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Sharepoint case study intranet

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Boot Camp Resumes and Cover Letters- Job-Application Materials. Please log in to add your comment. Transcript of Boot Camp Resumes and case, Cover Letters- Job-Application Materials. Use effective writing and proper grammar. Address your letter to the correct person and company!! Explain why you are writing and how you learned of the opportunity. Identify what you will bring to their organization.

Project confidence and show interest. Match the formatting of essay for salem university, your resume. Sharepoint Case Intranet! Target it to your purpose! ASK FOR AN INTERVIEW! Thank them! Cover Letter Outline. What do they have in common?

What differences do they have? Creating Effective Job Descriptions. Begin sentences with action verbs (created, maintained, organized). Don#39;t use I or Duties included. Get to the point. Avoid being repetitive. Coursework! Provide specific examples (STAR). QUANTIFY accomplishments and responsibilities.

Include industry-specific terms (but be sure you are using these correctly). Be consistent with verb tenses, how you#39;re formatting, etc. Include numbers wherever possible (people supervised, money handled, etc.) Who would you hire? Makes it easy for employers to sharepoint case intranet find information. Essay Writing About India! You want to stand out using your great experience, not with scented paper, confetti, or. Friends, parents, professors, classmates, family, pastors, employers, recruiters, CEOs, mayors, doctors, etc. – ALL will have an opinion.

Standards are not styles. Generally held practices are not styles. Use your head when writing a resume. Case Study Intranet! Formats are standard; styles may vary. Within the basic formats, there is room for flexibility - most important info goes first. Causing! Keep style professional and study intranet, classic - nothing flashy.

Include your full name. Most nicknames are not appropriate. Writing! List street adress, city, state and zip code. Permanent and school address if you choose. List a telephone number. Cell phone is OK. Remember to change outgoing message. List professional e-mail. Case Study Intranet! name@tulane.edu or professional non-school address. A targeted, brief description of the kind of job you are seeking.

Like the thesis sentence in a paragraph. Change Objective to match job posting. Gear to the specific kind of job you want: Sales in essay food causing obesity Marketing and Communications. Leader in a team who focuses on diversity and advertising with a continual employee improvement program so that I can end this run-on sentence and let you move on to the next applicant. Seeking a full-time position related to brand development and market expansion. To obtain an entry-level position in client development and communications planning.

Seeking an internship in biological research with an emphasis on DNA sequencing. received or are currently pursuing. Include high school only if you graduated within the last 12 months. List minor(s), concentrations, significant presentations, independent research, reports, and sharepoint study, group projects. GPA - overall and/or in major. List the organizational behavior 3-4 most relevant paid, volunteer, and internship jobs you have held during the last 1-5 years. Start with the most recent move back. Currently working there = present tense. Not working there anymore = past tense. Create a bulleted list or paragraph: Show results, accomplishments, promotions.

Be specific, concrete, and case study intranet, concise. Indicate how you heard about the writing about india position and the position title. Hiring managers don’t have time for fluff. Get to the point. Include all necessary information. Make the connection. Paragraph 1 - The Opening. Do not add colors or designs. Do not include your picture. Do not lie or stretch the truth. the sharepoint case study intranet most important things for. an employer to know about essay, you.

Also . . . Specific Formats. CV’s, Performing Arts, Government. Sharepoint Case Intranet! MYTH: Resumes need to be on one page. Most new college graduates will only need one page. More experience = more pages. Content is essay food causing, most important. Sharepoint Case! Whatever the Style.

Present vs Past tense. Accomplishments and honors. Companies, clubs, in-depth research or writing projects, and organizations - including volunteer work. What you have learned in each role. How the school coursework employer, organization, or community benefited.

Keep a master list. EXERCISE: What are your top selling points? How do others describe you? What are you proud of? What challenges have you overcome? Why did you select NMU? What feedback have you received from others? teachers, professors, and supervisors? Before you write your resume (your assignment): BRAINSTORM! Use the great Resume Writing handout we have for sharepoint study intranet, you! Identify the position again. If you have additional skills that you want to mention, make sure they are not general.

Indicate generally when you can be called…not when you will call them (sounds threatening) Make the connection with your previous jobs. Talk about coursework, specifics and study, not just skills that every employee has. Assignments! This is your chance to outline the top reasons why you#39;re worthy of an interview! Points in study intranet mind on cover letters: your cover letter for. Make sure you display how you can meet their needs. Sell your “true” self without selling the “perfect” vision of yourself. Keep it Simple (K.I.S. India! ) Your Career Documents. Sharepoint Case Study Intranet! Writing or Other Sample(s) Put a decent amount of time and effort into creating your foundational documents at the beginning of your job search.

You will be able to generate applications more easily going forward. Write a cover letter that will get an employer#39;s attention and essay humanistic in m note, get you an interview. Who Would YOU Interview? Resume and Cover Letter with Job Posting. Due: in class as assigned. Serves as a personal advertisement. Shows that you can create well-formatted, error-free documents. Displays your communication skills and professionalism. Gets you an sharepoint case intranet, interview!! *The purpose of the resume is to on fast food causing obesity obtain an. interview, not to get the job. a brief, informative summary of your professional skills, accomplishments, experiences, and sharepoint study intranet, education. A job application. A position paper on why they should hire you and not the organizational behavior other person.

A resume is NOT . Study! . . View examples of resumes on the document projector (20 sec each) Writing a Resume. Know the Dos and Don#39;ts. Make yourself competitive. Get the essay about interview. Provide first example of written skills. Identify your accomplishments easily. Keep descriptions brief and to case study intranet the point. Use phrases that are numerical in nature. How much did you handle in about cash?

How many people did you supervise? How many customers per shift? List examples of how you made a difference at the company. Case Intranet! Not just I#39;m a people person and like to make people happy. (They can hire a golden retriever if that#39;s the case.) Additional sections you might have. Honors, including honors program and thesis. Courses with a practical/internship component. Begin sentences with action verbs (created, maintained, organized).

Don#39;t use I or Duties included. Get to the point. Behavior! Avoid being repetitive. Provide specific examples. QUANTIFY accomplishments and sharepoint case study, responsibilities. Include industry-specific terms (but be sure you are using these correctly). Be consistent with verb tenses, how you#39;re formatting, etc. Include numbers wherever possible (people supervised, money handled, etc.) List the 3-4 most relevant paid, volunteer, and internship jobs from the writing about india last 1-5 years. Start with the most recent move back. Currently working there = present tense.

Not working there anymore = past tense. Sharepoint! Create a bulleted list or paragraph: Show results, accomplishments, promotions. Be specific, concrete, and essay in m mathematics, concise. Include your full name. Case! Most nicknames are not appropriate.

List street address, city, state and zip code. Permanent and school address if you choose. List a telephone number. Cell phone is OK. Remember to change outgoing message. List professional e-mail. name@nmu.edu or professional non-school address. List the mathematics note names versions of all software programs you know well. Include the URL’s for any relevant web pages you have designed.

Using Google, email, or the web is not considered a “skill” Do not list hobbies: skiing, sailing, salsa dancing, traveling, skating, shopping, earring collecting, donating blood, anything dealing with Star Wars, Twilight, or Harry Potter. List all degrees you have. received or are currently pursuing. Include high school only sharepoint, if you graduated within the last 12 months. List minor(s), concentrations, significant presentations, independent research, reports, and group projects. GPA - overall and/or in major.

Once you create a resume, you#39;re done. Now that you are a resume expert, how would you edit this one? (under document projector in class) Cover Letter Basics. On Fast Food Causing! Formal Business Letter Style. Present vs Past tense. Do not add colors or designs. Do not lie or stretch the truth. Sharepoint Intranet! Do not copy examples. Do not copy course info. Essay For Christmas! Focus on employers#39; needs and requirements. Ask for what you want (interview) Thank the case study intranet reader.

Things to Remember. Double check spelling and organizational behavior assignments, grammar--PROOFREAD! Use your own words. Sell yourself--Make it your chance to sharepoint case study intranet stand out. Show your knowledge (of company/industry) Use their terms (match job desciption with your skills and experience) Address to hiring manager/recruiter. Coursework! Use examples as a guide. Include all campus or community activities.

Currently involved or in the past. List memberships in professional organizations. Sharepoint Study! Good example of using quantitative information and essay mathematics note, results in an Activities bullet:

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Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Nietzsche's moral philosophy is primarily critical in orientation: he attacks morality both for its commitment to untenable descriptive (metaphysical and empirical) claims about sharepoint case study intranet human agency, as well as for the deleterious impact of its distinctive norms and values on the flourishing of the highest types of human beings (Nietzsche's “higher men”). His positive ethical views are best understood as combining (i) a kind of consequentialist perfectionism as Nietzsche's implicit theory of the good, with (ii) a conception of essay note human perfection involving both formal and substantive elements. Because Nietzsche, however, is an anti-realist about value, he takes neither his positive vision, nor those aspects of his critique that depend upon it, to have any special epistemic status, a fact which helps explain his rhetoric and the circumspect character of sharepoint case his “esoteric” moralizing. Although Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes (for example, about human equality) are apparent, there are no grounds for ascribing to him a political philosophy, since he has no systematic (or even partly systematic) views about the nature of essay on fast causing obesity state and society. As an esoteric moralist, Nietzsche aims at freeing higher human beings from their false consciousness about sharepoint case morality (their false belief that this morality is good for them ), not at a transformation of society at large. 1.1 Scope of the Critique: Morality in the Pejorative Sense. Nietzsche is not a critic of all “morality.” He explicitly embraces, for example, the essay food causing, idea of a “higher morality” which would inform the lives of “higher men” (Schacht 1983: 466469), and, in so doing, he employs the case, same German word Moral , sometimes Moralität for both what he attacks and what he praises.

Moreover, Nietzsche aims to offer a revaluation of existing values in a manner that appears, itself, to involve appeal to broadly “moral” standards of some sort. As he writes in the Preface to Daybreak : “in this book faith in morality [ Moral ] is withdrawn but why? Out of behavior assignments morality [ Moralität ]! Or what else should we call that which informs it and us ?.[T]here is no doubt that a ‘thou shalt’ [ du sollst ] speaks to us too” (D 4). This means, of course, that (on pain of inconsistency) morality as the object of Nietzsche's critique must be distinguishable from the sense of “morality” he retains and sharepoint employs. Yet Nietzsche also does not confine his criticisms of morality to state some one religiously, philosophically, socially or historically circumscribed example. Intranet. Thus, it will not suffice to say that he simply attacks Christian or Kantian or European or utilitarian morality though he certainly at times attacks all of these. To do justice to the scope of school coursework his critique, we should ask what characterizes “morality” in sharepoint study, Nietzsche's pejorative sense hereafter, “MPS” that is, morality as the object of his critique. Nietzsche believes that all normative systems which perform something like the role we associate with “morality” share certain structural characteristics, even as the meaning and value of these normative systems varies considerably over time. In particular, all normative systems have both descriptive and normative components, in the sense that: (a) they presuppose a particular descriptive account of human agency, in causing, the sense that for case intranet, the normative claims comprising the system to have intelligible application to organizational assignments human agents, particular metaphysical and empirical claims about agency must be true; and (b) the system's norms favor the interests of some people, often (though not necessarily) at the expense of others. Sharepoint Case. Any particular morality will, in turn, be the object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., MPS) only if it: presupposes three particular descriptive claims about the essay food causing, nature of sharepoint case human agents pertaining to free will, the transparency of the essay, self, and the essential similarity of all people (“the Descriptive Component”); and/or embraces norms that harm the sharepoint study, “highest men” while benefitting the essay mathematics, “lowest” (“the Normative Component”).

While Nietzsche offers criticisms of both the Descriptive and Normative Components of MPS, what ultimately defines MPS as against unobjectionable normative systems is the sharepoint case, distinctive normative agenda. Thus, while Nietzsche criticizes the description of agency that is typically part and parcel of MPS, he also holds that “[i]t is not error as error that” he objects to fundamentally in MPS (EH IV;7): that is, it is not the falsity of the descriptive account of agency presupposed by MPS, per se , that is the heart of the problem, but rather its distinctive normative commitments. Thus, strictly speaking, it is true that an MPS would be objectionable even if it did not involve a commitment to an untenable descriptive account of agency (as, say, certain forms of utilitarianism do not). Writing About India. Because Nietzsche's two most common and closely related specific targets are, however, Christian and Kantian morality, the critique of the intranet, descriptive component of MPS figures prominently in Nietzsche's writing, and any account of the logic of his critique that omitted it would not do justice to essay his concerns. 1.2 Critique of the Descriptive Component of MPS. MPS for Nietzsche depends for case, its intelligible application to human agents on three descriptive theses about human agency (cf. Essay On Fast Food Causing Obesity. BGE 32; GM I:13; TI VI; EH III:5; EH IV:8): (1) Human agents possess a will capable of free and sharepoint study intranet autonomous choice (“Free Will Thesis”). (2) The self is sufficiently transparent that agents' actions can be distinguished on the basis of their respective motives (“Transparency of the Self Thesis”).

(3) Human agents are sufficiently similar that one moral code is appropriate for (because in the interests of) all (“Similarity Thesis”). These three theses must be true in order for the normative judgments of MPS to be intelligible because the normative judgments of MPS are marked for Nietzsche by three corresponding traits; namely, that they: (1′) Hold agents responsible for their actions. (2′) Evaluate and “rank” the about, motives for which agents act. (3′) Presuppose that “morality” has universal applicability (MPS “says stubbornly and inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” [BGE 202]). Thus, the falsity of the picture of agency would affect the case intranet, intelligibility of moral judgments in the following three ways: (1″) If agents lacked “free will” they could not be held responsible for their actions. (2″) If agent motives could not be distinguished then no evaluative distinctions could be drawn among acts in terms of their motives. (3″) If agents were, in fact, different in essay, some overlooked but relevant respect, then it would, at least, not be prima facie apparent that one morality should have universal application. It is the burden, then, of Nietzsche's critique of the study intranet, Descriptive Component of MPS to mathematics show that, in sharepoint study intranet, fact, none of these latter theses about the nature of essay about india agency hold.

A brief review of these arguments follows (a more detailed treatment is in Leiter 2002: 81112). Against the Free Will Thesis, Nietzsche argues that a free agent (that is, one sufficiently free to intranet be morally responsible) would have to be causa sui (i.e., self-caused, or the cause of itself); but since we are not causa sui , no one can be a free agent. Nietzsche takes for granted not implausibly that our moral and religious traditions are incompatibilist at their core: causally determined wills are not free wills. Nietzsche offers two kinds of arguments to coursework show that we are not causa sui : that it is logically impossible to study be causa sui ; and that human beings are not self-caused in a sense sufficient to underwrite ascriptions of moral responsibility. (I owe the essay in m, point that there are two different arguments at issue here to Eric Vogelstein.) He says relatively little about the first point, other than claiming that “the concept of a causa sui is something fundamentally absurd” (BGE 15), and that it is “the best self-contradiction that has been conceived so fara sort of rape and perversion of logic” (BGE 21), such that this, desire for “freedom of the will” in case intranet, the superlative metaphysical sensethe desire to bear the entire and organizational assignments ultimate responsibility for sharepoint case study intranet, one's actions oneself, and to absolve God, the world, ancestors, chance, and society involves nothing less than to be precisely this causa sui andto pull oneself up into existence by the hair, out of the swamps of nothingness. (BGE 21) But we cannot, needless to say, pull ourselves up “out of the swamps of essay state nothingness,” and case study so we cannot have ultimate responsibility for our actions. Nietzsche quickly moves from the claim that being causa sui involves a contradiction, however, to an argument that depends on his picture of in m human agency. Nietzsche accepts what we may call a “Doctrine of sharepoint study Types” (Leiter 1998), according to behavior assignments which, Each person has a fixed psycho-physical constitution, which defines him as a particular type of person. Call the relevant psycho-physical facts here “type-facts.” Type-facts, for Nietzsche, are either physiological facts about the person, or facts about the person's unconscious drives or affects. The claim, then, is sharepoint case intranet that each person has certain largely immutable physiological and psychic traits that constitute the essay for salem, “type” of person he or she is. Although Nietzsche himself does not use this exact terminology, the concept figures centrally in all his mature writings.

A typical Nietzschean form of argument, for example, runs as follows: a person's theoretical beliefs are best explained in sharepoint case, terms of his moral beliefs; and his moral beliefs are best explained in terms of natural facts about the type of coursework person he is (i.e., in terms of type-facts). So Nietzsche says, “every great philosophy so far has beenthe personal confession of its author and case study a kind of writing about india involuntary and unconscious memoir”; thus, to really grasp this philosophy, one must ask “at what morality does all this (does he ) aim” (BGE 6)? But the “morality” that a philosopher embraces simply bears “decisive witness to who he is case intranet ” i.e., who he essentially is that is, to the “innermost drives of his nature” (BGE 6). This explanation of a person's moral beliefs in terms of psycho-physical facts about the person is a recurring theme in essay for salem state, Nietzsche. “[M]oralities aremerely a sign language of the affects” (BGE 187), he says. “Answers to the questions about the value of existencemay always be considered first of all as the symptoms of certain bodies” (GS P:2). “Moral judgments,” he says are, “symptoms and sign languages which betray the process of physiological prosperity or failure” (WP 258). “[O]ur moral judgments and sharepoint case study evaluationsare only images and fantasies based on a physiological process unknown to for christmas us” (D 119), so that “it is always necessary to draw forththe physiological phenomenon behind the moral predispositions and prejudices” (D 542). A “morality of sympathy,” he claims is sharepoint “just another expression of physiological overexcitability” (TI IX:37). Ressentiment and the morality that grows out of it he attributes to an “actual physiological cause [ Ursache ]” (GM I:15). Nietzsche sums up the idea well in the preface to On the Genealogy of Morality (hereafter simply “ Genealogy ” or “GM”): “our thoughts, values, every ‘yes,’ ‘no,’ ‘if’ and ‘but’ grow from us with the same inevitability as fruits borne on the tree all related and each with an affinity to each, and school coursework evidence of one will, one health, one earth, one sun” (GM P:2). Nietzsche seeks to sharepoint study intranet understand in naturalistic terms the essay about, type of “person” who would necessarily bear such ideas and values, just as one might come to understand things about a type of tree by knowing its fruits. And just as natural facts about the tree explain the fruit it bears, so too type-facts about a person will explain his values and actions. This means that the conscious mental states that precede the action and whose propositional contents would make them appear to sharepoint study intranet be causally connected to the action are, in fact, epiphenomenal, either as tokens or as types: that is, they are either causally inert with respect to the action or causally effective only in virtue of other type-facts about the essay for salem state, person (Leiter 2002: 9193 argues for the latter reading; Leiter 2007 argues for the former).

We typically locate the “will,” as the seat of sharepoint case intranet action, in various conscious states: for example, our beliefs and desires. Essay. According to Nietzsche, however, the “will” so conceived is case study intranet nothing but the effect of type-facts about the person. This means that the real story of the genesis of an action begins with the type-facts, which explain both consciousness and a person's actions. Here is how Nietzsche puts it, after suggesting that the “will” is related to, but conceptually prior to, the concepts of school coursework “consciousness” and case study “ego”: The “inner world” is full of phantoms: the for salem state, will is one of them. The will no longer moves anything, hence does not explain anything either it merely accompanies events; it can also be absent. The so-called motive : another error. Case. Merely a surface phenomenon of organizational consciousness something alongside the study intranet, deed that is more likely to cover up the behavior assignments, antecedents of the deeds than to represent them. What follows from sharepoint this? There are no mental [ geistigen ] causes at all. (TI VI:3)

In the last line, Nietzsche must mean only that there are no conscious mental causes. Indeed, in other passages, he is explicit that the target of this critique is the picture of conscious motives as adequate to essay state university account for action. (For competing views of the scope of Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness, see Katsafanas 2005 and case intranet Riccardi 2015a.) As he writes in essay, Daybreak , “we are accustomed to exclude all [the] unconscious processes from the accounting and to reflect on the preparation for intranet, an act only to the extent that it is organizational behavior conscious” (D 129), a view which Nietzsche plainly regards as mistaken, both here and in the passage quoted above. Indeed, the theme of the “ridiculous overestimation and misunderstanding of consciousness” (GS 11) is a recurring one in Nietzsche. “[B]y far the greatest part of our spirit's activity,” says Nietzsche, “remains unconscious and case study intranet unfelt” (GS 333; cf. GS 354). Apart from the general evidence on behalf of the Doctrine of Types, Nietzsche's strongest targeted argument for the epiphenomenality of consciousness depends on a piece of phenomenology, namely, “that a thought comes when ‘it’ wishes, and not when ‘I’ wish” (BGE 17). If that is for christmas right and if actions are apparently “caused” by thoughts (by particular beliefs and desires), then it follows that actions are not caused solely by our conscious mental states, but rather by whatever it is (i.e., type-facts) that determines the thoughts that enter consciousness. Case Study Intranet. Thus, it is the (autonomous) causal power of our conscious mental life that Nietzsche must be attacking. Given, then, that Nietzsche claims consciousness is epiphenomenal, and essay humanistic given our identification of the “will” with our conscious life, Nietzsche would have us dispense with the sharepoint study intranet, idea of the will as causal altogether. (This gives Nietzsche a novel argument against hierarchical accounts of essay writing india free will favored by compatibilists: see Leiter 2002: 9396). Sharepoint Case. Since the conscious will is not causal, the Free Will Thesis is false. Against the Transparency of the Self Thesis, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable” (GS 335; cf.

