trusted person. Proofread closely before submitting. This might be the coursework best for last: One way to approach these essays strategically would be to first write down the activities, accomplishments, personal qualities, core values, meaningful experiences and other aspects of yourself that you want to showcase to the UCs. Clinical Research Studies! Then scroll through the 8 Personal Insight Questions and match up which prompts would best showcase these features in your essays.

That way, you are in command of research, shaping the picture of yourself that you want to show the UCs, instead of randomly writing essays to answer the prompts. If you actually read all these 21 tips, then you are obviously a serious student and research studies someone who does their homework. Now, take a deep breath and do your best not to over-stress on these. These four essays will not make or break your chance at an essay writer, a UC school. They are just one piece of your application. Give them your best shot.

Keep everything in perspective. You are already ahead of the pack and clinical research studies paper will land in an amazing school! One of the explanatory best tips the UC admissions provided are these common pitfalls#8212;especially because they are the experts at how students in the past have hurt their essays: Avoid common mistakes in Your Personal Insight Essays: Talking about one campus: You’re talking to all UC campuses you apply to in your responses Inappropriate use of humor Creative writing (poems, cliches) Quotations: We want to know your thoughts words, not someone else’s Generalities: Stick to facts and personal examples Repetition: Give us new info. we can’t find in other sections of the application Asking philosophical questions: Get to the point and tell us what you mean Acronyms: Spell it out for us! Above all, don#8217;t sweat these. These Personal Insight Questions essays are just one piece of your application. These are all about a subject you know better than anything else: Yourself! Now just spend some time to figure out what parts you want to spotlight, and get cranking. If it helps, here are the 8 questions without the additional advice if you want to compare them: Freshman applicants: Personal insight questions. Answer any 4 of the studies paper following 8 questions: (click blue to see post on that prompt)

Many good suggestions here, Janine. I would only add that it would be useful to strategize how to use these insight questions as #8220;starters#8221; for other, longer essays that may be required as supplements, or even for the Common App. And, I would add, it would be optimal to choose topics which will give admissions the broadest sense of who you are. Great comment! I just used the two sports comparison essay UC guidelines and brainstormer worksheet for my College Guidance groups on the Common App essay. The idea came from a breakout session on essay development at the IECA conference in Boston. Always a fan of research paper, Janine, so naturally looking to the insights and posts on anything about anti-development, essay writing. Yes, totally love Gabrielle#8217;s idea, and added it to Tip #11 in this post. Nice to research studies know it works in practice, too.

Funny how the UC didn#8217;t dig how students used to recycle their Common App essays for anti-development one of the 2 old UC essays, and clinical research now with these shorter prompts, the study tables are turned#8212;and students can use their UC ideas to spin into research studies Common App essays. Subject Matter! Why waste a great idea or story? : ) I really like you post and want to invite you to studies speak at our platform webinar. Let me know if you are interested. Urgoo: platform for global counselors. Martin Research Paper! Hi Sunny, Thanks for thinking of research paper, me. Martin Paper! Please send me private message at my email: Best, Janine Robinson. Great idea, Gabrielle! I just updated this post and clinical studies paper included your suggestion in Tip #11.

THANKS! Thanks, Jeanine! Glad I could be of anti-development thesis, help! would you hep me out and clinical studies review my answers. UC#039;s New Personal Insight Questions - New Vision Learning - [#8230;] more specific advice and two sports how to tackle each of these questions. You will find some interesting tips here.

As UC Essay Prompt 3: Talents and Skills | Essay Hell - [#8230;] Learn all about clinical research, The New UC Essay Prompts and also 21 Tips to anti-development thesis Help Answer the New UC Essay UC Application Tips! De Anza Honors - [#8230;] seven questions, but it also may be more difficult to pick the right questions for you! You can use 13+ Resources for Writing University of California Personal Statement | wiltonmartin - [#8230;] Essay Hell : If you have UC personal insight questions you can just visit this source to clinical studies paper get answers. As a professional writing coach, I help students, parents, counselors, teachers and others from around the world on these dreaded essays! Learn about my in-person and online tutoring, editing, workshops, books, and coursework online courses, . READ MORE. . Learn to Write Your Essay in One Hour! My on-demand, fast-and-easy online e-course: How to studies Write a College App Essay (Click lightbulb for details.) Perfect for The Common App, UCs, grad school, transfer and scholarship essays!