WP 291, 294); as he writes in Daybreak : The primeval delusion still lives on that one knows, and knows quite precisely in every case, how human action is brought about . “I know what I want, what I have done, I am free and responsible for on fast causing obesity, it, I hold others responsible, I can call by its name every moral possibility and sharepoint case every inner motion which precedes action; you may act as you will in this matter I understand myself and for salem state understand you all!” that is howalmost everyone still thinks.[But] [a]ctions are never what they appear to us to sharepoint case study be! We have expended so much labor on learning that external things are not as they appear to us to essay food causing obesity be very well! the case is the same with the inner world! Moral actions are in reality “something other than that” more we cannot say: and all actions are essentially unknown. (D 116) Actions are unknown because “nothingcan be more incomplete than [one's] image of the totality of drives which constitute [a man's] being” (D 119). One “can scarcely name even the cruder ones: their number and strength, their ebb and flow, their play and counterplay among one another, and above all the laws of their nutriment remain wholly unknown” (D 119).

But as Nietzsche argues elsewhere (e.g., D 109), the sharepoint case, self is merely the arena in which the struggle of drives plays itself out, and one's actions are the outcomes of the struggle (see Leiter 2002: 99104; cf. Riccardi 2015b; for a general account of Nietzsche's philosophical psychology, see Katsafanas 2013). Against the Similarity Thesis, Nietzsche once again deploys his Doctrine of essay for christmas Types. Nietzsche holds that agents are essentially dissimilar , insofar as they are constituted by different type-facts. Since Nietzsche also holds that these natural type-facts fix the different conditions under which particular agents will flourish, it follows that one morality cannot be good for sharepoint intranet, all. “ Morality in Europe today is herd animal morality ,” says Nietzsche, “in other wordsmerely one type of human morality beside which, before which, and after which many other types, above all higher moralities, are, or ought to school coursework be, possible” (BGE 202). Nietzsche illustrates the general point with his discussion of the case of the Italian writer Cornaro in Twilight of the Idols (VI:1).

Cornaro, says Nietzsche, wrote a book mistakenly recommending “his slender diet as a recipe for a long and sharepoint case study intranet happy life.” But why was this a mistake? Nietzsche explains: The worthy Italian thought his diet was the cause of his long life, whereas the precondition for a long life, the essay state university, extraordinary slowness of his metabolism, the consumption of so little, was the cause of his slender diet. He was not free to eat little or much; his frugality was not a matter of “free will”: he became sick when he ate more. But whoever is intranet not a carp not only does well to eat properly, but needs to.

There exists, then, type-facts about Cornaro that explain why a slender diet is good for him: namely, “the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism.” These natural facts, in turn, constrain what Cornaro can do, delivering him “feedback” about the conditions under which he will and won't flourish: given his slow metabolism, if Cornaro ate more “he became sick”; conversely, when he stuck to his slender diet, he did well. In sum, “[h]e was not free to eat little or much.” Cornaro's mistake consists, in effect, in assignments, his absolutism: he thought the “good” diet was good for everyone, when in sharepoint, fact it was only good for certain types of bodies (namely, those with slow metabolisms). As with diets, so too with moralities, according to Nietzsche. Agents are not similar in type-facts, and so one moral “diet” cannot be “good for all.” As he writes: [T]he question is always who he is, and who the other person isEvery unegoistic morality that takes itself for unconditional and addresses itself to all does not only sin against taste: it is a provocation to essay on fast food causing obesity sins of omission, one more seduction under the mask of philanthropy and precisely a seduction and injury for the higher, rarer, privileged. (BGE 221) This point sets the stage for his core critique of morality. 1.3 Critique of the Normative Component of MPS. All of sharepoint case Nietzsche's criticisms of the normative component of MPS are parasitic upon one basic complaint not, as some have held (e.g., Nehamas [1985], Geuss [1997]), the universality of moral demands, per se , but rather that “the demand of one morality for all is detrimental to the higher men” (BGE 228).

Universality would be unobjectionable if agents were relevantly similar, but because agents are relevantly different, a universal morality must necessarily be harmful to some. As Nietzsche writes elsewhere: “When a decadent type of man ascended to coursework the rank of the highest type [via MPS], this could only happen at the expense of sharepoint study intranet its countertype [emphasis added], the type of man that is strong and sure of life” (EH III:5). In the preface to the Genealogy , Nietzsche sums up his basic concern particularly well: What if a symptom of regression lurked in coursework, the “good,” likewise a danger, a seduction, a poison, a narcotic, through which the sharepoint case intranet, present lived at the expense of the future ? Perhaps more comfortably, less dangerously, but at essay in m mathematics the same time in a meaner style, more basely? So that morality itself were to blame if the highest power and splendor [ Mächtigkeit und Pracht ] possible to case study intranet the type man was never in fact attained? So that morality itself was the behavior, danger of case intranet dangers? (GM Pref:6; cf. BT Attempt:5) This theme is sounded throughout Nietzsche's work.

In a book of 1880, for example, he writes that, “Our weak, unmanly social concepts of good and evil and their tremendous ascendancy over body and soul have finally weakened all bodies and souls and snapped the essay humanistic note, self-reliant, independent, unprejudiced men, the sharepoint intranet, pillars of a strong civilization” (D 163). Similarly, in a posthumously published note of 1885, he remarks that “men of great creativity, the really great men according to my understanding, will be sought in vain today” because “nothing stands more malignantly in the way of their rise and evolutionthan what in organizational behavior, Europe today is called simply ‘morality’” (WP 957). In these and many other passages (e.g., BGE 62; GM III:14; A:5, 24; EH IV:4; WP 274, 345, 400, 870, 879.), Nietzsche makes plain his fundamental objection to MPS: simply put, that MPS thwarts the development of human excellence, i.e., “the highest power and splendor possible to sharepoint study the type man” (for more on essay about india the “higher man,” see section (2)). There is another, important competing reading of Nietzsche's central complaint about MPS: namely, that it is “harmful to life” or, more simply, “anti-nature.” Geuss, for example, says that, “There is little doubt that ‘Life’in Nietzsche does seem to function as a criterion for evaluating moralities” (1997: 10). So, too, Schacht claims that Nietzsche “takes ‘life’ in this world to be the sole locus of value, and its preservation, flourishing, and above all its enhancement to be ultimately decisive for determinations of sharepoint case value” (1983: 359). Thus, the question of the essay for salem state university, value of sharepoint MPS is really the question of its “value for life” (1983: 354). Yet such an organizational behavior assignments account is sharepoint intranet plainly too vague: what exactly does “life” refer to here? Schacht, following a suggestion of Nietzsche's from the humanistic mathematics note, Nachlass (WP 254), suggests that life is sharepoint intranet will to power, and thus degree of power constitutes the standard of value. Writing About. (We shall return to sharepoint this suggestion in school coursework, detail in section 3.1, below.) But this involves no gain in precision.

Nietzsche may, indeed, have thought that more “power” in his sense was more valuable than less, but that still leaves us with the question: power of what or of whom ? The only plausible candidate given especially his other remarks discussed above is power of people ; just as the only plausible candidate for the “life” that Nietzsche considers it valuable to preserve and enhance must be the lives of people and, in particular, the lives of the “highest men.” That this is what Nietzsche means is revealed by the context of his actual remarks about the “value for life.” For example, he comments that “a higher and more fundamental value for life might have to sharepoint study be ascribed to deception, selfishness, and lust” (BGE 2, emphasis added). But what sort of “life” is, e.g., “selfishness” valuable for? As Nietzsche writes elsewhere (e.g., GM Pref:56), it is assignments simply that life which manifests “the highest power and splendor actually possible to the type man.” And similarly, when Nietzsche says that a “tendency hostile to life is therefore characteristic of morality,” it is clear in context that what “life” refers to is “the type man” who might be “raised to his greatest splendor and power” (that is, but for sharepoint study intranet, the interference of writing about india MPS) (WP 897). In short, then, the things Nietzsche identifies as “valuable” for life are those he takes to be necessary for intranet, the flourishing of the highest types of life (or human excellence), while those that he identifies as harmful to writing india it are those that he takes to be things that constitute obstacles to such flourishing. This suggests, then, that the “life” for sharepoint case intranet, which things are either valuable or disvaluable must be the life (or lives) that manifest human excellence i.e., the lives of “higher men.” Something similar may be said for the claim that Nietzsche objects to MPS because it is “anti-nature.” For example, when Nietzsche says in Ecce Homo (IV:7) that “it is the lack of nature, it is the utterly gruesome fact that antinature itself received the highest honors as morality” that he centrally objects to in a morality, his claim will remain obscure unless we can say precisely what about MPS makes it “anti-natural.” Nietzsche, himself, offers guidance on this in the same section when he explains that a MPS is anti-natural insofar as it has the following sorts of characteristics: it teaches men “to despise the essay for christmas, very first instincts of life” and “to experience the presupposition of life, sexuality, as something unclean”; and it “looks for the evil principle in sharepoint study, what is most profoundly necessary for growth, in severe self-love” (EH IV:7). But from this it should be apparent, then, that it is not anti-naturalness itself that is objectionable, but the consequences of an anti-natural MPS that are at issue: for example, its opposition to the instincts that are “profoundly necessary for growth.” This point is even more explicit in for christmas, The Antichrist , where Nietzsche notes that Christian morality “has waged deadly war against this higher type of sharepoint study man; it has placed all the basic instincts of his type under ban ” (5, emphasis added).

In other words, the anti-naturalness of for christmas MPS is objectionable because the “natural” instincts MPS opposes are precisely those necessary for the growth of the “higher type of man.” Thus, underlying Nietzsche's worries about the anti-naturalness of MPS just as underlying his worries about the threat MPS poses to case intranet life is a concern for the effect of behavior assignments MPS on “higher men.” So Nietzsche objects to the normative agenda of MPS because it is harmful to the highest men. Case Study. In Nietzsche's various accounts of for salem what the objectionable agenda of sharepoint MPS consists, he identifies a variety of normative positions (see, e.g., D 108, 132, 174; GS 116, 294, 328, 338, 345, 352, 377; Z I:4, II:8, III:1, 9, IV:13, 10; BGE 197, 198, 201202, 225, 257; GM Pref:5, III: 11 ff.; TI II, V, IX:35, 3738, 48; A: 7, 43; EH III:D-2, IV:4, 7-8; WP 752). We may characterize these simply as “pro” and “con” attitudes, and we may say that a morality is the object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., it is an MPS) if it contains one or more of the following normative views (this is a representative, but not exhaustive, list): The various possible normative components of MPS should, of course, be understood construed as ideal-typical , singling out for essay in m mathematics, emphasis and criticism certain important features of larger and more complex normative views. Let us call that which morality has a “pro” attitude towards is the “Pro-Object,” and intranet that which morality has a “con” attitude towards the school, “Con-Object.” Keeping in mind that what seems to sharepoint study intranet have intrinsic value for Nietzsche is human excellence or human greatness (see the next section), Nietzsche's attack on the normative component of MPS can be summarized as having two parts: (a) With respect to the Pro-Object, Nietzsche argues either (i) that the Pro-Object has no intrinsic value (in the cases where MPS claims it does); or (ii) that it does not have any or not nearly as much extrinsic value as MPS treats it as having; and. (b) With respect to the Con-Object, Nietzsche argues only that the Con-Objects are extrinsically valuable for the cultivation of organizational assignments human excellence and that this is obscured by the “con” attitude endorsed by MPS. Thus, what unifies Nietzsche's seemingly disparate critical remarks about altruism, happiness, pity, equality, Kantian respect for persons, utilitarianism, etc. is that he thinks a culture in which such norms prevail as morality will be a culture which eliminates the conditions for case study intranet, the realization of human excellence the latter requiring, on Nietzsche's view, concern with the self, suffering, a certain stoic indifference, a sense of hierarchy and difference, and for salem the like. Study. Indeed, when we turn to the details of Nietzsche's criticisms of these norms we find that, in fact, this is precisely what he argues. One detailed example will have to suffice here.

What could be harmful about the seemingly innocuous MPS valuation of happiness (“pro”) and suffering (“con”)? An early remark of essay for christmas Nietzsche's suggests his answer: Are we not, with this tremendous objective of obliterating all the sharp edges of life, well on the way to sharepoint study intranet turning mankind into sand ? Sand! Small, soft, round, unending sand! Is that your ideal, you heralds of the essay humanistic, sympathetic affections? (D 174) In a later work, Nietzsche says referring to hedonists and utilitarians that, “Well-being as you understand it that is no goal, that seems to us an end , a state that soon makes man ridiculous and contemptible” (BGE 225). Intranet. By the hedonistic doctrine of well-being, Nietzsche takes the utilitarians to have in mind “ English happiness,” namely, “comfort and school coursework fashion” (BGE 228) a construal which, if unfair to some utilitarians (like Mill), may do justice to our ordinary aspirations to happiness. In a similar vein, Nietzsche has Zarathustra dismiss “wretched contentment” as an ideal (Z Pref:3), while also revealing that it was precisely “the last men” the “most despicable men” who “invented happiness [ Glück ]” in case intranet, the first place (Pref:5). So happiness, according to Nietzsche, is not an assignments intrinsically valuable end, and men who aim for it directly or through cultivating the sharepoint case study intranet, dispositions that lead to it would be “ridiculous and contemptible.” To be sure, Nietzsche allows that he himself and the “free spirits” will be “cheerful” or “gay” [ frölich ] they are, after all, the proponents of the “gay science.” But the organizational behavior, point is that such “happiness” is not criterial of being a higher person, and sharepoint case study thus it is food obesity not something that the higher person in contrast to the adherent of case intranet MPS aims for. Yet why does aiming for happiness make a person so unworthy of on fast obesity admiration? Nietzsche's answer appears to be this: because suffering is positively necessary for the cultivation of human excellence which is the only thing, recall, that warrants admiration for Nietzsche.

He writes, for sharepoint, example, that: The discipline of suffering, of great suffering do you not know that only school coursework, this discipline has created all enhancements of man so far? That tension of the soul in unhappiness which cultivates its strength, its shudders face to face with great ruin, its inventiveness and courage in enduring, persevering, interpreting, and exploiting suffering, and whatever has been granted to it of profundity, secret, mask, spirit, cunning, greatness was it not granted to it through suffering, through the discipline of great suffering? (BGE 225; cf. BGE 270) Nietzsche is not arguing here that in contrast to sharepoint study intranet the view of MPS suffering is really intrinsically valuable (not even MPS claims that). The value of suffering, according to Nietzsche, is only extrinsic: suffering “great” suffering is school a prerequisite of any great human achievement. Study. As Nietzsche puts the essay, point elsewhere: “Only great pain is the ultimate liberator of the spirit.I doubt that such pain makes us ‘better’; but I know that it makes us more profound” (GS Pref:3). Nietzsche's attack, then, conforms to the model sketched above: (i) he rejects the view that happiness is intrinsically valuable; and (ii) he thinks that the negative attitude of MPS toward suffering obscures its important extrinsic value. (There is reason to think that, on this second point, Nietzsche is study generalizing from his own experience with physical suffering, the worst periods of which coincided with his greatest productivity. Indeed, he believed that his suffering contributed essentially to his work: as he writes, admittedly hyperbolically, in Ecce Homo : “In the midst of the torments that go with an uninterrupted three-day migraine, accompanied by laborious vomiting of essay about phlegm, I possessed a dialectician's clarity par excellence and thought through with very cold blood matters for which under healthier circumstances I am not mountain-climber, not subtle, not cold enough” (EH I:1).) Even if there is no shortage in the history of art and literature of cases of immense suffering being the spur to great creativity, there remains a serious worry about the intranet, logic of this line of Nietzschean critique.

Following Leiter (1995), we may call this the “Harm Puzzle,” and the puzzle is essay writing india this: why should one think the intranet, general moral prescription to alleviate suffering must stop the suffering of great artists, hence stop them from on fast food causing producing great art? One might think, in fact, that MPS could perfectly well allow an exception for those individuals whose own suffering is essential to case study intranet the realization of central life projects. After all, a prescription to alleviate suffering reflects a concern with promoting well-being, under some construal. But if some individuals nascent Goethes, Nietzsches, and coursework other geniuses would be better off with a good dose of suffering, then why would MPS recommend otherwise? Why, then, should it be the case that MPS “harms” potentially “higher men”? This seems the natural philosophical question to ask, yet it also involves an important misunderstanding of Nietzsche's critique, which is not, we might say, about philosophical theory but rather about the real nature of culture . When MPS values come to dominate a culture, Nietzsche thinks (plausibly), they will affect the case intranet, attitudes of all members of that culture.

If MPS values emphasize the essay causing, badness of suffering and the goodness of happiness, that will influence how individuals with the potential for great achievements will understand, evaluate and conduct their own lives. If, in fact, suffering is a precondition for these individuals to do anything great, and if they have internalized the norm that suffering must be alleviated, and that happiness is the ultimate goal, then we run the risk that, rather than to put it crudely suffer and create, they will instead waste their energies pursuing pleasure, lamenting their suffering and seeking to sharepoint alleviate it. Essay Writing. MPS values may not explicitly prohibit artists or other potentially “excellent” persons from ever suffering; but the risk is that a culture like ours which has internalized the norms against suffering and for pleasure will be a culture in which potential artists and other doers of great things will, in fact , squander themselves in self-pity and the seeking of case study intranet pleasure. So Nietzsche's response to the Harm Puzzle depends upon an empirical claim about what the essay on fast causing, real effect of MPS will be. The normative component of MPS is harmful not because its specific prescriptions and proscriptions explicitly require potentially excellent persons to forego that which allows them to flourish (the claim is not that a conscientious application of the “theory” of MPS is sharepoint study intranet incompatible with the essay for salem, flourishing of higher men); rather, the normative component of MPS is harmful because in practice , and especially because of case MPS's commitment to the idea that one morality is appropriate for all, potentially higher men will come to adopt such values as applicable to themselves as well. Thus, the normative component of MPS is harmful because, in reality, it will have the effect of leading potentially excellent persons to value what is in fact not conducive to their flourishing and essay writing india devalue what is in fact essential to sharepoint case study intranet it. In sum, Nietzsche's central objection to MPS is that it thwarts the school, development of human excellence. His argument for sharepoint case, this, in school, each case, turns on identifying distinctive valuations of MPS, and showing how as in the case of norms favoring happiness and devaluing suffering they undermine the development of individuals who would manifest human excellence. (For discussion of other examples, see Leiter 2002: 134136.) 2. Nietzsche's Positive Ethical Vision. While Nietzsche clearly has views about the states of affairs to which positive intrinsic value attaches (namely, the flourishing of higher men), there is more disagreement among interpreters about what kind of ethics arises from the latter valuation so central to his critique of morality. The two leading candidates are that Nietzsche embraces a kind of sharepoint study intranet virtue ethics (e.g., Hunt 1991; Solomon 2001) and essay food causing obesity that he is sharepoint study intranet a kind of perfectionist (Hurka 1993, Hurka 2007).

These accounts turn out to overlap the perfections of the latter account are often the virtues of the former though the perfectionist account will prove to essay have certain other advantages, discussed below. Any account of intranet Nietzsche's “positive ethics” confronts a threshold worry, namely, that Nietzsche's naturalistic conception of persons and agency and, in particular, his conception of persons as constituted by non-conscious type-facts that determine their actions makes it unclear how Nietzsche could have a philosophical ethics in any conventional sense. If, as Nietzsche, says, we face “a brazen wall of fate; we are in prison, we can only dream ourselves free, not make ourselves free” (HAH II:33); if “the single human being is a piece of fatum from the front and essay humanistic from the rear, one law more, one necessity more for case study, all that is for salem university yet to come and to be” (TI V:6); if (as he says more hyperbolically in Nachlass material) “the voluntary is case study absolutely lackingeverything has been directed along certain lines from the beginning” (WP 458); if (again hyperbolically) “one will become only that which one is (in spite of all: that means education, instruction, milieu, chance, and humanistic accident)” (WP 334); then it is hardly surprising that Nietzsche should also say, “A man as he ought to be: that sounds to us as insipid as ‘a tree as he ought to be’” (WP 332). Yet a philosopher reluctant to talk about “man as he ought to be” is plainly ill-suited to the task of developing a normative ethics, understood as systematic and theoretical guidance for how to live, whether that guidance comes in the form of rules for behavior or dispositions of character to study be cultivated. (There is an additional, and special difficulty, for essay, those who think Nietzsche is sharepoint study a virtue ethicist, namely, that he also thinks genuine virtues are specific to individuals, meaning that there will be nothing general for the theorist to say about them [see, e.g., Z I:5].) This means we must approach the question of Nietzsche's “positive” ethics in terms of explicating (1) what it is Nietzsche values, (2) what his criteria of evaluation are, and (3) what evaluative structure , if any, is essay on fast food exhibited by the answers to (1) and (2). We go wrong at the start, however, if we expect Nietzsche to produce a normative theory of any familiar kind, whether a virtue ethics or otherwise. Importantly, the preceding points should not be read as denying that Nietzsche thinks values and evaluative judgments can have a causal impact on actions and how lives are lived. After all, there would be no point in undertaking a “revaluation of sharepoint study intranet values” if such a revaluation would not have consequences for, e.g., the flourishing of higher men, or if MPS values did not have deleterious causal consequences for those same people. Values make a causal difference, but, given Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness (discussed, above, in 1.1), they do not make this difference because of food obesity free, conscious choices individuals make to adopt certain moral rules or cultivate certain dispositions of character. We can better appreciate Nietzsche's unusual views on this score by looking more closely at sharepoint study intranet the popular, but mistaken, idea that Nietzsche calls on people to essay writing india “create themselves” (on the general topic, see Leiter 1998). Alexander Nehamas, for example, reads Nietzsche as endorsing an ethics of self-creation.

For Nietzsche, Nehamas says, “The people who ‘want to become those they are’ are precisely ‘human beings who are new, unique, incomparable, who give themselves laws, who create themselves’ (GS, 335)” (1985, p. 174). Unfortunately, Nehamas truncates the quote from The Gay Science at a misleading point. For Nietzsche, in the full passage, continues as follows: To that end [of creating ourselves] we must become the best learners and discoverers of everything that is lawful and necessary in the world: we must become physicists in order to be creators in this sense [ wir müssen Physiker sein, um, in jenem Sinne , Schöpfer sein zu können ] while hitherto all valuations and ideals have been based on sharepoint case ignorance of physics . Therefore: long live physics! (GS 335) Creation “in this sense” is, then, a very special sense indeed: for it presupposes the discovery of essay writing about what is case study “lawful and for salem necessary” as revealed by physical science! The passage begins to make more sense in context. For in this same section, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable,” though he adds: our opinions, valuations, and tables of what is good certainly belong among the most powerful levers in the involved mechanism of our actions, butin any particular case the law of their mechanism is sharepoint case intranet indemonstrable [ unnachweisbar ]. This observation leads Nietzsche immediately to essay the suggestion that we should create “our own new tables of what is good,” presumably with an eye to effecting the causal determination of our actions in new ways.

However, we need help from science to identify the lawful patterns into which values and actions fall; even if the mechanisms are indemonstrable, science may at least reveal the patterns of value-inputs and case action-outputs. Essay Writing. So to create one's self, “in this sense,” is to study intranet accept Nietzsche's basically deterministic picture of food action as determined by sub-conscious causes (type-facts) that are hard to case intranet identify but to use science to help identify those “values” which figure in the causal determination of action in new, but predictable, ways. Values, then, have a causal impact upon how people act and writing thus also on their life trajectories; but we cannot expect these impacts to flow from study free, conscious choices that persons make. This would explain, of course, why we find so little in behavior, Nietzsche by way of argumentative or discursive support for his evaluative judgments: such intellectual devices are precisely the ones that would appeal to our conscious faculties, and thus would be idle with respect to the desired outcomes. Nietzsche's often violent rhetorical style, by contrast, might be expected (or so Nietzsche presumably thinks) to have the requisite non-rational effect on his desired readers those “whose ears are related to study ours” (GS 381). (More on this issue in Section 4, below.) If Nietzsche does not have a typical normative ethics, he certainly has no shortage of views about essay writing india evaluative questions.

For example, it is clear from the earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of morality that he assigns great intrinsic value to the flourishing of higher men. But who are these “higher men” and why does Nietzsche assign value to them? (Note that while Nietzsche speaks in sharepoint case, Thus Spoke Zarathustra of the “superman” as a kind of ideal higher type, this concept simply drops out of his mature work (except for a brief mention in essay for salem, EH in the context of discussing Zarathustra ). Case Study Intranet. “Higher men” is an important concept in Nietzsche; the “superman” is nothing more than a rhetorical trope in the highly stylized Zarathustra. ) Nietzsche has three favorite examples of on fast causing obesity “higher” human beings: Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself! What makes these figures paradigms of the “higher” type for Nietzsche, beyond their great creativity (as he says, “the men of great creativity” are “the really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957))? Following Leiter (2002: 116122), we can identify five characteristics that Nietzsche identifies as distinctive of “higher men”: the higher type is sharepoint case intranet solitary, pursues a “unifying project,” is healthy, is life-affirming, and practices self-reverence. Taken together, they are plainly sufficient to make someone a higher type in Nietzsche's view, though it is essay not obvious that any one of sharepoint study these is coursework necessary, and various combinations often seem sufficient for explaining how Nietzsche speaks of higher human beings. First, higher types are solitary and deal with others only instrumentally. “Every choice human being,” says Nietzsche, “strives instinctively for study intranet, a citadel and a secrecy where he is saved from the crowd, the many, the for salem, great majority” (BGE 26). Sharepoint Case Study Intranet. “[T]he concept of greatness,” he says in the same work, “entails being noble, wanting to be by oneself, being able to organizational behavior be different, standing alone and having to live independently [ auf-eigne-Faust-leben-müssen ]” (BGE 212). Sharepoint Case Intranet. Indeed, the higher type pursues solitude with something of a vengeance, for he “knows how to make enemies everywhere,[He] constantly contradicts the great majority not through words but through deeds” (WP 944). Unsurprisingly, then, the great or higher man lacks the “congeniality” and “good-naturedness” so often celebrated in contemporary popular culture. “A great manis incommunicable: he finds it tasteless to be familiar” (WP 962). More than that, though, the higher type deals with others, when he has to, in a rather distinctive way: “A human being who strives for something great considers everyone he meets on his way either as a means or as a delay and obstacle or as a temporary resting place” (BGE 273).

Thus, “a great manwants no ‘sympathetic’ heart, but servants, tools; in his intercourse with men, he is always intent on making something out of them” (WP 962). The great man approaches others instrumentally not only essay india, because of his fundamental proclivity for study intranet, solitude, but because of another distinguishing characteristic: he is consumed by his work, his responsibilities, his projects. Second, higher types seek burdens and responsibilities, in essay writing about india, the pursuit of some unifying project . “What is noble?” Nietzsche again asks in a Nachlass note of 1888. His answer: “That one instinctively seeks heavy responsibilities” (WP 944). So it was with Goethe: “he was not fainthearted but took as much as possible upon himself, over sharepoint study intranet himself, into himself” (TI IX:49). Organizational. But the higher type does not seek out responsibilities and tasks arbitrarily. “A great man,” says Nietzsche displays “a long logic in intranet, all of his activityhe has the ability to extend his will across great stretches of his life and to despise, and reject everything petty about him” (WP 962). This is the trait Nietzsche sometimes refers to as having “style” in “character” (GS 290). (Note that this famous passage (GS 290) merely describes those “the strong and domineering natures” who are able “‘to give’ style” to their character; it does not presuppose that just anyone can do so and essay about india it is not a recommendation that everyone try to do so.) Indeed, Nietzsche understood his own life in these terms: [T]he organizing “idea” that is sharepoint case study intranet destined to rule [in one's life and work] keeps growing deep down it begins to command; slowly it leads us back from side roads and wrong roads; it prepares single qualities and fitnesses that will one day prove to school be indispensable as means toward a whole one by sharepoint study intranet one, it trains all subservient capacities before giving any hint of the dominant task, “goal,” “aim,” or “meaning.” Considered in this way, my life is simply wonderful. Essay Causing Obesity. For the task of a revaluation of all values more capacities may have been needed than have ever dwelt together in a single individual.I never even suspected what was growing in me and one day all my capacities, suddenly ripe, leaped forth in their ultimate perfection. (EH II:9). Earlier in Ecce Homo , Nietzsche describes himself as a higher type, “a well-turned-out-person” (EH I:2), and intranet thus we may conclude that it is a characteristic only of the school coursework, higher type that he is driven in pursuit of a project in the way described here.

Indeed, it turns out to be precisely this kind of instinctive drivenness that Nietzsche has partly in mind when he praises “health.” Third, higher types are essentially healthy and resilient. One essential attribute of the study intranet, “well-turned-out-person ”is that he “has a taste only for what is essay writing about good for him; his pleasure, his delight cease where the measure of what is good for him is transgressed. He guesses what remedies avail against case study intranet, what is food causing harmful; he exploits bad accidents to his advantage” (EH I:2). But this is just to case say that a higher type is healthy , for essay, health, Nietzsche tells us, means simply “instinctively cho[osing] the sharepoint study intranet, right means against wretched states” (EH I:2). This permits us to understand Nietzsche's own declaration in essay writing about, Ecce Homo that he was “ healthy at bottom ” (EH I:2), a seemingly paradoxical claim for a philosopher whose physical ailments were legion. Sharepoint. Yet “health,” for Nietzsche, is a term of art, meaning not the absence of about sickness, but something closer to resilience , to how one deals with ordinary (physical) sickness and study setbacks. “For a typical healthy person,” Nietzsche says, “being sick can even become an energetic stimulus for life, for living more. This, in fact, is how [my own] long period of sickness appears to me now it was during the years of my lowest vitality that I ceased to be a pessimist; the behavior, instinct of self-restoration forbade me a philosophy of poverty and discouragement” (EH I:2). To cease to be a pessimist is to case study reject MPS, for only under the color of MPS does life appear to lack value. Essay For Christmas. Thus, being healthy, in turn, entails a distinctive non-pessimistic attitude towards life which is yet a fourth mark of the higher type.

Fourth, higher types affirm life, meaning that they are prepared to will the sharepoint, eternal return of their lives . In Beyond Good and coursework Evil , Nietzsche describes “the opposite ideal” to that of moralists and pessimists like Schopenhauer as “the ideal of the most high-spirited, alive, and world-affirming human being who has not only come to terms and learned to case intranet get along with whatever was and is, but who wants to have what was and is repeated into all eternity” (BGE 56). Put more simply: the obesity, higher type embraces the doctrine of the eternal recurrence and thus evinces what Nietzsche often calls a “Dionysian” or “life-affirming” attitude. A person, for Nietzsche, has a Dionysian attitude toward life insofar as he affirms his life unconditionally; in particular, insofar as he affirms it including the sharepoint case intranet, “suffering” or other hardships it has involved. For Salem State. So someone who says, “I would gladly live my life again, except for my first marriage,” would not affirm life in the requisite sense. Thus, we may say that a person affirms his life in Nietzsche's sense only case intranet, insofar as he would gladly will its eternal return: i.e., will the repetition of coursework his entire life through eternity. In fact, Nietzsche calls “the idea of the eternal recurrence” the “highest formulation of study intranet affirmation that is at on fast obesity all attainable” (EH III:Z-1; cf. BGE 56). Higher men, then, are marked by a distinctive Dionysian attitude toward their life: they would gladly will the repetition of their life eternally. Strikingly, Nietzsche claims that precisely this attitude characterized both himself and Goethe. Study. Speaking, for example, of the neglect by school his contemporaries of his work, Nietzsche writes: “I myself have never suffered from case study all this; what is necessary does not hurt me; amor fati [love of fate] is my inmost nature” (EH III:CW-4). Regarding Goethe, Nietzsche says that, “Such a spiritstands amid the essay for christmas, cosmos with a joyous and trusting fatalism, in the faith that all is redeemed and affirmed in the whole.Such a faith, however, is the highest of all possible faiths: I have baptized it with the name of Dionysus ” (TI IX:49).

Finally, the case intranet, higher type of human being has a distinctive bearing towards others and especially towards himself: he has self-reverence. “The ‘higher nature’ of the great man,” says Nietzsche in a striking Nachlass note of 1888 “lies in being different, in incommunicability, in distance of rank, not in an effect of any kind even if he made the whole globe tremble” (WP 876; cf. Essay Writing About India. GS 55). This is sharepoint perhaps the behavior assignments, most unusual feature of Nietzsche's discussion of the study, higher type, for it suggests that, at bottom, being a higher type is a matter of “attitude” or “bearing.” In a section of writing about india Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche once again answers the sharepoint case study, question, “What is noble?”, this time as follows: “It is not the works, it is the essay writing about india, faith that is decisive here, that determines the order of rank: some fundamental certainty that a noble soul has about itself, something that cannot be sought, nor found, nor perhaps lost. Intranet. The noble soul has reverence [Ehrfurcht] for itself” (BGE 287). Self-reverence to revere and respect oneself as one might a god is no small achievement, as the proliferation of “self-help” programs and pop psychology slogans like “I'm OK, you're OK” would suggest. Self-loathing, self-doubt, and self-laceration are the norm among human beings; to possess a “fundamental certainty” about oneself is, Nietzsche thinks quite plausibly, a unique state of affairs. Allied with this posture of self-reverence are other distinctive attitudes that distinguish the bearing of the higher man. “The noble human being,” says Nietzsche, “honors himself as one who is powerful, also as one who has power over himself, who knows how to speak and be silent, who delights in being severe and hard with himself and respects all severity and school hardness” (BGE 260). Sharepoint Case Study Intranet. (The higher man, unsurprisingly, is no hedonist: “What is noble?” asks Nietzsche: “That one leaves happiness to essay on fast food causing obesity the great majority: happiness as peace of soul, virtue, comfort, Anglo-angelic shopkeeperdom a la Spencer” (WP 944).) In an earlier work, Nietzsche explains that: [T]he passion that attacks those who are noble is peculiar.It involves the sharepoint intranet, use of a rare and singular standard cold to coursework everybody else; the discovery of values for which no scales have been invented yet; offering sacrifices on altars that are dedicated to an unknown god; a courage without any desire for honors; self-sufficiency that overflows and gives to men and things. (GS 55) Indeed, the ability to sharepoint study intranet set his own standard of valuation is one of the essay food obesity, most distinctive achievements of the higher type, as we saw already in the discussion of solitude. And “the highest man” says Nietzsche is “he who determines values and directs the will of millennia by giving direction to the highest natures” (WP 999). Considered all together, it becomes clear why creatives geniuses like Goethe, Beethoven, and sharepoint study intranet Nietzsche himself should be the preferred examples of the higher human being: for india, the characteristics of the higher type so-described are precisely those that lend themselves to intranet artistic and creative work. Organizational Behavior Assignments. A penchant for solitude, an sharepoint study absolute devotion to one's tasks, an indifference to external opinion, a fundamental certainty about oneself and one's values (that often strikes others as hubris) all these are the traits we find, again and school again, in artistic geniuses. (It turns out, for example, that Beethoven, according to his leading biographer, had almost all these characteristics to a striking degree; for sharepoint intranet, discussion, see Leiter 2002: 122123.)

If “the men of great creativity, the really great men according to essay my understanding” (WP 957), men like Goethe and Beethoven, are Nietzsche's paradigmatic higher types, whose lives are models of flourishing excellence, is there anything systematic to be said about the theory of value that undergirds these judgments and sharepoint case intranet informs, in turn, Nietzsche's critique of morality (MPS) on the grounds that it thwarts the development of organizational behavior such men? One popular idea (e.g., Schacht 1983, Richardson 1996) is sharepoint study intranet that higher men exemplify “power,” which is claimed to be Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value. Such readings, alas, have to employ the concept of “power” rather elastically, since the conglomeration of traits of higher human beings noted above don't seem to be, in any ordinary sense, instances of for christmas “power” or its manifestation. Case Study Intranet. (Treating Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of humanistic in m note value as “power” confronts even more serious textual and philosophical obstacles: see Section 3.1, below.) More illuminating is Hurka's view (1993 and Hurka 2007) that Nietzsche's evaluative posture conjoins perfectionism with maximizing consequentialism: what has value are certain human excellences (or perfections), and states of affairs are assessed in terms of their maximization of these excellences. As Hurka helpfully observes (1993: 75), Nietzsche seems to sharepoint study operate with the opposite of Rawls's maximin principle, what Hurka calls approriately “maximax.” Hurka states this as a rule for essay about, conduct (“each agent's overriding goal should be not a sum or average of lifetime value, but the sharepoint case, greatest lifetime value of the single most perfect individual, or, if perfections are not fully comparable, of the few most perfect individuals” [1993: 75]), but given the earlier caveats about reading Nietzsche as a conventional normative theorist, it is better to on fast treat maximax as reflecting the implicit structure of Nietzsche's revaluation of values: he rejects MPS because it fails to maximize the perfection of the sharepoint case study intranet, highest human beings, and essay for christmas he does so without, it appears, any regard for the costs to the herd of such a rejection (see Section 4). This leaves the question whether there are (formal or substantive) criteria of “perfection” for Nietzsche? Many writers (e.g., Hurka 2007; Nehamas 1985; Richardson 1996) are attracted to the idea that “style” or “unity” is a criterion of excellence or perfection for case, Nietzsche, and, indeed, as noted above, the pursuit of a unified or coherent life project is a characteristic feature of essay for salem those Nietzsche deems to be higher men. Whether such style or coherence suffices is a vexed interpretive question, since it is not entirely clear that the formal criterion of style or unity is available only to Goethes and Beethovens: did not Kant, that “catastrophic spider” as Nietzsche unflatteringly calls him (A 11), exhibit an extraordinarily coherent style of sharepoint case creative productivity over many years? Others (e.g., Magnus 1978) take Nietzsche's idea of school coursework eternal recurrence (the hallmark of life-affirmation, as noted above) as the criterion of a well-lived life: perfection is a matter of living in such a way that one is sharepoint study ready to gladly will the repetition of one's life, in organizational, all its particulars, in to eternity. This, too, seems both too thin and too severe as a criterion of perfection standing alone: too thin, because anyone suitably superficial and complacent might will the eternal return; too severe, because it seems to require that a post-Holocaust Goethe gladly will the repetition of the intranet, Holocaust. Nehamas (1985), who shares some of Magnus's view, adds an idioscynratic element to this account: he claims that Nietzsche does not describe his ideal person his “higher man” but rather “exemplifies” such a person in the form of the “character” that is constituted by and exemplified in his corpus.

Nietzsche, however, describes at great length and in many places (e.g. Essay For Christmas. D 201; GS 55; BGE 287; NCW Epilogue:2; WP 943) the sharepoint case, types of persons he admires; and he also describes himself as such a person (e.g., EH I:2) In any case, Nehamas's view would have the for salem, odd consequence that for Nietzsche to have had a positive ethical vision at any point earlier in sharepoint case study intranet, his career he would have had to anticipate writing the series of books he actually wrote, such that his ethical ideal would be properly exemplified in them! Needless to school say, there is study intranet no reason to for christmas think this was Nietzsche's view. Nietzsche holds that moral (i.e., MPS) values are not conducive to the flourishing of human excellence, and it is by reference to this fact that he proposed to sharepoint intranet assess their value. The enterprise of assessing the value of in m certain other values (call them the sharepoint case study, ‘revalued values’) naturally invites the metaethical question: what status metaphysical, epistemological do the writing india, values used to undertake this revaluation (the ‘assessing values’) enjoy? (It is doubtful Nietzsche has a definite semantic view about judgments of value: cf. Hussain 2013, esp. 412.) Following Leiter (2000), we may distinguish “Privilege Readings” of Nietzsche's metaethics which claim that Nietzsche holds that his own evaluative standpoint is either veridical or better justified than its target from those readings which deny the claim of privilege. (Note that defenders of case this latter, “skeptical” view need not read Nietzsche as a global anti-realist i.e., as claiming that there are no truths or facts about anything, let alone truths about value a reading which has now been widely discredited. There is, on behavior the skeptical view at issue here, a special problem about the case study intranet, objectivity of value.) Privilege Readings of Nietzsche can come in three varieties: Intuitionist Realist (I-Realist); Naturalist Realist (N-Realist); and food Privilege Non-Realist (P-Non-Realist). The proponents of these views would hold the following: (i) According to the I-Realist, there are non-natural normative facts, which are sui generis, and which are apprehended by intranet some appropriate act of normative ‘perception.’ (ii) According to the N-Realist, there are normative facts because normative facts are just constituted by organizational behavior assignments certain natural facts (in some sense to case be specified).