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Essay Dignity Of Labour For Student Essays and Research Papers. ACTIVITY 5. POWER OF A STUDENT (Teacher’s Notes) PROCESS SKILLS: Measure, Observe, Compare, Test, Explain OBJECTIVE: The objective of this . activity is to motivate the concept of power, or rate at which energy is clinical transformed, and to apply it to the rate at which students do work to study increase their gravitational potential energy in climbing a flight of stairs. IDEA: Students are asked to measure their gain in gravitational potential energy as they climb a flight of stairs, then to calculate the rate. Energy , Energy in physics , Gravitational potential 1709 Words | 6 Pages. Reflective Essay: Dignity and Respect.

Reflective essay : Dignity and research studies respect 10053603 Introduction The Purpose of this essay is to martin reflect upon . an experience which relates to the chosen topic of dignity and research studies respect, this was highlighted in my self-assessment (please see appendix) Acknowledging a persons’ dignity can contribute to their sense of good health, well-being and independence. Subject Coursework? Dignity is an essential element of studies, high quality care and essay involves aspects such as respect, privacy, autonomy and self-worth (The Welsh Assembly. Nursing 2400 Words | 7 Pages. To what extent where the Liberal Social Reforms of 1906-1914 a response to the challenge of the Labour party? Between 1906-1914, the Liberal . Government introduced a series of social reforms. The reforms were the result of a combination of complex factors. The Liberal Government were worried by clinical research paper, the growth in the popularity of the Labour Party. Critical Essay Questions 2004? They were also responding to fears of Britain’s decline in “National Efficiently”- shown up in the Boer War. The social surveys of Booth and Rowntree also.

Keir Hardie , Labour Party , Liberal Democrats 1177 Words | 3 Pages. Internal Labour Market Essay | Human Resource Management In Context | | “Internal labour markets are more . than a device that permits managers to research promote their friends. Analyse critically this statement and provide case examples”. | | Student : | 11/1/2008 | Word Count: 1825 | Introduction: The focus of this essay and the central thrust is to determine how significant internal labour market (ILM) is and to justify that ILM is not there for essay questions 2004 dishonourable managers to misuse it. Employment , Human resource management , Human resources 2126 Words | 6 Pages. Dignity of Labour : “Shouldn't an honest and descent job be enough?” “Work is studies work”; no work is case superior or lower in itself. Clinical? It . is absolutely wrong to consider any work as high or low. The work itself is a dignity and every work has some dignity attached to it.

The meaning of dignity of labour every kind of work is dignified. It also implies that dignity can be achieved only by hard work. All types of jobs are respected equally, and no occupation is considered superior. Dignity of labour indicates. Butler , Cook , Domestic worker 558 Words | 2 Pages.

Introduction The purpose of this essay is to an essay writer explore how the research paper key agencies or Unions help the Singapore business to step out from english critical 2004, global . financial crisis in year 2008/2009. This essay will look into Murata Singapore Private Limited, one of the affected electronic companies during this recession. Studies? The conclusion will justify the solution that the Company has taken to resolve the situation. Background Global financial crisis begins with the bankruptcies of Lehman Brothers, the fourth largest US. 2009 , Electronics , Employment 1064 Words | 4 Pages. generative questions and develop deep conceptual understandings. * Making connections between ideas, learning domains and experiences’. Research? (VCAA 2009 . Clinical Research Studies Paper? ‘Inquiry Learning’) Assessment Rubric The group report is two sports worth 25 marks and the individual student reflection is worth 5 marks. The total mark for the task is 30 (see Rubrics) and this is then divided by 2 to determine the score out of 15 for the unit. A brief description of the levels of performance is listed below: Criteria/Descriptors | Level. Competition , Imperfect competition , Market power 1327 Words | 5 Pages.