(iii) According to the P-Non-Realist, there are no normative facts, but some normative judgments still enjoy a privilege by virtue of essay for christmas their interpersonal appeal or acceptance. To say that there are ‘normative facts’ will mean, for purposes here, that norms are (in some sense) objective features of the sharepoint study, world. No one, to date, has construed Nietzsche as an I-Realist, but Schacht (1983) and Wilcox (1974), among many others, have defended an N-Realist reading, while Foot (1973) has defended a P-Non-Realist reading. We consider the essay for salem state, difficulties afflicting these Privilege Readings in turn. According to the N-Realist reading, Nietzsche holds, first, that only power really has value and, second, that power is an objective, natural property. Nietzsche's evaluative perspective is privileged, in sharepoint case study, turn, because it involves asssessing (i) prudential value (value for an agent) in school, terms of degree of power, and (ii) non-prudential value in terms of maximization of prudential value (i.e., maximization of sharepoint study intranet power). State University. (A cautionary note about sharepoint study terminology here: by ordinary conventions, the N-Realist proper holds that value itself is a natural property, not simply that what has value is a natural property. There is no clear textual evidence of essay on fast food Nietzsche's view on this subtle question, yet it still makes sense to use the “N-Realist” label for two reasons: first, defenders of this reading treat Nietzsche's view as “naturalistic”; and, second, it is in fact ‘naturalistic’ in a familiar nineteenth-century sense, i.e., it denies that there are any supernatural properties. Case Study. In the theory of value, then, one might plausibly think of organizational behavior Nietzsche as being a kind of case study naturalist in the sense of resisting religious and quasi-religious theories that view goodness as supervening on non-natural (e.g., the “Forms”) or supernatural properties; as against coursework, this, Nietzsche claims that goodness supervenes on a (putatively) natural property, namely power.) According to Schacht, Nietzsche's account of “the fundamental character of life and the world” as will to sharepoint case intranet power is coursework supposed to “ground” his own evaluative standpoint (1983: 348349). As Nietzsche writes (in a passage Schacht quotes): “assuming that life itself is the will to power,” then “there is nothing to life that has value, except the degree of power” (WP 55). Sharepoint Study Intranet. Nietzsche's revaluation of coursework values, then, assesses moral values on the basis of their “degree of study intranet power,” something which constitutes an “objective measure of essay state university value” (WP 674).

Hence the privilege of his view: it embraces as an evaluative standard the only thing in life that (in fact) has value (namely power), and employs this “objective measure of value” in the revaluation (e.g., by criticizing Christian morality because it does not maximize “power”). What exactly is Nietzsche's argument on case study the N-Realist reading? When pressed, commentators are never very clear. Schacht, for example, writes: Human life, for Nietzsche, is ultimately a part of a kind of vast game[which] is, so to speak, the only game in town.The nature of the game, he holds, establishes a standard for the evaluation of everything falling within its compass.

The availability of this standard places evaluation on footing that is as firm as that on which the comprehension of essay about india life and sharepoint case the world stands. (1983, p. 398) Talk of “the only game in town” is far too metaphorical, however, to bear the philosophical weight demanded. From the fact that “life itself is the will to power,” how does it follow that power is the only standard of value? From the fact, for example, that all life obeys the organizational assignments, laws of fundamental physics, nothing follows about the appropriate standard of study intranet value. What Schacht and essay mathematics others seem to have in mind is sharepoint intranet something like John Stuart Mill's argument for utilitarianism, which proceeds from the premise that since happiness is the only thing people desire or aim for, it follows that happiness is the only thing that possesses intrinsic value. This argument, though, is famously unsuccessful: from the fact that only happiness is desired, nothing at all follows about what ought to be desired. Attempts to construe Nietzsche's argument in an analogous way encounter similar problems (Leiter 2000 explores the essay, analogy in detail). On Mill's well-known and oft-criticized ‘proof’ of the principle of sharepoint study utility from his 1861 Utilitarianism , to show that something is visible, we must show that it is seen; and to show that something is audible, we must show that it is heard; analogously, (P) to show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is desired. Millian hedonism holds that only happiness or pleasure is intrinsically desirable or valuable (‘Prescriptive Hedonism’). Let us call ‘Value Nihilism’ the view that there is nothing that has value or is valuable (or desirable).

To get Prescriptive Hedonism from (P), then, plug in ‘Descriptive Hedonism’ the thesis that people do in fact desire only pleasure as an end. If (P) is valid, Descriptive Hedonism true, and Value Nihilism false, then the truth of Prescriptive Hedonism follows. ((P), of course, is not valid, a point to which we will return.) Notice, now, that the for christmas, same type of sharepoint case intranet argument seems to capture what the N-Realist construal of Nietzsche has in mind. Assignments. That is, to get the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion that what is valuable is power, take (P) and plug in a strong form of case intranet Nietzsche's descriptive doctrine of the essay writing about india, will to power the doctrine, roughly, that all persons intrinsically ‘desire’ only power. If (P) is valid, Value Nihilism false, and the descriptive doctrine of the sharepoint case study intranet, will to power is true, then the normative conclusion about power, which Schacht is after, seems to follow. (Note, of course, that the Millian Model argument as formulated so far would show only that power is coursework what is non-morally valuable or good for an agent.

Of course, if the Millian Model argument for prudential value or non-moral goodness does not work, then that provides a very strong (if defeasible) reason for supposing that there is no further argument for the related account of sharepoint case study non-prudential value as consisting in maximization of power.) What are the problems with this “Millian argument”? The first problem, of course, is that (P) is on fast causing not valid. While from the sharepoint study, fact that x is heard, it follows that x is audible, it does not follow from coursework that fact that x is desired that x is desirable in sharepoint study, the sense necessary for the argument . For while ‘audible’ can be fairly rendered as ‘can be heard,’ ‘desirable,’ in the context of Prescriptive Hedonism, means ‘ ought to be desired’ (not ‘can’ or ‘is’ desired). Thus, while it follows that: it does not follow that, If x is desired, then x ought to be desired (‘is desirable’). Yet in claiming that pleasure or power are valuable, Mill and the N-Realist Nietzsche are advancing a normative thesis. The truth of this normative thesis, however, simply does not follow from the corresponding descriptive thesis. Many, of course, have thought this too facile a response. Supplement the essay india, argument, then, by adding an ‘Internalist Constraint’ (IC), one that many philosophers have found plausible in the theory of value: (IC) Something cannot be valuable for a person unless the person is capable of caring about (desiring) it. The (IC) is motivated by the thought that it cannot be right to say that ‘X is study valuable’ for someone when x is alien to essay writing anything a person cares about or could care about: any plausible notion of value, the (IC) supposes, must have some strong connection to a person's existing (or potential) motivational set.

How does the (IC) help? Recall (P): (P) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable) show that it is desired. Now the sharepoint case study intranet, (IC) puts a constraint on what things can, in fact, be desirable or valuable: namely, only those things that agents can, in fact, care about or desire. This suggests that we might reformulate (P) as follows: (P′) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is essay for christmas or can be desired. (P′) now is simply a different formulation of the (IC): if we accept the (IC) then we should accept (P′). But what happens, then, if we grant the truth of Descriptive Hedonism: namely, that only pleasure is, in fact, desired.

In that case, it would now follow that only pleasure is desirable (ought to be desired) (assuming, again, that Value Nihilism is false). Sharepoint Intranet. That is, since something ought to be desired only coursework, if it can be desired (internalism), then if only x can be desired, then only x ought to be desired (assuming that Value Nihilism is false). Will this argument rescue the N-Realist Nietzsche? Two obstacles remain. The first, and perhaps less serious one, is that we must have some reason for accepting the (IC) or, more modestly, some reason for thinking Nietzsche accepts it.

It is not clear, however, that there are adequate textual grounds for saying where Nietzsche stands on this question. Since the (IC) does, however, seem to be presupposed by the Nietzschean remarks from the Nachlass that support N-Realism in the sense that such remarks do not constitute a good argument without the case intranet, (IC) let us grant that Nietzsche accepts the (IC), and let us simply put aside the contentious issue of school coursework whether we ought to accept the (IC) as a general philosophical matter. A second difficulty will still remain: namely, that the sharepoint case study, argument for N-Realism still depends on the truth of the about india, relevant descriptive thesis, in case study intranet, Nietzsche's case, the in m note, doctrine of the will to power. This presents two problems. First, in the works Nietzsche chose to sharepoint case study intranet publish, it seems clear that he did not, in fact, accept the doctrine in behavior assignments, the strong form required for sharepoint case intranet, the N-Realist argument (namely, that it is only power that persons ever aim for or desire). Second, it is simply not a plausible doctrine in coursework, its strong form.

For the sharepoint intranet, Millian Model argument for N-Realism to work in its new form (that is, supplemented with the (IC)) it must be the case that that which ought to be desired (‘is valuable’) are the only things that are, in fact, desired. Since the essay, N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion is that only power is valuable, power must be the only thing that is, in fact, desired (assuming, again, that something is valuable, i.e., that Value Nihilism is intranet false). Many, of course, have thought that Nietzsche held precisely this view, and he plainly says much to suggest that. Essay Causing Obesity. Zarathustra states that, “Where I found the living, there I found will to power” (Z II:12); Nietzsche refers to case study intranet “the will to power which is the for salem, will of life” (GS 349); he says “the really fundamental instinct of lifeaims at the expansion of power ” (GS 349); “life simply is will to power,” meaning a striving “to grow, spread, seize, become predominant” (BGE 259); he refers to his “theory that in all events a will to power is case intranet operating” (GM II:12); he claims that “[a] living thing seeks above all to discharge its strength life itself is will to power ” (BGE 13); and writing about so on. The difficulty is that Nietzsche says other things which might suggest that the stronger remarks are misleading; for study intranet, example: Life itself is to my mind the instinct for growth, for durability, for an accumulation of essay for salem state university forces, for power : where the will to power is lacking there is case decline. It is my contention that all the supreme values of in m mankind lack this will. (A 6)

But if all actions manifested this will , then this will could never be found lacking. Yet Nietzsche thinks it can be lacking, which means he must countenance the possibility that not everyone aims for (‘desires’) power. This passage is not atypical. Later in the same work, he returns to the same theme concerning “[w]herever the sharepoint study intranet, will to power declines in any form” (A 17). In the immediately preceding work he claims that the “effects” of essay on fast obesity liberal institutions are “known well enough: they undermine the will to power” (TI IX:38). And in the immediately subsequent work (his last), Nietzsche refers to “the terrible aspects of reality (in affects, in desires, in intranet, the will to essay power)” (EH IV:4), which certainly sounds as if will to power is simply one among various characteristics of sharepoint intranet reality alongside affects and desires, rather than the essential core of them all. Three other general textual considerations count against attributing the strong doctrine of the essay, will to power to Nietzsche. First, if, as the defenders of the strong doctrine believe, “his fundamental principle is the ‘ will to power’ ”, then it is hard to understand why he says almost nothing about will to power and sharepoint case nothing at all to suggest it is essay about india his “fundamental principle” in the two major self-reflective moments in the Nietzschean corpus: his last major work, Ecce Homo , where he reviews and sharepoint study assesses his life and writings, including specifically all his prior books (EH III); and the series of new prefaces he wrote for The Birth of essay Tragedy , Human, All Too Human , Dawn , and The Gay Science in 1886, in which he revisits his major themes. That this putative “fundamental principle” merits no mention on either occasion strongly suggests that its role in intranet, Nietzsche's thought has been greatly overstated. Second, the essay for christmas, view at issue presupposes an unusually strong doctrine of the will to power: a doctrine, to the effect, that all life (actions, events) reflects the will to power.

But recent scholarship has cast doubt on whether Nietzsche ultimately accepted such a doctrine. The single most famous passage on will to case study power in humanistic mathematics note, the Nietzschean corpus, for example, is the case, concluding section (1067) of The Will to Power , where he affirms that, “ This world is the will to power and nothing besides ! And you yourselves are also this will to school power and nothing besides!” Although a favorite of commentators for many years, the passage has now been conclusively discredited by study intranet the leading scholar of the Nachlass , the late Mazzino Montinari. Montinari has shown that Nietzsche had, in essay humanistic in m mathematics note, fact, discarded the sharepoint study intranet, passage by the spring of 1887 (1982, pp. Essay Food Obesity. 103104)! It was, as Montinari notes, made part of the Köselitz-Forster compilation of The Will to case intranet Power (the basis for the English-language edition by essay in m mathematics note Kaufmann and case Hollingdale) notwithstanding “Nietzsche's literary intentions” (1982, p. 104).

Finally, Maudemarie Clark has argued that Nietzsche could not have accepted the very strongest form of the doctrine of the will to power namely, that all force , animate and inanimate, is on fast will to power given the putative argument he gives for it. Clark points out that the sharepoint study, only argument for this doctrine of the will to power in Nietzsche's published works in Section 36 of school Beyond Good and Evil is cast in the conditional form: if we accept certain initial hypotheses, then, Nietzsche thinks, the strong doctrine of the study, will to power follows. But one of the antecedents of this conditional is the “causality of the essay for christmas, will,” and Clark argues that Nietzsche clearly rejects such causality elsewhere in his work (e.g., GS 127, TI II:5, TI VI:3). Therefore, this section cannot constitute an argument for the strongest doctrine of the will to sharepoint case intranet power that Nietzsche, himself, would actually accept! Rather than embracing the strongest form of the doctrine, Clark argues that Nietzsche is, somewhat ironically, illustrating the very flaw of philosophers he warns against in the surrounding passages: namely, their tendency to propound theories of the essence of reality that are just projections of organizational behavior their own evaluative commitments (Clark 1990, pp. 212227). Thus, Nietzsche says of the Stoic talk of living “according to nature” that “while you pretend rapturously to case study read the essay, canon of your law in nature, you want something opposite.Your pride wants to impose your morality, your ideal, on nature” (BGE 9).

How, Clark wonders, could Nietzsche's own doctrine of will to power be exempted from such a charge? (Note, too, that Montinari claims that the one surviving relic of 1067 of The Will to sharepoint case intranet Power in the published works is precisely the ironic Section 36 of essay food causing Beyond Good and Evil (1982, p. 104).) What, then, does Nietzsche believe about will to power? As others have noted (e.g., Clark 1990: 209212), Nietzsche's doctrine of will to power in its original deployment and most of its later development is psychological in character: the will to study power is essay writing about posited as the best psychological explanation for a wide variety of human behaviors. But as the preceding passages and considerations make clear, Nietzsche could not have believed that will to power was the exclusive explanation for sharepoint study intranet, all human behavior. To the extent he sometimes seems to embrace this stronger claim (see the example, above), we must simply take Nietzsche to have overstated his case something which his penchant for hyperbolic rhetoric and polemics often leads him to do or to be engaged in the kind of ironic move described by Clark, above. That would, of course, be quite fortunate, since it is hardly plausible that will to power is the exclusive explanation for all human behavior. There is an humanistic in m note additional, textual worry for case intranet, the argument that will to behavior assignments power provides an objective criterion of value lurking here as well.

Nietzsche only makes the remarks that seem to suggest that power is an case study intranet objective criterion in passages from the Nachlass , work that Nietzsche never published during his lifetime. Thus, even if one thought that Nietzsche really held the organizational assignments, strong descriptive doctrine of the will to power the doctrine that all animate force (perhaps all force) is will to study intranet power in his published works, it is essay in m still the case that he only uses this doctrine to argue for the normative conclusion in sharepoint case study intranet, Nachlass material. For Christmas. Since scholars have now raised important doubts about the canonical status of this Nachlass material (Montinari 1982, pp. Sharepoint Case. 92104; Hollingdale 1985, pp. 166172, 182186), this might suggest that a view ought not to be attributed to Nietzsche solely on the basis of its articulation in these notebooks, which is exactly what the essay for salem university, N-Realist reading requires.

Although not attributing to Nietzsche any kind of value realism, Philippa Foot, like Schacht, wants to show that Nietzsche is doing something more than simply expressing his idiosyncratic view, a view that admits of no interpersonal justification. While agreeing that Nietzsche's intention is, in part, “to present us with a clash of sharepoint study interests the good of the strong against that of the weak,” Foot adds that “this is not all he wants to suggest” (1973: 162). Coursework. Noting that Nietzsche “seems to want to say that anyone who is strong, independent, and so on anyone who fits his description of the higher type of man is one who has value in himself” (163), Foot goes on case study intranet to explicate this notion of “value” as follows: [I]t does make sense to say that we value strong and exceptional individuals. We do find patterns of reaction to exceptional men that would allow us to see here a valuing rather similar to valuing on aesthetic grounds. I am thinking of the interest and assignments admiration which is the common attitude to remarkable men of exceptional independence of mind and strength of will. [Nietzsche] is appealing to our tendency to admire certain individuals whom we see as powerful and splendid. [There is] a similarity between the way we attribute value (aesthetic value) to sharepoint study art objects and the value that Nietzsche attributes to a certain kind of man, both resting on a set of common reactions. (1973: 163)

So Nietzsche, on this account, does not claim that his evaluative perspective is veridical; he simply claims that it enjoys a certain sort of organizational assignments interpersonal appeal, owing to our “common attitude to sharepoint case study remarkable men,” “our tendency to admire certain individuals,” to find them aesthetically appealing. There may be no fact-of-the-matter as to whether higher men are or are not really valuable, but Nietzsche's evaluative standpoint is behavior assignments privileged by virtue of its appeal to all of sharepoint us. Essay For Christmas. We're all interested, it seems, in the flourishing of higher men. Yet Nietzsche could not embrace the sharepoint intranet, view that the flourishing of “higher men” will appeal to “ our tendency” to admire such men or to any sort of “common” attitude, given the logic of his critique of morality. This follows from what we may call Nietzsche's ‘Callicleanism,’ after Plato's Callicles in the Gorgias . It has now become something of food a commonplace for commentators to note that Nietzsche did not accept one sort of Calliclean view, namely, the view that “anyone who is to sharepoint case study live aright should suffer his appetites to grow to the greatest extent and not check them” ( Gorgias , 419e) (cf. Nehamas 1985: 202203; BGE 188). Yet there remains a more important respect in which Nietzsche's view is Calliclean: namely, in for christmas, its embrace of the Calliclean doctrine that the case study intranet, inferior employ morality to essay writing make “slaves of those who are naturally better” ( Gorgias , 491e-492a), that the weaker folk, the majorityframe the laws [and, we might add, the morals] for their own advantage’ in intranet, order to ‘frighten [the strong] by saying that to overreach others is shameful and evil’ ( Gorgias , 483b-d). In short, Callicles' view is essay food causing obesity that morality is simply the prudence of the case study intranet, weak, who unable to do what the strong can do, opt instead to put the actions of the strong under the organizational behavior assignments, ban of morality. Sharepoint Intranet. This, of course, is essentially Nietzsche's view as well. So, for example, Nietzsche describes slave morality as simply ‘the prudence [ Klugheit ] of the lowest order’ (GM I:13), and he observes that “everything that elevates an individual above the herd and intimidates the neighbor iscalled evil ” (BGE 201), that “[m]oral judgments and condemnations constitute the favorite revenge of the spiritually limited against those less limited” (BGE 219), and he claims that the “chief means” by which the “weak and essay on fast food causing obesity mediocreweaken and pull down the stronger” is “the moral judgment” (WP 345). Recall, now, that Foot wanted to resist the study intranet, view that in his revaluation Nietzsche simply “present[s] us with a clash of coursework interests the good of the strong against that of the sharepoint case, weak” (1973: 162); instead, Foot suggests that Nietzsche is appealing to a ‘common’ tendency to admire higher men, men who would otherwise be thwarted by the reign of moral values.

But for a Calliclean like Nietzsche, it is part of the very appeal of morality that it does thwart the organizational, flourishing of higher men. If that is right, then he could not think that the flourishing of “higher men” would appeal to everyone. Case Study. It is precisely because it doesn't that morality arises in essay about, the first place, as a means for the low and base to thwart the flourishing of the high. Sharepoint Case Study. This is not to india deny that higher men may still be admirable in the eyes of the base and low (hence their envy); it is to deny, however, that Nietzsche's evaluative perspective that it is an objection to morality that it thwarts the sharepoint study, high could enjoy a privilege in virtue of writing this shared admiration. On the Calliclean picture, there is a fundamental hostility between the high and low, the strong and the weak, one which will not be bridged by sharepoint case study inviting the low to admire the high, or the school coursework, weak, the strong. “The well-being of the case study intranet, majority and humanistic note the well-being of the few are opposite viewpoints of sharepoint study value,” Nietzsche says in the ‘Note’ at the end of the first essay of the Genealogy . About India. And in Nietzsche's revaluation, it appears, there is no evaluative standpoint from which one could successfully mediate and reconcile the normative claims of the opposing moralities. If Nietzsche is not a realist about value, then he must be an anti-realist: he must deny that there is any objective fact of the matter that would privilege his evaluative perspective over its target. Sharepoint Case Intranet. (This, in fact, is the most familiar reading outside the secondary literature on Nietzsche; one finds this view of Nietzsche's metaethics, for example, in the sociologist Max Weber and the moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, among many others.) We must be careful about the kinds of judgments to which this anti-realism applies. Essay Writing. Recall that in his critique of morality, Nietzsche appears to hold that, e.g., “herd” morality is good for the herd, but that it is bad for higher men. Sharepoint Study Intranet. He says, for example, that, “The ideas of the herd should rule in the herd but not reach out beyond it” (WP 287; emphasis added); and elsewhere he describes slave morality as simply “the prudence of the lowest order” (GM I:13). It may appear that regarding value judgments pertaining to welfare or prudential goodness what is good or bad for particular sorts of persons Nietzsche believes there is an objective fact of the matter, though one relative to type-facts about persons. But this is not right: while Nietzsche believes it is objectively correct that different moralities have certain effects on different kinds of people, that these effects are good or bad itself admits of anti-realist interpretation (cf. Essay About India. Leiter 2015: 119 for a revision of the view defended in Leiter 2002).

Even more importantly, though, Nietzsche's anti-realism applies to the “revaluative” judgment that follows upon these judgments about the effects of different moralities: that is, the judgment that because herd morality is good for the herd but bad for higher men, herd morality (or the universal reign of herd morality) is bad or disvaluable. Nietzsche certainly says much that sounds like he is case study intranet denying the objectivity of values. Zarathustra tells us that, “Verily, men gave themselves all their good and evil [ Gut und Böse ]” (Z I:15) and that “good and evil that are not transitory do not exist” (Z II:12). In The Gay Science , Nietzsche explains that, “Whatever has value in essay writing about, our world now does not have value in itself, according to its nature nature is always value-less, but has been given value at some time” (301; cf. D 3). Indeed, like certain radical anti-realists, he tends to sharepoint case equate evaluative questions with matters of taste. “What is now decisive against Christianity is our taste [ Geschmack ], no longer our reasons” (GS 132), he writes, noting later in the same work that what counts as “justiceis by all means a matter of taste, nothing more” (GS 184). Nietzsche's central argument for anti-realism about value is explanatory : moral facts don't figure in the “best explanation” of experience, and so are not real constituents of the objective world. Moral values, in school, short, can be “explained away.” Such a conclusion follows from sharepoint case study Nietzsche's naturalism (on the latter, see the competing accounts in Janaway 2007 and Leiter 2013). As we saw in school, the context of Nietzsche's critique of morality, Nietzsche thinks a person's moral beliefs can be explained in naturalistic terms, i.e., in sharepoint case intranet, terms of coursework type-facts about that person. Sharepoint Case Intranet. Thus, to explain a person's moral judgments, one needn't appeal to the existence of objective moral facts: psycho-physical facts about the school, person suffice.

Thus, since non-evaluative type-facts are the primary explanatory facts, and since explanatory power is the mark of objective facts, it appears that there cannot be any value facts. Moral judgments and evaluations are “images” and sharepoint study intranet “fantasies,” says Nietzsche, the mere effects of essay on fast food causing obesity type-facts about agents (D 119). To describe Nietzsche as a moral anti-realist is so far only to ascribe to him a metaphysical view: namely, that there are no objective facts about what is morally right and wrong. It is a somewhat vexed interpretive question whether we should also ascribe to case study Nietzsche a particular view about the semantics of moral judgment, a topic about which no philosopher prior to coursework the 20 th century had a workedout view (see again Hussain 2013). For example, while it seems clear (from the passages quoted above) that Nietzsche has distinct views on the central metaphysical question about value, it seems equally apparent that there are inadequate textual resources for ascribing to him a satisfying answer to the semantic question. Study Intranet. Elements of his view, for essay, example, might suggest assimilation to what we would call non-cognitivism and, in particular, expressivism. For example, in describing master and Christian morality as “opposite forms in case study, the optics of value [ Werthe ],” Nietzsche goes on to assert that, as opposite “optical” forms, they “areimmune to reasons and refutations. One cannot refute Christianity; one cannot refute a disease of the eye.

The concepts ‘true’ and behavior ‘untrue’ have, as it seems to me, no meaning in optics” (CW Epilogue). This passage typical of putatively expressivist passages in Nietzsche is, however, ambiguous. For the passage could mean that “true” and “false” are meaningless not because evaluative judgments are essentially non-cognitive, but rather because competing evaluative views are immune to sharepoint study intranet the effects of reasoning. There may be rational grounds for thinking one view better than another, perhaps for thinking one true and the other false, but since reasoning has so little impact in this context, it is “meaningless” (in the sense of pointless) to raise issues of behavior truth and falsity. More recently, Hussain (2007) has argued that we read Nietzsche as a fictionalist about moral value: granted that Nietzsche is an anti-realist about value (there exists no objective fact about sharepoint case what has value in-itself), Hussain wonders what it is those who “create values” can understand themselves to have done? Valuation, in this Nietzschean world, Hussain argues, involves a kind of “make-believe,” pretending that things are valuable-in-themselves, while knowing that nothing, in humanistic in m mathematics, fact, has such value. There is a pressing philosophical question here whether “make-believe” about value really could suffice for valuing but also an interpretive problem: does Nietzsche really think that moral judgments express beliefs , that is, truth-apt propositional attitudes which then requires fictionalist treatment?

It would be astonishing if any 19 th -century philosopher were to sharepoint case study intranet have a clear answer to such a question (Hussain 2013 seems to have come around to this view). While Nietzsche was, to be sure, among the causing, first to recognize the sharepoint, extent to which linguistic and grammatical practices generate metaphysical assumptions and behavior problems, he simply did not view metaphysical questions themselves as best framed as issues about the semantics of a given region of discourse (e.g., are the terms genuinely and successfully referential, or are they “merely” expressive?). It is sharepoint case intranet doubtful, then, that there are adequate grounds for assigning Nietzsche a view on such subtle matters as whether ethical language is primarily cognitive or non-cognitive, when it clearly evinces aspects of for christmas both descriptive and prescriptive discourse. Two aspects of Nietzsche's work may, however, seem to be in tension with value anti-realism, even understood as only a metaphysical doctrine: first, his reliance on the distinction between “higher” and “lower” types of human beings; and second, the force and seriousness with which he presents his evaluative judgments. As we saw, above, Nietzsche's critique of morality presupposes a distinction between higher and lower types of people. But are there objective facts about who is “high” and sharepoint who is “low”? And if so, would such a view be compatible with anti-realism? Suppose there are objective facts about “high” and “low”: Goethe really is a higher type, and the herd animal really is a lower type. But there is still no objective fact about whether MPS is non-prudentially disvaluable just because it has the effect of on fast food obesity thwarting the flourishing of study objectively higher types. Realism about “high” and “low” does not entail realism about non-prudential value, so the argument might go.

Such a response cannot work for two reasons. First, the judgment that “X is essay humanistic mathematics note a higher person” includes a significant evaluative component: “Goethe is case study a higher type” is not evaluatively neutral in the manner of “Goethe is essay for salem state university a taller than average type.” In saying that someone is sharepoint case intranet a higher type, we seem committed to some positive evaluative attitude towards that person (e.g., that it is good to have persons like that around). If there is an objective fact that “X is a higher type,” and it is a fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of higher types, then it would seem that at least some objective weight must accrue to the Nietzschean position that MPS is disvaluable because of this effect it has. Second, if it is an objective fact that Goethe is a higher type and, say, Hitler is a herd animal, then the following counterfactual would seem to be true: (C) If Hitler had been like Goethe, he would have been better off. He would have been better off because he would have been a higher type, instead of for christmas a lower type and it is an objective fact that the high are really high, and the low are really low. But this seemingly objective judgment that Hitler would have been better off had he been more like Goethe is sharepoint case study a non-prudential value judgment; it is not a judgment about what is good for essay writing about, Hitler under the circumstances, but rather a judgment about what would make Hitler better off, but for his circumstances.

In general, it seems that conceding the objectivity of “high” and “low” permits one to make objective non-prudential value judgments like: the good of the sharepoint case study, higher type is superior to for christmas the good of the lower type. For these reasons, if Nietzsche is an sharepoint case anti-realist about non-prudential moral value, then he must also be an anti-realist about judgments of “high” and writing about india “low,” It may be an objective fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of those Nietzsche regards as higher types; but it is sharepoint case study not an objective fact that they are really higher. In fact, there is textual evidence that this is exactly Nietzsche's view. For example, in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , Nietzsche writes that, “Good and evil, and essay for christmas rich and poor, and high and low [ Hoch und Gering ], and all the names of values arms shall they be and clattering signs that life must overcome itself again and again” (Z II:7). Here Nietzsche is explicit that “high and sharepoint intranet low” are simply “names of values,” just like “good and evil.” But since, as we have just seen, Nietzsche is an coursework anti-realist about these latter evaluative concepts, it should hardly be surprisingly that he is an intranet anti-realist about the former. The actual contexts in which Nietzsche marks traits as “high” and “low” invite the essay obesity, same reading. Consider, for example, the exposition in case, the Genealogy (I:14) of the sense in mathematics, which slave morality is the “prudence of the lowest order” (GM, I:13). According to Nietzsche, slave morality takes certain typical characteristics of the “lowest order” and sharepoint redescribes them in morally praiseworthy lights. So, for example, their impotence becomes “goodness of heart,” their anxious lowliness becomes “humility,” their “inoffensiveness” and “lingering at the door” becomes “patience”, and their desire for retaliation becomes a desire for justice.

If Nietzsche were really a realist about the concept of “lowness”, then we ought to be able to essay for salem university identify the objective facts in virtue of which something is really low. Yet when Nietzsche tries to describe all patience as nothing more than a “lingering at the door” and all humility as simply “anxious lowliness,” it is natural to think that there is no “objective” fact about “lowness” here but simply a polemical and evaluatively loaded characterization. To think that all humility is really “anxious lowliness” is just to identify oneself as one who shares Nietzsche's evaluative sensibility, one “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381), one “predisposed and predestined” for Nietzsche's insights (BGE 30). In short, given the way in sharepoint case study intranet, which Nietzsche actually speaks of the “high” and “low,” we should understand Nietzsche's metaethical position as also characterizing these terms: to say that “X is low” is not to describe an objective fact, but rather to coursework identify oneself as sharing in a certain evaluative sensibility or taste. There remains a final interpretive difficulty: for sharepoint study intranet, Nietzsche simply does not write like someone who thinks his evaluative judgments are merely his idiosyncratic preferences!

On the metaethical position elaborated here, it seems Nietzsche must believe that if, in response to essay state university his point that “morality were to blame if the highest power and case study intranet splendor actually possible to the type man was never in fact attained” (GM Pref:6), someone were to say, “So much the for christmas, better for intranet, morality!”, there would be nothing further to say to that person: at the best, Nietzsche might turn his back and say, “Oh well doesn't share my evaluative tastes.” Yet there seems to be a substantial amount of Nietzschean rhetoric (see, e.g., BGE 259; TI V:6 IX:35; EH IV:4, 7, 8) that cannot be reconciled with this metaethical view, and which cries out instead for some sort of realist construal. Three sorts of considerations, however, block the inference from Nietzsche's rhetoric to the conclusion that he embraced a realist metaphysics of value. First, while the rhetoric is forceful, the school, language of case study truth and falsity is conspicuously absent. As some of the passages quoted above suggest, Nietzsche writes with great force and behavior assignments passion in study intranet, opposition to MPS. But it is essay for salem state university striking that he does not use the epistemic value terms the language of truth and falsity, real and unreal in this context. This, of course, might not be notable, except for sharepoint case intranet, the fact that in his equally forceful attacks on, e.g., Christian cosmology, or religious interpretations of organizational behavior assignments natural events, he invokes the conceptual apparatus of truth and falsity, truth and lie, reality and appearance, all the time (cf. Leiter 1994, pp. Sharepoint Case. 336338). Thus, for school coursework, example, Nietzsche lampoons Christian cosmology as lacking “even a single point of contact with reality” and as “pure fiction” which “falsifiesreality” (“ die Wirklichtkeit fälscht ”) (A, 15).

Such epistemic value terms are strikingly absent in Nietzsche's remarks about value. Sharepoint Case. One natural explanation for behavior, this difference in rhetoric natural especially in light of the substantial evidence for sharepoint case, his anti-realism is precisely that in the moral case he does not think there is any fact of the essay humanistic in m, matter. Second, in undertaking a “revaluation of all values,” Nietzsche, as we have seen, wants to alert “higher” types to the fact that MPS is not, in fact, conducive to their flourishing. Thus, he needs to “wake up” his appropriate readers those whose “ears are related” to his to the dangers of MPS, a task made all the sharepoint case study, more difficult by MPS's pretension to be “morality itself.” Given, then, that Nietzsche's target is a certain sort of misunderstanding on the part of higher men, and given the difficulty of supplanting the norms that figure in this misunderstanding (the norms of MPS), it should be unsurprising that Nietzsche writes with passion and force: he must shake higher types out of their intuitive commitment to the moral traditions of two millenia! Moreover, Nietzsche's naturalism, and the prominent role it assigns to non-conscious drives and type-facts, leads him to school be skeptical about the sharepoint study intranet, efficacy of reasons and essay humanistic mathematics arguments. But a skeptic about the efficacy of rational persuasion might very well opt for persuasion through other rhetorical devices. Third, and perhaps most importantly, a rhetorical tone like Nietzsche's looked at in the case study, context of his life does not really suggest realism about the essay for salem state, content, but rather desperation on the part of the author to reach an increasingly distant and uninterested audience.

The Nietzsche who was almost completely ignored during the years before illness erased his intellect and deprived him of his sanity might have resorted to more and more strident and violent rhetoric in frustration over not being heard and not because he was a realist. Sharepoint Case Study Intranet. Indeed, in the absence of explicit evidence of value realism, this seems the most plausible explanation for behavior assignments, the vast majority of the passages with which we have been concerned in this section. For these various reasons, then, the sharepoint study, character of essay causing Nietzsche's rhetoric can be understood as compatible with his anti-realism about value. 4. Sharepoint Intranet. Nietzsche's Lack of a Political Philosophy. When the Danish critic Georg Brandes (18421927) first introduced a wider European audience to Nietzsche's ideas during public lectures in 1888, he concentrated on Nietzsche's vitriolic campaign against morality and what Brandes dubbed (with Nietzsche's subsequent approval) Nietzsche's “aristocratic radicalism.” On this reading, Nietzsche was primarily concerned with questions of value and culture (especially the value of morality and its effect on culture), and his philosophical standpoint was acknowledged to be a deeply illiberal one: what matters are great human beings, not the “herd.” The egalitarian premise of all contemporary moral and political theory the premise, in one form or another, of the equal worth or dignity of each person is simply absent in Nietzsche's work. This naturally leads to the question: what politics would Nietzsche recommend to us in light of his repudiation of the egalitarian premise? A striking feature of the reception of Nietzsche in the last twenty years is the large literature that has developed on Nietzsche's purported political philosophy. Two positions have dominated the literature: one attributes to Nietzsche a commitment to aristocratic forms of social ordering (call this the “Aristocratic Politics View” [e.g., Detwiler 1990]), while the other denies that Nietzsche has any political philosophy at school all (call this the “Anti-Politics View” [e.g., Hunt 1985]). More recently, Shaw (2007) has staked out a third position, namely, that Nietzsche was, in fact, concerned with the study, normative legitimacy of state power, but was skeptical that with the demise of religion, it would be possible to achieve an effective normative consensus in society at large that was untained by the exercise of essay food state power itself. Whether Nietzsche is case study intranet really interested in these issues has been contested (Leiter 2009).

Here we will concentrate on the two dominant lines of essay for christmas interpretation, noting that the sharepoint case study, evidence favors the second view. Even the casual reader knows, of course, that Nietzsche has intense opinions about everything , from German cuisine to the unparalleled brilliance (in Nietzsche's estimation) of Bizet's operas, not to mention various and sundry “political” matters. The interpretive question, however, is whether scattered remarks and parenthetical outbursts add up to for salem state systematic views on questions of philosophical significance. Is Nietzsche even interested in political philosophy? Martha Nussbaum (1997: 1) declares that, “Nietzsche claimed to be a political thinker, indeed an case important political thinker”, but she can produce no clear textual evidence in support of that contention. She notes that, “In Ecce Homo he announced that he was ‘a bringer of glad tidings like no one before me,’ and that those glad tidings are political” (1997: 1).

In fact, Nietzsche does not say the “tidings” are political; indeed, as the earlier discussion of his critique of morality shows, the “tidings” are directed only at essay in m select readers, nascent higher human beings, for whom morality is sharepoint study harmful. That this section from Ecce Homo (IV:1) concludes with the hyperbolic claim that only with Nietzsche does “the earth [first] know[ ] great politics ” does as little to establish that he has a political philosophy as the for christmas, claim, in the very same passage , that Nietzsche's “glad tidings” will cause “upheavals, a convulsion of earthquakes, a moving of mountains and valleys” does to study intranet establish that he has a geological theory. Nussbaum goes on to suggest that “serious political thought” (1997: 2) must address seven precise topics (e.g., “procedural justification” [“proceduresthat legitimate and/or justify the resulting proposals” for “political structure”], “gender and the family,” and “justice between nations”) most of which, of behavior course, Nietzsche does not address. (Marx does not address most of them either.) Instead of sharepoint case study drawing the natural conclusion Nietzsche was not interested in questions of political philosophy she, instead, decries his “baneful influence” in political philosophy (1997: 12)! Those who claim to find a political philosophy in Nietzsche typically rely on a handful of passages most often, sections 5657 of The Antichrist as the slender evidence on the basis of for christmas which elaborate views about the ideal forms of social and political organization are attributed to sharepoint study Nietzsche. Essay For Christmas. In particular, Nietzsche is said to endorse (in A 5657) the caste-based society associated with the case study, Hindu Laws of Manu as his political ideal: The order of behavior assignments castes, the supreme, the dominant law, is merely the sanction of a natural order , a natural lawfulness of the first rank, over which no arbitrariness, no “modern idea” has any powerNature, not Manu, distinguishes the pre-eminently spiritual ones, those who are pre-eminently strong in muscle and temperament, and those, the sharepoint case study intranet, third type, who excel neither in one respect nor in the other, the humanistic note, mediocre ones the last as the sharepoint case study intranet, great majority, the first as the elite. (A 57) This reading, however, does not withstand scrutiny, as Thomas Brobjer (1998) has argued. As Brobjer notes, the only other published discussion of the essay, laws of Manu, in case study, Twilight of the Idols , is highly critical, not laudatory (pp. Essay Humanistic In M Note. 304305); Nietzsche's discussions of comparable caste-based societies are all critical (pp. 308309); and Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks contain numerous entries on the theme “a critique of the case intranet, Laws of Manu” (pp. Writing India. 310312).

The passage from The Antichrist only seems laudatory when read out of context; as Brobjer remarks: [Nietzsche's] purpose [in these passages in The Antichrist ] is to make the contrast with Christianity as strong as possible, to provoke the reader, to make the reader “realize” that even the laws of Manu is higher and more humane than Christianity. Whereas Christianity destroys, the sharepoint, intention at least of the laws of Manu was to save and essay for christmas protect. Sharepoint Case Intranet. (1998, pp. Essay State. 312313) In other words, the rhetorical context of the passage is crucial, though it is sharepoint study typically ignored by commentators defending the Aristocratic Politics View. Indeed, the behavior, passage quoted above from A 57 is specifically introduced to case study intranet illustrate the use of the “holy lie” (the lie being, in for christmas, this case, the claim that “nature, not Manu” distinguishes the castes). And as even the intranet, title of the book would suggest, Nietzsche's target is Christianity, and the laws of Manu are invoked simply to drive home that point. Thus, although Manu and Christianity both depend on lies, at least the Manu lies, according to Nietzsche, are not put in the service of Christian ends, i.e., “poisoning, slander, negation of behavior life, contempt for the body, the degradation and self-violation of man through the concept of sin” (A 56). Similarly, Nietzsche goes out of his way to show that Christian views of female sexuality compare unfavorably with Manu views (A 56). The most balanced and careful defense of the case, Aristocratic Politics View, Detwiler (1990), is not able to adduce much additional evidence. Essay On Fast Obesity. For example, Detwiler (1990) ends up relying quite heavily on an essay the 27-year-old Nietzsche never published (1990: 39-41, 63)!

As to passages in sharepoint case study intranet, the “mature” corpus, Detwiler adduces ones that “appear[ ] to have explicit political implications” (1990: 43; cf. 44), or that “strongly suggestpolitical consequences” (1990: 4546), or that “raise the issue of essay humanistic in m note troubling political implications of sharepoint Nietzschean immoralism” (1990: 49). But “implications” and “consequences” are one thing, and having a political philosophy another. The canon of political philosophers is composed of thinkers (like Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau) who have philosophical views about political questions the state, liberty, law, justice, etc. not thinkers whose views about other topics merely had “implications” for politics. Behavior. As the conscientious Detwiler admits: “[t]he political implications of Nietzsche's revaluation of sharepoint intranet values are never center stage for long” (1990: 58). Yet it is university natural to think that Nietzsche's attack on intranet morality does indeed have real political implications. Organizational Behavior. When Nietzsche commends the laws of sharepoint case intranet Manu for in m, “mak[ing] possible the higher and case study intranet the highest types” (A 57), this resonates, all too obviously, with Nietzsche's central concern that morality is harmful to the highest types of human beings. Yet the undeniable “resonance” fails to show that Nietzsche endorses the essay india, laws of Manu. Most obviously, the “higher types” protected by the laws of Manu essentially a priestly caste have nothing in common with the nascent Goethes that concern Nietzsche. Nietzsche's worry for these potential higher types is, as we have seen, that they suffer from false consciousness , i.e., the false belief that “morality in the pejorative sense,” i.e., MPS, is good for them. MPS is a threat to the flourishing of nascent Goethes, and it is study this flourishing that interests Nietzsche above all.

It would suffice for essay food obesity, Nietzsche's purposes that nascent Goethes give up their faith in case study intranet, MPS in other words, it is individual attitudes not political structures that are Nietzsche's primary object (“The ideas of the essay causing, herd should rule in the herd,” says Nietzsche, “and not reach out beyond it” [WP 287]). That should hardly be surprising if we recall Nietzsche's sustained hostility to politics throughout his career, as defenders of the study intranet, Anti-Politics View emphasize. Even in the early Untimely Meditations , this hostility is already evident. So, for example, Nietzsche comments: Every philosophy which believes that the problem of existence is touched on, not to say solved, by a political event is a joke- and pseudo-philosophy. Many states have been founded since the world began; that is an old story.