seen as a mad, insane and a psychopath who spends her time trying to take her revenge on all men. Clinical? This makes the reader feel sympathy for essay questions Miss Havisham in . many ways such as feeling sorry for her. Research? It is also about obsessive love gone wrong. In this essay I will be revealing how Duffy attempts to explanatory make the reader feel sympathy for the protagonist. In the studies poem “Stealing” Duffy writes “He weighed a ton; his torso, frozen stiff, hugged to my chest, a fierce chill piercing my gut.” This makes the reader. Antagonist , Emotion , Feeling 1558 Words | 3 Pages. increase in population as 40 % of coursework, total population growth since WWII has come from migration. This is also related to clinical studies the level of economic activity we . experience, if there is a upturn in comparison economic activity leading to labour shortages,Australia’s migrant intake will rise to meet the demand of labour . Age distribution, Australia’s workforce mainly consists of people in the 15 to 65 age group. Overall there is an ageing population in Australia, the median age has risen from about 31 to 37 in the past two. Australia , Demographic economics , Demographics 773 Words | 3 Pages. Exploratory Essay on Student Issues.

October 11, 2009 Exploratory Essay Our group selected and discussed eight different essays addressing a range of subjects. . Some of these essays focused on issues related to clinical students , while others focused on issues related to our citizenship in this country and the world. The essays allowed us to case study consider issues that were familiar to us, as well as issues that were beyond our own personal experiences. Research Studies? Each essay provided us an opportunity to consider our future and how we view the world and the. History of the Internet , Internet , Non-traditional student 2220 Words | 6 Pages. ?The labour market is where the case study demand and supply of labour interact to determine the wage rate and the allocation of . Research? labour resources between firms and nclb subject matter industries in the economy. The stimulus emphasises the distinct trends in clinical paper the labour market such as underemployment, low participation rate and high unemployment rate in Australia. The government has an active role in dealing with different employment issues by creating employment opportunities, altering wages to an essay writer be equitable and other costs of hiring. Economics , Employment , Keynesian economics 1092 Words | 3 Pages. 1. About the ILO 2. Topics 3. Regions 4. Meetings and events 5. Publications 6. Research 7. Labour standards 8. Clinical Paper? . Statistics and subject databases IPEC The Programme What is child labour ILO Conventions and Recommendations Worst forms of child labour Related issues: AIDS, gender. Sectors and topics Child labour statistics Action against child labour Projects Partners Countries dashboard Campaign and advocacy Events Publications and research studies resources ILO home gt; About.

Childhood , International Labour Conference , International Labour Organization 723 Words | 3 Pages. ? Student Debt Joe Shearin DeVry University Prewriting The narrowed topic for my paper is Student Debt in . America and how can we stop it as a society. It’s very hard to get out of student debt and I will show ways that people can overcome this issue that has been going on for some time. Who is your primary audience or reader? Why? Be detailed in your answer about your audience. My intended audience for my paper is students that are struggling with student debt and are looking. Debt , Education finance , Loan 1852 Words | 5 Pages.

Description Around the world, company managers are creating a new business order by internationalizing corporate activity. This course focuses on concepts . that should be known by students intending to research paper be involved in global commerce. Credit Status One Credit. Clinical Studies Paper? Learning Outcomes Upon successful completion of this subject the student will be able to: 1. Explain the essay questions importance to Canadian managers of studies paper, thinking international and an essay writer learning how to operate outside of Canada. 2. Studies? Understand how country differences. Academic dishonesty , Business , Business school 1250 Words | 6 Pages. Labour law also known as employment law deals with the body of laws, administrative rulings and precedents which addresses the legal rights of . and restrictions on research paper, working people and research paper their organizations1. The direct function of labour law is that it deals with the nclb rules governing employment relationship. Labour law functions through the role accorded by common law, legislation and is helped also by the extra legal sources such as the research studies customs and collective bargaining.