How should a political innovation suffice to turn men once and for all into contented inhabitants of the earth? [That people think the answer to existential questions might come from politics shows] that we are experiencing the consequences of the assignments, doctrinethat the state is the highest goal of mankind and sharepoint study intranet that a man has no higher duty than to serve the state: in essay in m note, which doctrine I recognize a relapse not into paganism but into stupidity. It may be that a man who sees his highest duty in serving the state really knows no higher duties; but there are men and duties existing beyond this and one of the duties that seems, at sharepoint intranet least to essay on fast food causing obesity me, to be higher than serving the state demands that one destroys stupidity in every form, and therefore in this form too. That is why I am concerned with a species of man whose teleology extends somewhat beyond the case intranet, welfare of a state, and with [this kind of man] only in relation to a world which is again fairly independent of the welfare of a state, that of culture. (U III:4) The same, almost anarchistic attitude is apparent in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , where Nietzsche calls the “statethe coldest of all cold monsters” and remarks, aptly enough, that “the statewhatever it says it liesEverything about it is false” (Z I:11). “Only where the state ends, there begins the human being who is india not superfluous” (Z I:11) Of course, it is only the intranet, latter individual that really interests Nietzsche. And who is that individual? The next section (Z I:12) tells us: he is the writing, one who values his “solitude,” which is precisely what the “marketplace” of politics violates, with its “showmen and actors of great [sic] things.” “Far from the market place and from fame happens all that is great” (Z I:12): in sharepoint, other words, great things (and great people) are to be found far from the realms of politics and economics. Passages like these seem to support the essay on fast obesity, Anti-Politics View. On this account, Nietzsche occasionally expresses views about political matters, but, read in context, they do not add up to a theoretical account of any of the questions of political philosophy. Sharepoint. He is more accurately read, in the end, as a kind of esoteric moralist , i.e., someone who has views about human flourishing, views he wants to communicate at least to a select few. “This book belongs to coursework the very few,” he says of The Antichrist , though the point holds more generally. Indeed, Nietzsche is case intranet clearly describing his own work when he writes in essay, an earlier book that, It is not by sharepoint study intranet any means necessarily an objection to a book when anyone finds it impossible to essay about understand: perhaps that was part of the author's intention he did not want to case study be understood by just ‘anybody.’ All the nobler spirits and tastes select their audience when they wish to communicate; and choosing that, one at the same time erects barriers against ‘the others.’ All the more subtle laws of essay writing about india any style have their origin at this point: they at study intranet the same time keep away, create a distance, forbid ‘entrance,’ understanding, as said above while they open the essay obesity, ears of those whose ears are related to ours. Case. (GS 381)

Or similarly: “Our highest insights must and should sound like follies and school sometimes like crimes when they are heard without permission by those who are not predisposed and sharepoint case predestined for mathematics, them” (BGE 30). Nietzsche, the sharepoint intranet, esoteric moralist, wants to reach only select individuals those nascent higher human beings who are “predisposed and predestined” for his ideas and essay for salem university alter their consciousness about case intranet morality. Essay. The larger world, including its forms of political and economic organization, is simply not his concern. Even without a political philosophy, however, there remain disturbing questions about Nietzsche's critique of morality and sharepoint case intranet its political implications . For example, when Nietzsche objects that morality is an obstacle to “the highest power and splendor possible” to for christmas man, one is sharepoint case study intranet tempted to object that this gets things perversely backwards. For surely it is the lack of essay morality in social policy and public institutions a lack which permits widespread poverty and despair to sharepoint study intranet persist generation upon generation; that allows daily economic struggle and uncertainty to define the basic character of most people's lives that is most responsible for a lack of human flourishing. Surely, in a more moral society, with a genuine commitment to social justice and human equality, there would be far more Goethes, far more creativity and admirable human achievement. Essay. As Philippa Foot has sharply put it: “How could one see the present dangers that the sharepoint, world is in organizational assignments, as showing that there is too much pity and too little egoism around?” (1973, p. 168).

Here, though, one must remember the study intranet, earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of morality. Consider the Nietzsche who asks: “Where has the last feeling of decency and self-respect gone when even our statesmen, an otherwise quite unembarrassed type of man, anti-Christians through and through in their deeds, still call themselves Christians today and attend communion?” (A 38). Clearly this Nietzsche is under no illusions about the extent to which public actors do not act morally. Indeed, Nietzsche continues in even more explicit terms: “Every practice of every moment, every instinct, every valuation that is translated into action is essay food causing obesity today anti-Christian: what a miscarriage of falseness must modern man be, that he is not ashamed to be called a Christian in spite of all this!” (A 38). What, then, is going on here? If Nietzsche is not, contrary to Foot's suggestion, embracing the absurd view that there is too much pity and altruism in the world, what exactly is his critical point? Recall Nietzsche's paradigmatic worry: that a nascent creative genius will come to sharepoint study take the essay on fast causing, norms of MPS so seriously that he will fail to realize his genius. Rather than tolerate (even welcome) suffering, he will seek relief from hardship and devote himself to the pursuit of intranet pleasure; rather than practice what Nietzsche calls “severe self-love”, and essay attend to himself in case, the ways requisite for organizational assignments, productive creative work, he will embrace the ideology of altruism, and reject “self-love” as improper, and so forth.

It is not, then, that Nietzsche thinks people practice too much altruism after all, Nietzsche tells us that egoistic actions “have hitherto been by far the most frequent actions” (D 148) but rather that they believe too much in the value of altruism, equality, happiness and the other norms of MPS. Even though there is neither much altruism nor equality in the world, there is intranet almost universal endorsement of the essay in m mathematics note, value of altruism and equality even, notoriously (and as Nietzsche seemed well aware), by those who are its worst enemies in practice. Sharepoint. So Nietzsche's critique is that a culture in the grips of essay MPS, even without acting on MPS, poses the real obstacle to flourishing, because it teaches potential higher types to disvalue what would be most conducive to their creativity and value what is irrelevant or perhaps even hostile to it. Nietzsche's worry, in short, is study intranet that the man in the grips of MPS becomes “ imprisoned among all sorts of school coursework terrible concepts [ schrekliche Begriffe ]” that leave him “sick, miserable, malevolent against himself: full of case hatred against the springs of life, full of suspicion against all that was still strong and happy” (TI VII:2, emphasis added). So, contrary to Foot, Nietzsche is not claiming that people are actually too altruistic and too egalitarian in their practice; he is worried that (as a consequence of the slave revolt in morals, etc.) they are now “imprisoned among.concepts” of equality and altruism, and that this conceptual vocabulary of about india value is itself the obstacle to the realization of certain forms of human excellence. That is a very different charge, one that raises subtle psychological questions that no one, to date, has really explored. To be sure, one might still object that if our society really were more altruistic and egalitarian, more individuals would have the chance to flourish and do creative work. Yet it is precisely this moral optimism common, for example, to utilitarians and Marxists this belief that a more moral society would produce more opportunity for more people to do creative work that Nietzsche does, indeed, want to question.

Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes in sharepoint intranet, this regard are once again apparent; he says to take but one example that, “We simply do not consider it desirable that a realm of justice and harmony [ Eintracht ] should be established on school earth” (GS 377). It is bad enough for Nietzsche that MPS values have so far succeeded in saying, “stubbornly and inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is sharepoint case intranet morality’” (BGE 202); it could only be worse on his view if more and more of organizational behavior our actions were really brought into accord with these values. For Nietzsche wants to urge contrary to the moral optimists that in a way largely unappreciated and (perhaps) unintended a thoroughly moral culture undermines the conditions under which the most splendid human creativity is possible, and generates instead a society of Zarathustra's “last men” (Z P:5): “What is love? What is creation? What is sharepoint study intranet longing? What is school a star?” thus asks the last man, and he blinks. The earth has become small, and on it hops the case study, last man, who makes everything small. His race is as in eradicable as the flea-beetle; the last man lives longest.

“We have invented happiness,” say the last men, and about india they blink. If we are trained always to think of happiness and comfort and safety and the needs of others, we shall cut ourselves off from the preconditions for creative excellence on case study intranet the Nietzschean picture: suffering, hardship, danger, self-concern, and the rest. Consider a particularly powerful statement of this view. Speaking of those “eloquent and profoundly scribbling slaves of the democratic taste and its ‘modern ideas’” who seek to promote “the universal green-pasture happiness of the herd” and who take “suffering itselffor something that must be abolished” (BGE 44), Nietzsche retorts that when we look at, how the plant “man” has so far grown most vigorously to a height we think that this has happened every time under the opposite conditions, that to humanistic in m note this end the dangerousness of his situation must first grow to the point of enormity, his power of invention and simulation (his “spirit”) had to develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into refinement and audacity. Sharepoint Study. We think thateverything evil, terrible, tyrannical in man, everything in him that is kin to beasts of prey and serpents, serves the enhancement of the species “man” as much as its opposite does. Indeed, we do not even say enough when we say only that much. (BGE 44)

At the end of this passage, Nietzsche does hint at a role for morality as well it is essay about india just that what morality opposes is intranet equally important. Essay Writing India. He, of course, qualifies this by suggesting that even to case concede their equal importance may “not even say enough”: that is, perhaps there will not be much role for morality at all in the conditions under which “the plant ‘man’” will grow to its greatest heights. But notice that, even in this passage, what is called for is not a political transformation, but an individual one, that of the essay, nascent higher human being: it is “his situation” that “must first grow to the point of sharepoint case intranet enormity” and it is essay writing india “ his power of invention and simulation” that “had to develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into refinement and audacity.” As he writes in a Nachlass note of study intranet 1887, regarding those “human beings who are of any concern to me”: “I wish [them] suffering, desolation, sickness, ill-treatment, indignities I wish that they should not remain unfamiliar with profound self-contempt, the torture of self-mistrust, the wretchedness of the vanquished” (WP 910). This is not the for salem university, outline of sharepoint intranet a political program, but rather a severe regimen for the realization of individual potential at least for the select few. A. Essay. Nietzsche's Writings and Key to Citations. For untranslated material and emendations to existing translations, I have relied on Friedrich Nietzsche, Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe in 15 Bänden , ed. G. Colli M. Sharepoint Case. Montinari (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1980); this is cited as KSA, followed by the volume number, a colon, and the fragment number(s). Nietzsche's works are cited as follows, unless otherwise noted: roman numerals refer to major parts or chapters in state, Nietzsche's works; Arabic numerals refer to sections, not pages. The Antichrist , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Case Study. Cited as A. Beyond Good and Evil , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966.

Cited as BGE. The Birth of Tragedy , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as BT. The Case of Wagner , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as CW. Daybreak: Thoughts on the Prejudices of essay Morality , trans. R.J. Hollingdale, ed. M. Clark B. Leiter, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Cited as D. Ecce Homo , trans. Study Intranet. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1967. Cited as EH. The Gay Science , trans. W. Essay India. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1974. Cited as GS. On the sharepoint case, Genealogy of Morality , trans. M. Clark A. Essay For Christmas. Swensen, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1998. Cited as GM. Human, All-too-Human , trans.

R.J. Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Intranet. Cited as HAH. Nietzsche contra Wagner , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as NCW.

Philosophy in essay, the Tragic Age of the Greeks , trans. M. Cowan, Washington, DC: Regnery Gateway, 1962. Cited as PTAG. Philosophy and Truth: Selections from Nietzsche's Notebooks of the Early 1870's , ed. trans. D. Sharepoint Study Intranet. Breazeale, Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1979.

Cited as PT, by page number. The Portable Nietzsche , ed. trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Viking, 1954. Cited as PN, by page number. Thus Spoke Zarathustra , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as Z. Twilight of the Idols , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as TI.

Untimely Meditations , trans. R.J. Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Cited as U. The Will to Power , trans. Essay For Salem State. W. Kaufmann R.J. Hollingdale, New York: Vintage, 1968. Cited as WP. B. Sharepoint Case. References and Works on Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Brobjer, Thomas, 1998. “The Absence of Political Ideals in Nietzsche's Writings: The Case of the coursework, Laws of sharepoint case intranet Manu and the Associated Caste-Society,” Nietzsche-Studien , 27: 300318.

Clark, Maudemarie, 1990. Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 1994. Essay In M. “Nietzsche's Immoralism and the Concept of Morality,” in Schacht (1994). , 2001. “On the Rejection of Morality: Bernard Williams's Debt to Nietzsche,” in case, Schacht (2001). Clark, Maudemarie and Brian Leiter, 1997. “Introduction” to Nietzsche's Daybreak , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Detwiler, Bruce, 1990. Nietzsche and the Politics of Aristocratic Radicalism , Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Foot, Philippa, 1973. “Nietzsche: The Revaluation of Values,” reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). Humanistic In M Mathematics Note. Gemes, Ken, and John Richardson (eds.), 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Geuss, Raymond, 1997. Case Intranet. “Nietzsche and Morality,” European Journal of Philosophy , 5: 120. Hollingdale, R.J., 1985. Nietzsche: The Man and for salem state His Philosophy , London: Ark Paperbacks. Hunt, Lester, 1985. “Politics and Anti-Politics: Nietzsche's View of the State,” History of intranet Philosophy Quarterly , 2: 453468. , 1991. Coursework. Nietzsche and sharepoint the Origin of Virtue , London: Routledge. , 1993. “The Eternal Recurrence and Nietzsche's Ethic of Virtue,” International Studies in essay about, Philosophy , 25 (2): 311. Hurka, Thomas, 1993. Perfectionism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2007. Sharepoint Study. “Nietzsche: Perfectionist,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007).

Hussain, Nadeem, 2007. Essay About India. “Honest Illusions: Valuing for Nietzsche's Free Spirits,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007). , 2013. “Nietzsche's Metaethical Stance”, in Gemes and sharepoint case study Richardson (2013). Janaway, Christopher, 2007. Beyond Selflessness: Reading Nietzsche's Genealogy , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Katsafanas, Paul, 2005. “Nietzsche's Theory of Mind: Consciousness and Conceptualization,” European Journal of organizational behavior assignments Philosophy , 13: 131. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Philosophical Psychology,”, in sharepoint study intranet, Gemes and Richardson (2013). Leiter, Brian, 1994. “Perspectivism in Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals ,” in Schacht (1994). , 1997. “Nietzsche and the Morality Critics,” Ethics , 107: 250285. Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 1998. “On the Paradox of Fatalism and Self-Creation in Nietzsche,” in for christmas, C. Janaway (ed.), Willing and study intranet Nothingness: Schopenhauer as Nietzsche's Educator , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 2000. “Nietzsche's Metaethics: Against the Privilege Readings,” European Journal of Philosophy , 8: 277297. , 2002. Nietzsche on Morality , London: Routledge. , 2007. “Nietzsche's Theory of the Will,” Philosophers' Imprint , 7 (7): 115. , 2009. “Review of Shaw (2007)”, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews , 2009.01.21 [Available online]. Writing India. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Naturalism Reconsidered,” in Gemes and Richardson (2013). , 2015. Sharepoint Case Intranet. Nietzsche on Morality , 2nd edition, London: Routledge.

Leiter, Brian and Neil Sinhababu (eds.), 2007. On Fast Food Causing. Nietzsche and Morality , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Magnus, Bernd, 1978. Nietzsche's Existential Imperative , Bloomington: Indiana University Press. May, Simon, 1999. Nietzsche's Ethics and his “War on Morality” , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Montinari, Mazzino, 1982. Sharepoint Case. Nietzsche Lesen , Berlin: de Gruyter.

Nehamas, Alexander, 1985. Nietzsche: Life as Literature , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, esp. Chs. 57. Nussbaum, Martha, 1997. “Is Nietzsche a Political Thinker?” International Journal of Philosophical Studies , 5: 113. Reginster, Bernard, 2006. The Affirmation of Life: Nietzsche on Overcoming Nihilism , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Riccardi, Mattia, 2015a. “Nietzsche on organizational behavior assignments the Superficiality of Consciousness”,in M. Dries (ed.), Nietzsche on Consciousness and case intranet the Embodied Mind , Berlin, de Gruyter. , 2015b. “Inner Opacity: Nietzsche on Introspection and school Agency”, Inquiry , 58: 221243. Richardson, John, 1996.

Nietzsche's System , Oxford: Oxford University Press, esp. Case Study. Ch 3. Richardson, John, and Brian Leiter (eds.), 2001. Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Schacht, Richard, 1983. Nietzsche , London: Routledge, esp. Chs.

IV-VII. Food. (ed.), 1994. Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality , Berkeley: University of California Press. (ed.), 2001. Nietzsche's Postmoralism , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Shaw, Tamsin, 2007. Nietzsche's Political Skepticism , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Sharepoint. Solomon, Robert C., 2001. “Nietzsche's Virtues: A Personal Inquiry,” in Schacht (2001). Wilcox, John, 1974.

Truth and in m mathematics Value in Nietzsche: A Study of His Metaethics and Epistemology , Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Williams, Bernard, 1993. “Nietzsche's Minimalist Moral Psychology,” European Journal of case intranet Philosophy , 1: 414. Reprinted in Schacht (1994). Nietzsche Chronicle, maintained by Malcolm Brown, Dartmouth College Brian Leiter's Nietzsche Blog Journal of Nietzsche Studies. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free.

View this site from another server: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is copyright 2016 by The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and essay india Information (CSLI), Stanford University.

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Report on Historical Place-Changunarayan. The success and final outcome of this project was not possible without the guidance and assistance of several people and I am extremely fortunate to have got this all along the completion of my project work. I would not forget to sharepoint case, thank the people who helped me a lot in completion of this project work. I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher Mr. Durga Bahadur Ale who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the historical place of our country – Changu Narayan which also helped me in doing a lot of research and came to know about so many new things.

I am really thankful to him. Secondly I would also like to thank my parents, brothers and sisters who helped me a lot in finishing this project within the essay on fast food obesity, limited time. I am making this project not only for marks but to also increase my knowledge. THANKS AGAIN TO ALL WHO HELPED ME. Table of Contents.

Nepal is a country with great historical importance. The Newars used to live in the Nepalese valley since a long time and thus they developed the culture of Hindus and Buddhists. This country holds great importance for the Buddhists worldwide. There are many Buddhist pilgrimage sites, temples, pagodas and shrines. Historical monuments give a glimpse of Buddhism in some way or the other. Ten historical sites which are there in Nepal have been graded as the World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. This shows how important Nepal is in terms of history. Changu Narayan, Patan Durbar Square, Swayambhunath, Chitwan and Sagarmatha are some of the historical marvels of case intranet, Nepal. Need essay sample on Report on Historical Place-Changunarayan ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. There are many religion, language, customs, tradition, norms and values, dress, etc. These people celebrate different festivals and worship different Gods and Goddesses.

As many people are Hindu there are many temples in our country. In Kathmandu also there are many temples, so it is known as the ‘city of temples’. There are many famous temples which are enlisted in World Heritage Site by assignments, UNESCO like Pashupati Nath Temple, Changu Narayan Temple, Swambhunath Stupa, Bouddha Nath Stupa etc. My report deals with the Changu Narayan Temple which is one of the Temple listed in case study World Heritage Site. This ancient temple of Changu Narayan is located on a high hilltop that is also known as Changu. The temple is. surrounded by school, forest with champak tree and a small village, known as Changu Village.

The temple is sharepoint intranet located in Changu VDC of Bhaktapur District, Nepal. This hill is about 22 kilometer east of in m note, Kathmandu and sharepoint case intranet, 8 kilometer north of Bhaktapur. The Manahara River flows beside the hill. Behavior? This shrine is intranet dedicated to Lord Vishnu and held in especial reverence by the Hindu people. This temple is considered as the oldest temple in essay for salem state Nepal.

It is believed that this temple was built in intranet 4th century. The temple is essay causing obesity adorned by some of the best specimen of stone, wood, and metal craft in the valley. The temple stands as the epitome of culture, religion, history and faith of the Kathmandu valley. The main physical aspects of this place are: Statue of sharepoint, Bhupalendra Malla. Chanda Narayan (Garuda Narayan. Every project has its own objective to essay on fast food causing obesity, explore facts and figure.

So, the major objective of my visit was: 1. To find out the historical and cultural background of the area 2. Sharepoint Study Intranet? To know about the present condition of the area. 3. To identify the importance and the problems of the area. In order to collect the necessary data, I applied the following methods: I visited the site carefully and observed the various elements such as inscriptions, temples etc. and studied the religious, cultural, social, archaeological and essay for christmas, geographical aspects of the intranet, area. Besides, I also visited the Changu Museum, and the explanation of the coordinator of that museum helped me a lot too. I read news-articles, books, articles, and essay food causing, search internet in order to collect all the necessary information and data. 2.1 Findings The ancient temple of Changu Narayan is located on a high hilltop that is also known as Changu or Dolagiri. The temple is surrounded by forest with champak tree and a small village, known as Changu Village. Study? The temple is located in Changu VDC of Bhaktapur District, Nepal.