Labour law is divided in to thesis two. Employment , Employment Appeal Tribunal , Employment compensation 2823 Words | 7 Pages. profit of the clinical research studies company would be greater if the Compressor Division sold 500 compressors to the Home Appliance Division. Study? However, the Compressor Division will . be unable to sell all 2,000 units to paper the public as a result of the constraint on available labour hours. English Critical Essay Questions? To prove: =2000*(60/20) = 6,000 =6,000/30 = 200/4 weeks = 50 workers available Maximum hours that can be worked = 50*37hours*4 weeks = 7400 hours maximum =500 units to studies home appliance*4 hours per unit== 2000 hours for home appliance Total. Manufacturing , Maxima and minima , Profit 680 Words | 4 Pages. STUDENT MODEL ESSAY Does global warming pose a serious threat? Former Vice President of the United States, Al . Gore, paints a quintessence of global warming as a “planetary emergency – a crisis that threatens the survival of subject, our civilization and the habitability of the Earth.” Global warming, as its name insinuates, is a ubiquitous phenomenon which leads to numerous implications on a worldwide scale. It refers to the increase in the mean temperature of the Earth’s surface air.

Carbon dioxide , Climate change , Ecology 893 Words | 3 Pages. became probably most used one. It is very important tool for all students , which provides them with a wide range of information and makes their . work more effective and efficient. Because of lack of knowledge how to appropriate using sources, citations and because of laziness or lack of time the Internet is clinical studies often used for an essay writer plagiarizing. What is more, it offers so many web pages where someone else will write the research paper assignment instead of student for some money.

The Internet offers easy way to finish work in. Academic dishonesty , History of the Internet , Musical plagiarism 1487 Words | 4 Pages. Role of Student to nclb Maintain Peaceful Atmosphere at Home, School and Society. ROLE OF STUDENTS HOW STUDENTS CAN BEST SERVE THEIR COUNTRY: Hints: 1. Tremendous man-power of the country is being wasted . away. 2. Paper? Education must be made purposeful and practical. 3. High aims and nclb subject matter aspirations must be set before the students . 4. Students must work to remove social evils. 5. Students must actively participate in the economic development of the country. 6. Military training is clinical research studies paper essential. 7. Nclb Subject Coursework? Students must not participate in politics and give up their indulgence in hooligism. Education , Politics , Student 1219 Words | 4 Pages.

“Benefits of Providing Enrichment to High-Potential Students from Low-Income Families” by Rachelle . Miller and Marcia Gentry This article, from Teaching for clinical research studies paper High Potential, Fall 2011, was illuminating, and, at the same time, left a few gaps for nclb matter coursework me. A quick summary. Researchers, Miller and clinical research paper Gentry, based this piece on the “Validity Evidence of the explanatory study HOPE Scale: Instrumentation to Identify Low-Income Elementary Students for clinical studies paper Gifted Programs.” (The HOPE Scale is an. Education , Gifted education , Intelligence quotient 849 Words | 3 Pages. ?Brittany Miller English 092 Successful Student What is needed in order to higher english questions be a successful student ? How can I better myself to research paper . go further in life? There are so many ways I can further myself to succeed as a student . Yes, it does come with a lot of aston martin, obstacles along the way. Research Studies? However, just having support, motivation, and goals for myself can definitely allow me to case study achieve the lifestyle of a successful student . Having people to support me is probably one of the biggest things that keep me thriving.

Aerosmith , Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis , Lebanon, Tennessee 889 Words | 3 Pages. Effect of research paper, Higher Education on Labour Market in anti-development Uk. increasing numbers of students who are willing to studies continue their higher education study around the world. Case? There seems to be an increase of . prospect students which grows rapidly especially in some countries such as China, and United Kingdom. Due to the increase in research student graduates with higher education especially in United Kingdom, there are negative effects such as being over qualification, tough competition among native students and international students , and looser fit in labour market in case United.

Academic degree , Education , Employment 1136 Words | 4 Pages. A Successful College Student. Essay. Successful College Student Successful means accomplishing or achieving an aim or a goal, a purpose. A College is an educational institution . which can gain knowledge by students . Student can further their education at college after graduated from high school or secondary school. Clinical Studies? Student is the an essay writer one who is studying at a school or a college, and student can also defined as a learner. College student can take any courses that they are interested in a college or university. Students who choose to further. Education , Goal , Student 1345 Words | 4 Pages. International Student Interview Essay. surrounding countries as well.

They have first-rate justice systems, improved living situations, high-class transportation, finer luxuries, and clinical research enhanced . overall lifestyles. My college English class was informed that we must interview an international student to discuss their opinions about the case study U.S., and clinical research studies paper it was an exciting topic to conceive. Aston? Who better to ask then an individual that has lived in the distant country, smelt the air, and walked the grounds. I began scouring the halls of Louisiana State University. Culture of India , High school , Louisiana 1659 Words | 5 Pages. country in the world I travel to, I will not come to the United Stated of America, daddy!” My daddy just laughed and said, “You’ll never know young lady, so . let’s see”. Two years after that I am writing an essay in my room, not in Indonesia but United States. Research Studies Paper? How can it be? Well, I am an exchange student staying in Wisconsin now. I applied for an exchange program for all over the world and United States is one of the subject countries in paper my list.

Not because I want to go to subject matter coursework the United States because I already. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Country music , Humid subtropical climate 1115 Words | 3 Pages. THE ERADICATION of child labour from clinical, our society seems to be a herculean task at this moment. However, with determined efforts on the part of . both Central and state governments along with the help of various national and international societies, it seems that change can be brought about to make everyone believe that children are the treasures for future and they are not born to work; they are born to learn, play and higher english critical essay 2004 enjoy their childhood. My focus on clinical research studies, this article is based on a related article.

Child , Childhood , Employment 1248 Words | 4 Pages. Dignity : It’s Value A Terminal Requirement In English IV Submitted to: Mrs. Higher Critical Essay Questions? Jheinena Clarin Teacher Submitted by: Lloyd John . Borres And Hannah Gilda Timtim Dedication… The researchers would like to dedicate this research paper to clinical studies paper those people who have lost their ways and wander in darkness. We hope that even just a little bit, we are able to open your minds and touch your hearts. Always remember that no matter what happens, we will always be there for you and accept you. . 2008 singles , Evil , God 2361 Words | 7 Pages.

Essay on Sociological Issues Effects on comparison essay, Students. Many sociological issues within society can have both short and long term impacts on students and their school communities, this . essay will focus on how rural location can affect learning communities, classroom interaction and student learning outcomes as well as provide recommendations to clinical cater for diversity in regards to location. When discussing location it is important to know what is meant by the term rural; “The Commonwealth Government recently defined rural as all non-metropolitan places with. Education , High school , History of education 1510 Words | 5 Pages. I did not write this essay , but I used it.

Learning Centered Classroom The classroom seems to be quite colorful and interactive. Matter? The moment . one steps in, it seems to be a story like situation, rather than a real class room. What makes this class room stand out from rest of the conventional classrooms is that it is stimulating and the environment is rich in resources. Clinical Research Studies Paper? All the walls are filled with different types of learning aids, and not to forget that there is higher english critical a projector on the main wall, that. Classroom , Education , Educational psychology 1625 Words | 4 Pages. Guidelines for the final essay : Objectives: While preparing this assignment you are meant to 1) learn more about the research studies paper topic you are interested . in by looking into academic sources, 2) practice academic essay writing and an essay writer develop your style and rhetoric, 3) practice analytic observation and critical thinking, 4) develop research skills, 5) create bibliography, 6) practice correct citation, and finally 7) how not to plagiarize. The content: The topic that you choose should be related to clinical studies paper our course material. Al-Andalus , Caliphate , Citation 1096 Words | 4 Pages.

Reflective Essay on Students with Disabilities. In a presentation about parents and families of students with disabilities, the research Riley family came up and shared their experiences about living . with Catherine, a woman who has Down syndrome. The three presenters who shared were Molly, Nola, and clinical research Catherine. Molly, who is Catherine’s older sister, talked about what it was like growing up together with Catherine and how it affected her life. Nola, Catherine’s mother, told what it was like bringing and raising a child with Down syndrome in this world. Developmental disability , Disability , Down syndrome 812 Words | 3 Pages. “Death with Dignity ” Physician assisted suicide has long been a topic of debate. Those who are in favor and those who are very much against thesis . it, make very convincing arguments on both sides of this controversial topic. In November 2012, people of the state of Massachusetts voted on a very controversial petition called the Massachusetts Death with Dignity Initiative.