This hill is about 8 miles east of Kathmandu and a few miles north of Bhaktapur. The Manahara River flows beside the hill. This shrine is dedicated to for christmas, Lord Visnu and held in case intranet especial reverence by the Hindu people. Organizational Behavior Assignments? This temple is considered as the oldest temple in Nepal. The pagoda style temple has several masterpieces of 5th and 12th century Nepalese art. According to legends Changu Narayan temple existed as early as 325 A.D. in the time of Licchavi King Hari Datta Verma and it is one of Nepal’s richest structures historically as well as artistically. In the grounds there is a stone pillar inscription of great importance recording the military exploits of King Man Deva who reigned from 496 A.D. to 524 A.D. The first epigraphic evidence of Nepalese history found in case study intranet the temple premises during the essay for christmas, reign of the Licchavi King Mandeva dating back to 464 A.D. shows that Changu had already been established as a sacred site in the 3rd century A.D.

It is the earliest inscription known in Nepal. The temple was restored during the lifetime of Ganga Rani, consort of Siva Simha Malla who reigned from 1585 to 1614. There are records of the temple burning in case the year of 822 Nepal Samvat (1702 A.D.), after which reconstruction was carried out. More. inscriptions in gilt-copper plates were added by Bhaskara Malla in 1708 A.D. Legend about Changu Narayan. In ancient time a Gwala, a cow herder, had brought a cow from a Brahman named Sudashan. The cow was known for producing large quantity of milk.

The Gwala used to take the cow to Changu for grazing. School? At that time Changu was a forest of Champak tree. While grazing the cow it always goes to the shade of a particular tree. In the evening when the Gwala took the cow home and started milking the cow he got only very few amount of milk. This continued several days.

He became very sad so he called the Brahmin and told him that the sharepoint case intranet, cow is not giving enough milk. Brahmin after observing the fact from school coursework, his own eyes then planned with the Gwala to inspect the study intranet, activities of cow during the day while she was grazing in the forest. Both Brahmin and state, Gwala hide themselves behind the trees and speculate the activities of cow. The cow went into the shade of a particular champak tree. Sharepoint Case Intranet? To their surprise a small black boy came out from the tree and started liking the cow milk. Both became very furious and they thought that the boy must be the devil and essay, tree must be its home. So Brahmin cut down the champak tree. When the Brahmin was cutting down the tree a fresh human blood came out from the sharepoint intranet, tree. Both Brahmin and Gwala became worried and they thought that they have committed the great crime and they started crying. From the coursework, tree lord Vishnu emerged out and he told the Brahmin that it was not their fault. Lord Vishnu told them the story that he had committed a heinous crime by killing Shudarshan’s father unknowingly while hunting in the forest.

After that he was cursed for the crime. He then wandered on earth on his mouth, the ‘Garuda’ eventually descending on the hill at Changu. There he lived in sharepoint case study anonymity, surviving on milk stolen from a cow. When Brahmin cut down the tree, lord Vishnu was beheaded which freed Lord Vishnu from his sins. After hearing these words from Vishnu, Brahmin and Gwala started worshiping the place and they established a small time in the name of essay india, Lord Vishnu. Case Intranet? Ever since that day, the site has been held sacred. Even today we can find the humanistic, descendant of Sudarshan Brahimin as priest of the temple and the descendents of Gwala as ghutiyars (conservators). Changu Narayan Temple is case intranet situated at the top of the essay for salem university, hill surrounded by case intranet, forest of Champak tree.

On the for salem university, main way to temple courtyard, we can find human settlement. People from sharepoint study intranet, Newar community live in and around Changu. Narayan area. With the development in essay about india tourism in this place, we can find many medium and small sized hotels, restaurants, souvenir shops, etc. An ancient stone tap is located on the way to changunaran which is case study believed to have existed since the time of Lichhavi. About Temple art and architectures: Changu Narayan is considered as the oldest temple of Nepal. Essay? It remains a milestone in Nepali temple architecture with rich embossed works. The two storied roof temple is standing in a high plinth of stone. The temple is all surrounded by sculptures and arts related to Lord Vishnu. Also we can find the temple of lord Shiva, Ashta Matrika, Chhinnamasta, Kileshwor and Krishna inside the courtyard of main temple. There are for entrances to the temple and study, these four entrance gates are guarded by life size pairs of animals such as lions, sarabhas, graffins and elephants on each side of the entrances.

The ten incarnation of Lord Vishnu and the other idols are carved in the struts, which support the roof. The entrance door looks like gold plated with carving of Nagas (snakes). On the main entrance gate (i.e. western entrance gate), we can find the Chakra, Sankha, Kamal and Khadga all at the top of a stone pillar. Writing About? These stone pillars has inscription in Sanskrit. This inscription is considered to be the oldest inscription of Nepal and the stone inscription pillar was erected by Lichhavi King Manadeva in 464 AD.

The following monument are located while visiting the temple from the right side after entering from the main entrance (Eastern gate) to courtyard. The following monument are located while visiting the temple from the right side after entering from the main entrance (Eastern gate) to courtyard. Historical pillar ? erected by Mandeva in 464 AD. Garuda? flying vehicle of Lord Vishnu which has got a human face and is a devotee of Vishnu. Statue of Bhupalendra Malla? King of Kantipur and his queen BhuwanLakshmi. Chanda Narayan (Garuda Narayan? 7th century stone sculpture of Vishnu riding on Garuda.

This sculpture has been depicted in the 10 rupee paper note issued by Nepal Rastra Bank. Sridhar Vishnu? 9th century stone sculpture of Vishnu, Laxmi and case study intranet, Garuda which stands on the pedestals of various motifs. Vaikuntha Vishnu? 16th century sculpture of Vishnu seated on for christmas, the lalitason position on the six armed Garuda and Laxmi seated on the lap of Vishnu Chhinnamasta? Temple dedicated to Chhinnamasta devi, who beheaded herself, offered her own blood to feed the hungry Dakini. and Varnini. Sharepoint Case Study? Vishworup:- 7th century stone sculpture- beautifully carved that depicts the scene from the essay for salem state, Bhagwat Gita, in which Lord Krishna manifests his universal form to his devotee Arjun. Vishnu Vikrant? 7th century sculpture of intranet, Trivikram Vishnu that depicts the scene of popular Hindu myth of Lord Vishnu and his beloved Bali Raja.

Narasimha? 7th century sculpture of Narasimha , an incarnation of essay on fast, Lord Vishnu, killing the demon King Hiranyakasyapa to save his beloved devotee Prahalad. Study? Kileshwor:- small two storied temples of essay, Lord Shiva, who is believed to have appeared in this place for the protection of the hill. An information center is sharepoint case study intranet established at the entrance to Changu Village. They issue tickets to tourist. They also have brochure which provide information about the place.

The information center is managed by Changu Narayan VDC. The information center has a public toilet for tourist. Also drinking water facilities is available for essay for salem state university tourist. But the drink water facilities have not been managed properly. Only direct tap water is available there. A private museum is also located on in the Changu Narayan on the way to sharepoint study intranet, temple.

It is said to be the first private museum of Nepal and it has the school coursework, collection of ancient coins, tools, arts and architectures. There is an study intranet excellent collection of ancient, historical, artistic, religious, archaeological, cultural and other rare objects. The museum has a good collection of ancient tools used by Newar family during the medieval period. Behavior Assignments? It was established o the occasion of millennium year 2000 AD with the permission of sharepoint study, Changu Narayan VDC. The entrance fee for Nepalese is NRs. 30 and NRs. 60 is charged for foreigner. For Christmas? Mostly foreigners and Nepali students visit this museum.

Changu Narayan Area is very important in archaeological, religious, cultural and historical aspects. This Temple was the administrative centre of King Mandev Malla, the first historical king of Nepal. Case Study Intranet? The main temple of Changu Narayan temple was an organizational behavior assignments early temple of Nepal in study pagoda style. The inscriptions available in the walls, roofs, pillars are very valuable source of information about Nepalese history. It is venue for essay writing india many religious and. cultural celebrations like jatras, melas, etc. Since the ancient period, many festivals and fairs have been organized on various occasions.

The main features which make this temple valuable are: It is the oldest temple in Kathmandu valley. A Vishnu idol with ten heads and ten arms is a fine example of stone carving from the 5th century. The temple is of great importance due to its idols and shrines having rich architectural beauty. This place is very important place to sharepoint case study intranet, learn about Nepalese history and about ancient things. This place tells about different types of inscriptions on for christmas, wood, metal etc. There are many idols, statue, sculpture etc. which are very old. The present condition of this place is bad.

Though this place is listed in World Heritage Site, the local people aren’t aware of case intranet, conservation and essay, development of this place. There is lack of proper facility of infrastructures of transportation. This is not proper roadway to this place. Likewise the problem of drinking water also exists around this place. Similarly there isn’t proper facility of communication as well. The whole area is polluted through different types of pollution. It is losing its identities by different damage. There is very dangerous risk of sharepoint study intranet, landslide around this place. There is lack of publicity about this place. It’s very difficult to collect detail information around this place. 1. There is lack of publicity campaign so authorized body should publicize for the betterment of this place.

2. Environmental sanitation programs should be conducted to protect this place from obesity, different types of pollution. 3. Security provision should be made strict and case study intranet, strong to protect this heritage from different types of essay for christmas, anti-social activities. 4. Timely renovation of this place should be done for the damaged structure of this site. 5. Different information centers should be built near this site so that many people could get vast amount of information of this place. 6. Awareness among the local people should be raised in order to case, get their participation in the conservation and essay, development of this place. 7. The infrastructures of transportation, drinking water, as well as communication facilities should be extended to sharepoint case study intranet, make this place developed. 8. The land should be protected from the possible dangers of erosion through embankment and afforestation.

9. Different Information Centers should be established around this place so that students like us can collect the more informatio.

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construct resume Exact circle division by five #151; how to draw the perfect five point star. What Natural (whole) numbers divide a circle exactly? Meet the sharepoint case study intranet perfect all-star families. Construct the real and the virtual shapes #151; and take them to 3D. Give me a ring and essay for salem, I will make it sing

G eometric construction of the pentagram, pentacle, pentagon, and the five pointed star #151; and spice it up here and there with three kinds of ten pointed stars. H ow to sketch a five pointed star on a clock template, for kids [yes, pick a better shade of pink]. Sharepoint Case Study Intranet! Tilt and rotate and double them. draw stars of pentagrams and essay humanistic in m mathematics note, pentagons using a compass and straightedge (two geometric methods) construct a pentacle directly inside your own circle or with your own sides length (point-to-point dimension). What you pick #151; large or small #151; will be a rational and therefore an exact measure. tell the diff between a pentacle and a pentagram and why there are several pentacles. determine the inside and sharepoint study intranet, outside angles of a pentagram. find the golden proportions that are inherent in essay, a penta. star and sharepoint intranet, grow them, too. make a five-point star indirectly via pentagon tiling #151; and vice versa. create fancy five pointed stars plus a ten pointed hyperstar from a half-square rectangle (in a new tab) get the mathematics only harmonious ten pointed star of a decagram by always skipping 6 points.

design 5 point stars as art forms #151; inherit the energies if you stick to nature. combine the up and down pointing pentacles into a brand new hyperstar. On five circles. You'll be in the micro but this is huge. W hat does it mean if a pentagram is encircled once or twice #151; a star is on a single circle or in-between of two concentric circles. built from interlocking rings. S ymmetry in intranet, a five pointed star #151; there are several kinds of symmetry and food, .. .. A perfect three pointed star can be had on a circle or semicircle #151; and it's doubled for a regular six-point star or a hexagon already. Study! You could divide a circle by essay for salem state 3 exactly but a general 3-way division applicable to universe building and traveling can also be had. Hexagon and hexagram stars are behind viruses.

A perfect square is a four pointed star. A n eight pointed star and a twelve pointed star share the same construction. B oth stars are perfect and both take you beyond counting as well. 16 and 24 pointed stars also share the same construction. Just as the eight and 12 pointed stars, they are in the 3:2 musical ratio and because the growth of stars in case, this ratio is unbounded we have a separate page on that (in a new tab) H ow many perfect stars can you make with geometry? With arithmetic? Number 36 is (abundantly) divisible by on fast obesity 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 18 #150; yet, you cannot make a perfect 36 pointed star. Geometry vs. Arithmetic is a very old topic, very unresolved, and very relevant; and. Numbers are not just symbols.

In a circle they make 1 ) stars on paper and sharepoint, 2 ) atoms in space. A comment on a seven pointed star (heptagon). School! Hit a snag in a circle, but .. P entagon Pyramid . Fusion of case study, numbers in three dimensions is good but it is not about averaging. T he four sided Great Pyramid construction is via the golden proportion and for christmas, has its own page (in a new tab) A five pointed star just for kids. If you can tell time you can sketch this and other stars by hand. Oh, use the sharepoint case intranet free template below at first. I'm the author of the illustration above but this one is freed from copyright. (With the Chrome browser you can drag-and-drop this illustration onto your desktop as the .gif file.)

Have a look at some pics from the stone circle at Avebury in essay, Wiltshire, UK. Draw a star, any perfect star. Can you see how you could lay out and sketch several stars using but one construct from the clock's minutes? You probably haven't heard the word 'a construct,' but a template is usually just for tracing and copying. Can you join the points by skipping some?

Odd and even number of points makes a big difference. Here are the from-the-ground-up geometric constructions of sharepoint study, eight and organizational behavior assignments, 16 point stars of a compass rose. [ Now, can you imagine making ALL perfect polygons and sharepoint case, stars in the above 60 pt construct? If each point were to glow differently for coursework, each star, would you get a cool and case study, unique pattern I could lock on to half way across the galaxy? Oh, you make it glow by having each point a semiconductor junction, similar to essay an LED. For the junction you need an amorphous substrate and a crystaline piece of a rock.

Because you want to power up the whole circle, your power source is a bit more than just a single lay line. Except, how would you stop the primitives on the planet from messing with the stones? Yeah, it is all sacred feminine kind of stuff. If that doesn't work, cover the whole thing with soil a call it an ancient sacred burial mound.] Historically, geometric drawing of a pentagram star was considered a secret. One can appreciate keeping the formula and directions secret because the case construction of a five-point star is essay for christmas not obvious even if you worked in geometry for some time. Yet, if you could draw the perfect star only through geometry, the secrecy takes on extra dimensions. Case! To draw a (regular) pentagon, the segment must be exactly one fifth going around the circle.

Stars are pretty and circles are everywhere, yet there is but slowly growing understanding of stars and organizational behavior assignments, circles. (This is not the case in China, for the Taoist movement and Taoist philosophy can be said to issue from a circle.) A circle gap exists not because we've lost our compass or a desire to admire crop circles, but it is sharepoint study intranet because a circle is frowned upon by the Catholic Church and because the reductionists of the 20th Century lost the link to the source of a 0D point. With it, we also lost great things that the dimension zero brings to the table. So there is behavior a book coming out late 2013 resurrecting a circle as well as the stars that are the dimension zero's first application. Oh, 99% of all moving energy in the universe is in sharepoint case intranet, spin and orbits. Not only that. If you want to build something that doesn't just fly away, you have to do it in a circle (you cannot build an atom or a planetary system as a static entity). Going through external edits, the working title of the book is ' Stars and Rings .' No whole number can divide a circle exactly arithmetically but some whole numbers can divide a circle exactly geometrically. This is the first differentiator between geometry and arithmetic. Causing! When it comes to dividing a circle's circumference (or area) with a straightedge and compass, we always strive for the exact division. The perfection is case study not about some quirky obsessions of ancient Greeks and today's teachers, however.

If we finish our assignment in a finite number of steps and achieve an exact division, we would then claim executability and creation of such structures could be implemented in nature. Essay Mathematics! Computer's arithmetic gives us precise #151; but not exact #151; answers when working with incommensurable (irrational and sharepoint case study intranet, transcendental) numbers, but the organizational behavior assignments geometric way can be exact and have much utility just because of that. Sharepoint Case Study! We will apply the division of organizational behavior assignments, a circle in case, the atomic construction below. Yes, the exact construction is about the (exact) conservation of energy. If the essay length of a circle's straight segment (cord) is exact, then the segment's length is unambiguous and can be expressed as a finite number. A finite number is sharepoint intranet also a rational number. If the cord's length were an irrational number then such number's sub-unity portion (mantissa) is infinite and we could not agree on its exact length #151; but we could agree on the exact distance between the two end points because the two end points can be constructed exactly geometrically.

Irrational numbers are executable (or expressible) geometrically but not arithmetically. This is the essay food causing second differentiator between geometry and arithmetic. You might skip on the diff between length and sharepoint study intranet, distance right now #151; later you may avail to the explanation and construction of the incommensurable numbers (irrationals and transcendentals). Instructions on geometric division of a circle into five equal and exact parts #151; in five steps: If you want to construct the penta. with a circle radius of your choice , point A is one unit distance (one-half of the radius) away from origin O . When you divide a circle into exact fifths along the periphery you now have the template and : Finish the pentagon by connecting every neighboring point and essay causing, erase the circle.

Inscribe it counterclockwise if you want to be disharmonious (ratio 9:5), clockwise if harmonious (6:5). (Cw and ccw makes a big difference #151; think enhanced modulo math. Ccw is acw for the Brits.) Make the sharepoint case study intranet pentacle by connecting every other (second) point. If you do it counter-clockwise, you will be doing it in the 8:5 ratio, which is organizational behavior harmonious, and you should not have a problem with that once you understand that the sharepoint case study intranet underlying pattern mechanics are clockwise #151; it's on the Venus page. Pentacle is the easiest and the simplest to do because it does not require erasing. Does it mean it is the most fundamental?

Complete the pentagram from pentacle by essay erasing the circle. Make the five pointed star from pentagram by erasing the inside (smaller, upside down) pentagon. Also see pentagon tiling, further on. The unit distance u is the shortest distance used in construction of a particular star. All other parameters (radius/radii, cord) are then calculated in study intranet, terms of for christmas, u . This is new . All formulas for stars should be computed from the unit distance and intranet, not from, say, a radius because there are star constructions that use several circles. In our example, the equation for the length of the cord c in the above construction comes from two Pythagorean relations and is quite involved: In either case, you can now substitute any distance for essay, u and intranet, get the measures of the rest of star's parameters. There is more to this.

Geometrically, the behavior square root of five, for case study intranet, example, can be of any length and for salem state university, this length issues from the unit distance used in the construction of the sharepoint case intranet SQRT(5). When working the pyramid you first have to find the unit distance before making sense of the rest of the (micro and/or macro) proportions. Polygons and stars. gon identifies the essay mathematics point connections that go straight from one point to the nearest next point on a single circle #151; poly gon in general. Sharepoint Study! When you say regular polygon you are emphasizing that all segments span the essay in m mathematics note same distance and sharepoint case, all points are on one circle.

Stars do not have to take a straight path from one point to the next and do not all have to essay about be on but one circle. Case Study! The star's points could be connected by a curve or a kink line or the connections just skip one or more points. As you go around the center from one point to the next, you might keep turning in essay about india, but one direction and case study intranet, then the star is said to be convex. Regular polygons are always convex. Sometimes the points move inbound and essay on fast food causing, out, particularly with multiple circles holding the sharepoint study intranet points, and you keep turning left and right when moving from point to point.

In such case the star is said to be concave. This is essay how things stood until our hyperstar, which has groups of sharepoint case study, three points lined up straight (and there are no turns). The hyperstar is discussed in the right column. The hyperstar is not regular. All points of all regular stars and on fast, polygons are on study a circle and are equally -- that is evenly, and exactly spaced going around the circle. The best way of seeing it is that they have the essay writing exact fraction of a circle between them. Study Intranet! However, only some stars are constructible exactly #151; see Perfect Families.

As to the actual angles between points #151; see below, for essay, these angles could be irrational numbers. (For now, ask yourself if a protractor can give you any irrational angle.) Having said all that about polygons and stars, don't get hung up on technicalities. A star is sharepoint intranet such a pretty word (and polygon such an ugly one), that using a star for both is just fine. Some say 'twelve sided' when talking about a polygon and 'twelve pointed' when talking about a star. If there is a section of a circle with a start and a stop, such as when speaking of the Signs of the Zodiac, 'twelve sided' makes more sense.

If you read other things about state, geometric stars, don't get derailed by mainstream math classification of stars. Scientists do not take into account the cw or ccw star creation, likely because the mainstream does not know the applications difference between the two. (Harmony-disharmony enters here but there is sharepoint case study intranet more to for salem it besides cw or ccw.) Also, math guys presently keep one point fixed and the other point advancing cw in a circle by intranet a certain number of steps to make the organizational behavior next point of a star. But of course, mainstream scientists are in the Dark Ages thinking there is a fixed reference point. The Quantum Pythagoreans book gives all planets orbiting frequencies from sharepoint case intranet which the stars are made and, gee, the Earth is orbiting while the cw or ccw point-to-point trace arises mathematically from causing obesity that. Mainstream math guys' definition of a star is sharepoint that you can see all parts of a star from for christmas its center. This is case study a great example of a definition of arm chair convenience because the Venus-Earth interplay makes a cool curlicue between points of a five pointed pentacle star and this does not match the scientists' definition of a star #151; so here is ours. Why should a circle division be made of equal (evenly distanced) segments? There is nothing wrong with unequal lengths if that's your fancy and there could be a really good reason with a heptagon (see below). Essay! However, an electron's wavelength is proportional to the electron's energy and sharepoint case intranet, if several wavelengths of one electron were to fit (were to close) around the nucleus then they have to do so in whole multiples of the same distance. It's about the numbers (in a circle).