This initiative that was defeated, allowed the people of Massachusetts with terminal illness (a terminally ill patient. Death , Euthanasia , Hippocrates 1291 Words | 6 Pages. ?Human dignity Nowadays human dignity is clinical studies paper everywhere, to the public place, to the political, economic, social or medical . concept. An Essay Writer? Dignity is defined as a moral, legal, ethical or political term that means a being has an innate right to be treating equitability. Every human being has the basic right of equality, respect, freedom, acceptance, and to think, express his moral beliefs. According to clinical research paper human rights doctrine, “Human dignity is nclb coursework a universal, indivisible, independent, and interconnected. Health , Health care , Health economics 2491 Words | 10 Pages. effects of clinical research studies, computer games. With this in coursework mind I found it necessary and original to write one. In this essay , the most notable positive effects . of research studies paper, computer games will be humbly reviewed. In following we will talk about the nclb positive effects of video games regarding: motivation, hand-eye coordination, retention memory and lastly spatial skill.

As we all know, the success behind a good project, essay , homework or any achievement in life has one big prerequisite to research paper it: motivation. Anti-development? This comes in many forms. Electronic game , Game , Gameplay 1346 Words | 5 Pages. Word Count 2450 DIGNITY IN CARE; KEEPING THE STANDARDS Definition of dignity ; the quality or state of being worthy of studies paper, . esteem or respect.(the free dictionary 2011).This definition seems short, however the english questions 2004 concept of dignity is more profound, the nurse should use her inner tool thus being feelings , empathy, compassion and use these productively.(Haddock 1996). The reasonable expectation that an older person , may have of studies, dignified, nursing ,care in clean surroundings in hospital is english critical not. Health , Health care , Health care provider 2473 Words | 7 Pages. taught everything in diversity approaches from clinical research studies paper, their parents and the community. Martin? Some people who cannot behave well need to spend much time on what they like . to do most, but some need others for studies paper guidance. Research Paper? That what is happening today for some students . This essay will discuss on the behavior’s theory in terms of research studies, applied behavior analysis, four ways to reinforce existing behavior or teach new ones and also how to two sports comparison essay master learning in the classroom.

According to The Treatment Integrity of studies, School Based. Applied behavior analysis , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 1537 Words | 5 Pages. DISCIPLINE WITH DIGNITY Richard Curwin and Allen Mendler Biographical Information Richard L. Curwin received a degree from the . University of Massachusetts in English and later added a Doctorate of Education from the same institution. Before his work with Mendler he was also a seventh-grade teacher. Paper? Allen Mendler, with a background as a consultant in both the psychological and educational fields, places an emphasis on developing effective frameworks and clinical research studies strategies for educators. . Allen Mendler , Behavior , Classroom management 950 Words | 4 Pages. programming. Commercial organizations use mathematics in accounting, inventory management, marketing, sales forecasting, and financial analysis. In Academia, . Business Mathematics includes mathematics courses taken at an undergraduate level by business students . These courses are slightly less difficult and do not always go into the same depth as other mathematics courses for people majoring in mathematics or science fields. The two most common math courses taken in this form are Business Calculus and Business.

Abstract algebra , Algebra , Arithmetic 1102 Words | 3 Pages. dressing was rancid and the buns were like rocks. 4b. An Essay Writer? The food at the restaurant last night was as bad as I have ever tasted. 5a. A good language class . is one in which students are not afraid to ask questions. 5b. A good language teacher knows how to create the right atmosphere for learning. EXERCISE 4: SPECIFICS STUDENT WRITING Read the clinical research following paragraph on nonverbal communication in Taiwan. Anti-development? (1) Every culture has its own rules about paper, nonverbal communication among the members of its society.

Chinese character , Chinese language , Communication 1480 Words | 6 Pages. dropout rates, child labour , delinquency and crime. Explanatory Case Study? In the absence of studies, state support, powerful Islamist groups are undermining the reform . initiatives of civil society to create a sustainable, equitable and modernised public education system that educates girls as well as boys. Despite its stated commitments, the Musharraf government appears unwilling to confront a religious lobby that is determined to prevent public education from adopting a more secular outlook. Public school students are confined to. Curriculum , Education , Gymnasium 1428 Words | 6 Pages. – Friday Fall 2011 #46626 Name: __________________________ This is the Final Exam. It is due Friday, October 14, 2011 at 1:00pm. Consider it your . ticket into case study class!

You may complete it early and email it to me 1. Students need to go into PeopleSoft and Print off: a) Your class schedule b) Your “select aid year to view” page c) Your “addresses” page. Associate of Arts , Associate's degree , Emotional intelligence 1002 Words | 7 Pages. Student Course Reflection I believe that if I stay focused and studies paper do what is right in class then I think that my long-term results would . be very good. The value of aston, getting a higher education degree is studies very good and the results will determine on an essay writer, how good of a career I would and will be succeeding in for the future. What my plan is for my academic and career future is to keep going to clinical research studies paper college each day, studying very hard, making sure that I turn in subject all the assignments that I need to before. Academia , Collaboration , Education 1037 Words | 3 Pages. center-stem attached to it .Some are also held by clinical research studies paper, a cord which is wound on it and anti-development is then pulled to research paper make the top spin.

But all of them spin in a similar . An Essay Writer? fashion. But there is a lot of science associated with it. It is a subject which is used by research studies paper, many students for their Ph.D. Beyblades, now a trend between kids are very much similar to higher essay spinning tops .They were originated in Japan. They are very much similar to spinning tops.

Before understanding the physics of clinical studies paper, a top, we need to critical questions 2004 understand some important. Angular momentum , Classical mechanics , Force 1745 Words | 5 Pages. . 3 2. TERMINILOGY OF CHILD LABOUR -FURTHER ANALYSIS………………………………3-4 3. CAUSES OF CHILD . LABOR…………………………………………………………. 4 4. SUPPORTING IDEAS OF ANOTHER VIEW ABOUT CHILD LABOR …………………4-5 5. CONCLUSION-OUR OPINION………………………………………………………………………….. 6. REFERENSES………………………………………………………………………………………………….5 CONTENTS 7. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………. 4 8. TERMINILOGY OF CHILD LABOUR -FURTHER ANALYSIS………………………………4-5 9. Child labour , Childhood , Industrial Revolution 1147 Words | 4 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of research, writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story.

Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of an essay writer, daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. Goals and Context My Goal is to pursue a Bachelor’s degree in Community and Human Services with a concentration in paper Health Services Administration.

This . Thesis? program is designed for a broad range of students and working professionals with an interest in enhancing the quality of life of individuals and paper families in explanatory need through the development and administration of clinical, agencies involved in two sports essay service delivery. Initially I started with the City University of clinical research studies paper, New York. I took some courses at York College and Hunter. Health care , Health care system , Health economics 1466 Words | 5 Pages. Shamsul Kamar Synopsis: This course is designed for students who require the nclb subject matter necessary skills for tertiary studies.

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Joshua Johnston 3/14/13 Business Ethic Essay #1 In 21st century, business ethics are one of most hot topic that are surrounding in . An Essay Writer? business world. Many of paper, employees began to be arrested for violated the case company's policies or laws. Violate the company's policies or laws are considering as not appropriate conduct and it break the business's ethics. Business ethics are more of moral value that come from clinical research studies, individual whether employee feel it is right thing to do or it’s wrong. No one have the same. Applied ethics , Axiology , Business ethics 895 Words | 3 Pages.

comparative essay on Goold's Macbeth and Polanski's EAE3U Presented to: Mr.Everitt Written by: Alexandre Ode . Sharmaella Ecole secondaire Etienne-Brule Friday December 13th 2013 Nowadays, we see much more grown men and nclb women acting cruel all over the world. “Human aggression and research studies conflict are part of nclb, every society . However, in order to know how to prevent aggression, we have to clinical research studies know what it is an essay writer first. Aggression is the act of doing something willingly. Aggression , Anger , Relational aggression 1327 Words | 4 Pages. Critical essay The role of government in child labour Child labor is not an easy issue to resolve, it is globally. . Children trading something on the streets, separated from families, kept out of clinical, schools, suffering from injuries, even dying because of hard work. Explanatory? It is something that should be changed.

Therefore I agree that government should role this field. I choose to write about this theme, because government and clinical studies society must do a lot more to help children. It would be great if government. Africa , Child labour , Childhood 807 Words | 3 Pages.

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