There are many geometric ways of constructing pentagon or pentagram patterns and symbols. For Salem State University! The construction presented here has the length of the sharepoint case study side of the pentagon c the incommensurable (irrational) distance #151; that is, the measure of the side's distance is composed of an infinite number of organizational, digits (that do not repeat individually or as a group). Other constructions make the side c a rational distance, which is sharepoint intranet better suited for the Great Pyramid's purposes. In the school coursework pyramid, one half of the side of the base is (must be) a rational unit of measure, for such measure is executable and can become. (For transcendentals you may have to put a kink in that.) The connection between the five sided pentagon/pentagram and the four sided Great Pyramid is through the golden proportion , a subject that lets you understand how to draw and construct the Great Pyramid, and include the pinch on its side. Angles in a five p ointed star and how they relate to the golden proportion. Determination of pentagram's angles is easy #151; on the interior or the case study exterior.

First, if (any) two angles have their arms intersecting at 90 degrees then the two angles are the same. The central (Egyptian) star below has 360/5=72 degrees between its arms. Because the arms (rays, spikes) of this star are at right angles to other angles then such angles are also 72 degrees. You will get to 108? angle inside the pentagon with the behavior subtraction of the 72? angle from 180? (from a straight line). Sharepoint Study! You will note two special triangles on the pentagram when making design extensions to the sides (below). About India! One has the interior angles of sharepoint intranet, 72, 72, and 36 degrees while the second one's angles are 36, 36, and 108 degrees. Both of these triangles are golden because their sides are in the golden proportion. There are many other golden proportions on the pentagram but these two kinds of triangles are important in the micro (atomic) domain, particularly as related to orbital jumps. In multiples of one tenth of a circle.

All angles internal and external to the pentagram or the five pointed star are in multiples of 1/10 of essay, a circle: from 36? on to 72?, 108?, 144?, 180? . Sharepoint Study! 324?, 360?. A circle can be divided by 10 exactly and so all angles in and around a pentagram are exact and perfect. Essay For Salem! A pentagram, aka pentalpha, is a prominent symbol of the case intranet Pythagoreans. It is university said the pentagram is good for sharepoint case study intranet, one's health, and there could be something to it considering the golden proportions that are all over the star. On Fast Obesity! I think it is also likely the pentagram's prominence is due to having an abundance of the number 10 while adding a circular aspect to the many number 10 aspects of the Pythagorean Tetractys. The number 10 is also fundamental in designs of obelisks, including the Washington Monument.

Self-test:-) If you think an case intranet obelisk is a phallic symbol then you've just begun. The angle of 144? seems obscure (it's on the outside of the essay india star) but it's the only angle you'll need if you want to case study draw a pentagram with a computer program the likes of 'Turtle,' 'Scratch,' or 'Logo.' The program would run like this (in pseudocode): Move 100 pixels [forward] If these computer instructions do not mean much to you, you are doing well. First you want to for salem state university create the geometric foundation #151; yes, in your mind, before resorting to a computer. The golden proportion consists of two numbers that at times relate through a ratio, in which case we speak of the golden ratio. The two golden numbers consist of one irrational number a that is ( 1 + SQRT(5) ) and one rational number b that is 2 and, because these two numbers may relate to each other through multiplication or division or addition or subtraction or. Study Intranet! they should not be reduced into a single number. Reduction into a single number severely limits the application of the golden proportion and that is coursework one reason scientists like to reduce it as the Phi [scientists have reductionist tendencies #150; perhaps not a disease but it could be a handicap]. Reduction into sharepoint case study one number hides other relationships the two golden numbers might have.

The golden spiral. Golden spiraling happens naturally in 2D or 3D as you observe the assignments golden proportions and figure out how you could grow them. Fancy math will give you a smooth spiral but if you stick to the golden proportion you will be going in discrete steps. (You'll need to understand why staying with the golden steps is superior to smooth fancy math. It has nothing to do with efficient packing of seeds/objects, and you just might see the quantum effects on the macro scale.) Once you start putting the golden proportions in the circular format, mathematically you'll be working the point/radial symmetry while entering a new area of endeavor. Also known in general as tessellations, doing it in 5-fold rotational symmetry is favorite of Dürer, Kepler, Penrose.. .. All pieces that make up sets for the five-fold 2D tiling have their angles in multiples of 1/10 of a circle . The multiples of sharepoint, 1/10 of essay in m mathematics note, a circle construct the sharepoint case study shapes of diamonds, pentagons, ships, kites, darts, or double-decagons. A fancy Ninja star design on left also has all of its angles in tenths of a circle. The hyperstar goes even further using an essay for christmas exact division of a circle while providing constructs for orbital jumps. There is yet another (and last) golden triangle and that one does not appear on a pentagram. It has a right angle and its hypotenuse with the shortest side are also in the golden proportion.

This triangle is case study one-half of the Great Pyramid going across the mid face and into the center of the base. You can see it below on our Golden Eye design. Pentagon Dimension Priority : Diameter Dim or Point-to-point Length Dim. There is a dual approach to a geometric pentagon star construction. Essay Writing About India! You can either specify the case study diameter of a circle that will place all points, or the length of a pentagon's side that specifies the distance between points. In either case you start the construction with the shortest unit length of writing about india, 1 . On this page we show two constructions with Diameter dimension priority and in both examples the diameter ends up 4 units long (radius of 2).

This means you can construct a star with a circle diameter of case, your choice because there is the exact 1:4 relationship (scale) between the unit length you started with and the diameter of the pentagon's circle. In the case of a point-to-point Length dimension priority, or side Length priority, you start the golden proportion construction with the unit length of 1 . Essay Writing About India! When finished, the case study intranet pentagon will scale to the side length of 2 . Organizational Assignments! Pentagon construction with side Length priority has the exact side of your choice and is on the golden proportion page. A circle has many positive connotations. Case Study! What would be the idea of dividing it? Once you know what numbers can divide a circle, you can then build a circle. Not [yet] from real things such as wood or metal but from waves. It turns out that the waves must have a particular wavelength count (a particular multiple of particular energies) before these waves are able to close in a circle -- and thus be symmetrical about a point. Essay For Christmas! You need to know what numbers can divide a circle before you can construct the circle from waves. You might think this is something witches do, and you would be right, but an electron is a wave that wraps around the case study nucleus, too. There is (always) a bit more to essay this. When a circle's periphery is cut and intranet, has a small gap, funny things happen as forces arise.

One could call this a circle corruption and in a way it is. Yet the forces that arise are not corrupting, for organizational behavior, they attempt to close the circle and .. (think free energy). The making of a circle is case intranet also about taking a step from 1D to for christmas 2D. There, you will find the friendly transcendental number Pi. To round it off, you may want to case learn more about the squaring of a circle, for it is essay state about the straight and curving geometries. We did not forget the ancient Egyptians and use the example of the five pointed star as one of the steps in working the sharepoint circle and the square. State University! The golden proportion and Pi get very close to each other.

The five pointed star is made from the golden proportion and then the squaring of a circle and the five pointed star are closely related. Not everybody likes geometry. Sharepoint Case Study! In case you don't, you can blame your teacher or _______, but in the not-so-final analysis it is about you. Geometry is about movement and placement in space, from an atom in coursework, your body to your ship as a whole. Lots of geometry is in a plane and you have a good argument if you say your head is not flat. Sharepoint Intranet! So let me cut to the chase. The intelligence is in 3D and your head is just fine for that provided you are able to intercept it. Humanistic In M Mathematics! Lots of free energy is in 2D and case study intranet, it can be harnessed there once you figure out how to relate 3D to 2D. Oh, to relate 1D to 2D you'll get into the squaring of a circle, which is something you want to do if you'd like to school make atoms. Sharepoint Case Study Intranet! (Light is in 1D and energy of an atomic electron cannot be in 1D #151; it would leave the atom.) The linear movement is in 1D while the food obesity atom and gravitation need 0D for sharepoint case study intranet, spin. Your challenge, desire, need, or necessity is to understand and work the Pythagorean tetra(ctys) of 0D through 3D because that is how the universe is built and you want to essay for salem state continue to be a nifty and smart participant in sharepoint study, it.

Symmetry in a five pointed star. Symmetry has appeal. It makes things look nice but it could be difficult to move beyond that. There are similarities with reflections in a mirror #151; or refractions through a focus of a lens. You might love crystals but it is tough to explain what symmetry brings to the table. Aristotle could not apply numbers beyond counting and it was then easier for him to essay humanistic in m mathematics note stick to generalities ('nature abhors a vacuum,' 'prime mover') and even poke fun at Pythagoreans. There are two kinds of symmetries : even and odd. The even symmetry duplicates things about the (usually vertical) axis while the odd symmetry duplicates things by half-circle rotation about a point at intranet, the origin, which is the center of the circle used to make the star.

Symmetries issue from geometry (and geometry issues from numbers). The even (or axial) symmetry is unique to energy and includes intelligence. Esoterically it is the head of the Sphinx while the empty space between the Sphinx' front paws is the about (virtual) line of the axis of the even symmetry. The odd (or point) symmetry is unique to charge and matter. The even symmetry is inclusive while the odd symmetry is exclusive. Self-test:-) If you think erecting a physical object between the Sphinx front paws is corruptive, you are doing well. A five pointed star, point up or down, has even symmetry but no odd symmetry. You could also have heard of 'rotational' symmetry.

When a five pointed star rotates one fifth of a circle, it overlaps exactly with the original star. You want to differentiate the rotational symmetry from the even and odd symmetries. Rotational symmetry is applicable in the rotationally-moving context and indeed there are plenty of sharepoint case study, situations for that. I like to call the even and essay writing india, odd symmetries the placement symmetries while the case study rotational symmetry is one of the movement symmetries. Humanistic In M! Placement is for building things (this includes the atom) while the movement is not only for physical movement but also for transformations. Mainstream physicists use the term 'symmetry breaking' when dealing with the ocurrence of different symmetries. Sharepoint Study Intranet! They (the scientists) assume everything should be in 3D and anything else is writing a form of deviation (breaking) from that. This is very stupid. The fundamental thing to look for is computability. If the system is intranet computable, it will happen. The system will then exist in several and in any and all symmetries, as long as it is computable.

But of course, the computability conditions are spelled out and explained in the Quantum Pythagoreans book. This talk about symmetries becomes introductory once you begin to appreciate that the (law of the) conservation of energy is based on in m note the conservation of symmetries. Sharepoint Case! The conservation of geometric symmetries is then a more fundamental law. There is a bit on this in the Quantum Pythagoreans book but then it is extended even more in the upcoming Stars and Rings book. What? Who needs cables? Five pointed star in a circle.

There are three sources #150; and therefore more than one meaning #150; of the five pointed star. One meaning has its origin in essay food obesity, the exact (geometric) division of a circle and sharepoint case intranet, is discussed on this page. It is a fairly complex though rewarding topic that leads to the symbolism of a star issuing from a single circle. Essay For Salem! Another root comes from two orbits (hence two concentric circles/rings) of Venus and sharepoint case study intranet, Earth, and about india, is discussed and traced there . Study! (Venus, while most prominent through the five pointed star, is also associated with the number eight and the meaning of the diagonal.) The third source of the five pointed star calls on non-concentric yet interlocking rings . The separation of the essay causing circles is in the golden proportion and this new five pointed and study intranet, unique hyperstar construction has its own bookmark on the golden proportion page. This brings us to the diff between the sign/drawing of a pentagram and a pentacle . A pentagram is a five pointed star drawn with five straight and unbroken lines, aka the Pythagorean pentalpha. A penta cle has a cir cle (s) around the star. Yet, these are but technical differences. There are three separate origins associated with a pentagram and you may want to show a pentacle to point out the root. In other words, a pentagram always issues from orbits/orbitals/circles/rings/rotation and there are three separate ways to do so, as follows:

1 ) A single circle around the star makes it the classical or atomic pentacle that comes from atomic construction, and essay mathematics, a single circle shows the standing wave around the nucleus -- the orbitals. Pagan-wise the classical pentacle stands for earth and if you think of it as 'materia' (from Latin), it's a close match to 'atomic.' 2 ) Two concentric circles around the star make it the sharepoint case intranet cosmic or planetary pentacle and the two circles are the writing orbits of Venus and Earth (can be computed via modulo math from the clockwise 8:5 orbit ratio and in sharepoint case study, the illustration on left the assignments orbits are to scale). Points are between and close to sharepoint case study the midpoint of the two orbits and the pentagram rotates (why that is so is on the Venus page). For Pagans, the double circle around the school star is sharepoint case about 'drawing down the Goddess,' and the circle diameters are calculated along with point sequencing on the Venus page. If you speak of or draw a planetary pentagram , then you are substituting the two concentric circles with Venus and Earth symbols because you know there are several pentagram sources. 3 ) Separated but interlocked circles (rings) with centers at the hips of the pentagram show two separate atoms joined in a molecule, which I call the behavior assignments hyperstar pentacle . This is study intranet new and I don't presently know of anybody applying the in m mathematics hyperstar pentacle.

Although I think the hyperstar explains the atomic separation in a molecule, there are many, many meanings and applications. My feel is associating the hyperstar with friendship, marriage and angels. I like using it in Tai Chi and here is an example. A classical pentacle can be rotated/turned about the study intranet circle's center if someone wants to do an humanistic in m note upside down 5 point star. Case Study! With the hyperstar, however, I flip the in m pentacle about the hips and then a completely new 10 point hyperstar happens -- a star with nothing but the golden triangles. See below. Sharepoint! [Flipping something about an axis is a feminine operation.] The abundance of the golden proportions associated with all penta. constructions deserves an analysis of its own.

Whether it leads to harmonizing your environment and essay in m note, having good luck, building a pyramid, or even growing it into nature based religions the likes of Wicca or Shinto, the golden proportions are indeed linked to space borne intelligent energies. Once the circular geometries are engaged you'll end up with the pentagram. It is then okay to draw just the pentagram but you want to draw the case various pentacles if you want to show where the pentagram is coming from. For example, ancient Egyptians call the pentagon 'The Womb' and for salem university, if you retain the circles on the hyperstar you just might see it. Okay guys, another story has Isis looking for case study intranet, Osiris' parts. School! She found all except the study phallus, which was eaten by a fish. Strange story. Well, if you retain the circles you just might see a fish doing its thing. [So, is the hyperstar a lost ancient Egyptian star or is essay state university it THE Star, the most secret one? I haven't seen it in their art but their stories sure seem to point at sharepoint case intranet, such possibilities. Essay! Self-test:) If you take the fish story personally and say ouch, for example, you are missing the alchemical dimension.] Pythagorean pentagram/pentacle symbolism is a bit different and possibly more sophisticated if you think in the square-a-circle context.

The pentagram is encircled once and then a second ring is added as a piece of jewelry. Sharepoint Case Study! The second ring is then at the right angle to the first. (The illustration is from Secret Teaching by Manly Hall.) Regarding the essay food causing Satanic or (d)evil or demon side of the upside down (inverted) pentagram or pentacle, consider it a feeble attempt at corruption by the self-proclaimed sign-of-the-beast creator and almost-priest Levi. You want to know where corruption comes from and then you are in position to overcome it. In this case the upside down pentagram could issue from natural rotation of the Earth-Venus cosmic/planetary pentacle in the solar plane -- with the sun in the center -- and then the sharepoint study satanic notion loses its meaning once you appreciate that the cosmic pentacle's rotation does not stop and essay, there is sharepoint no 'up' and 'down' of the solar plane to begin with, just as you cannot tell if the whole coin on the right having odd (point, sun) symmetry is up or down. (Under odd symmetry every point has a second point on the other side of the center of rotation.) If you want to unambiguously show the star's point-up or point-down placement on a coin, you have to place the star next to a non-symmetrical reference such as an animal (or introduce the even/mirror symmetry, which is the case in nature). The coin's design is odd-symmetrical, but if the lower half is erased then odd symmetry is gone. It is then easy to behavior assignments see that the star placement becomes point-up because 'Republic' now provides up-down reference. So you can appreciate that up side down is not a given under odd symmetry alone because when your reference is but a point (such as the Sun in the center), you could see the star one way looking from the center and the opposite way looking into the center. Moreover, cw and ccw rotation can be differentiated -- think mirror symmetry and angular momentum in 3D, which also means that 'above' aka heads and study intranet, 'below' aka tails can be diffed absolutely under rotation.

Geometric stars' origin is from orbits (macro) or orbitals (micro). Micro includes both the atomic and/or molecular (valence) orbitals. Essay On Fast! This means that the stars issue from odd [masculine] symmetry. Yet, to get unambiguous and stable solutions, both the odd and even [feminine] symmetries are needed. Ancient Egyptians include a horizontal bar with their oval cartouche just for that reason, and the bar -- which is the axis of the even symmetry [it is not the horizon] -- is very explicitly tied to the oval. Now, I am extending it past the Pharaohs' cartouche, and there are more practical and new examples in the 5 and 10 point hyperstars below and, of case, course, the Golden Eye. When it comes to the androgynous nature of the beast (Levi's beast has feminine and masculine attributes as well as a point-down pentacle on its forehead), consider that masculine-feminine cannot be merged because they each issue from different and unique symmetries. Masculine-feminine is about the duality that cannot be unified by essay merging but needs to be, and can be, balanced or married. (Achieving such balance is not trivial but there is more than one solution.) In essence, the evil side arises from conflicts that ignore nature's duality, and case, one of the gateways to its understanding is to school ask, 'Why and how is the human brain separated and joined at the corpus callosum?' Focusing on construction of the visible universe, the gateway to balancing is through Quantum Mechanics. Oh, if you don't like the status quo get into vortex and free energy. Overlaying two opposing hyperstar pentacles , the up-and-down points from the two pentacles make a ten-pointed hyperstar, which is not a decagon nor a hexagon, either regular or not -- yep, not concave and study, not convex -- and definitely not for on fast food causing, the Wiki trivia chasers.

This hyperstar (on right) has a north-south axis with very unusual properties. The axis can become absolute under spin and then the star symbolically acquires a touch of Tartaros (or Tartarus) -- but, as a Pythagorean you know what the axial post/pole is about. I like seeing the hyperstar as 'the seed of the sharepoint study intranet thunderbolt,' but that's shade romantic. Did you notice all triangles on essay for christmas the hyperstar are golden? In the intranet case of the classical pentacle, the upside down notion also has no meaning because the five-fold atomic orbital is symmetrical about the atomic core and is free to rotate without appreciable symbolism. (However, there do exist harmonious and disharmonious stars and in essay for salem state university, the book Quantum Pythagoreans you will learn which is sharepoint intranet which and on fast causing obesity, why.)

A human body has a close resemblance to a five pointed star. Indeed, Tai Chi makes a mere resemblance into a remarkable art, including the Martial art. The upside down star is not conventional (not normal) once you link a human body to the five pointed star. Sharepoint Study! There is then a human mental aspect to an inverted star and the Venus page has a bookmark on that. However, if you place energy importance first (and you should) then the upside down aspect is about energy while the upside down body is a mental and positive construct in the service and for salem state, manipulation of energy. How do you make your own pentacle or pentagram? Buy or make is okay but to sharepoint intranet have your own you have to have it in your mind. School Coursework! And add a cw pentagon, too. [Feeling better?] Here is study also a secret for essay for christmas, the 21st century: You must know how to make the sharepoint star geometrically and then -- by making the same body movements -- you will also attract beneficial (golden proportion) energies in the circular geometry that will stay with you. Oh, if you start doing Tai Chi, you'll see the geometric components very soon. If you wish to superimpose/overlay/map a human body onto a five pointed star , the five points of the school coursework inside pentagon are the intranet major reference points. The top two points are at the shoulder-neck transitions, just as you'd guess.

The lower two side points are the hips while the lowest point is the school crotch. If you do Tai Chi/Yoga exercises just a little, you will feel the sharepoint case study intranet importance of these points. Essay For Salem State! As much as I find occult interesting, the occult human body-onto-star overlay seems forced and this leads me to suspect the occultists do not exercise much. As you get more into study intranet mind-body-circle-star- energy interlocks, you'll jump or sail right into alchemy . You cannot power into alchemy but you can turn alchemy (Tai Chi or ancient Egyptian versions) into personal power, both logical and physical. There is the Buddhist view, too. Ever seen an angel?

The book you will thoroughly enjoy. Harmony is talked about ever since antiquity but it is this book that actually allows you to predict whether any two tones will be harmonious. Food Obesity! Yes, the clockwise or counterclocwise rotation can be determined and that is the one (of the two) harmony components that was hidden until now. It is about the perfection of geometric stars and the waves that go with it. The radius measure of sharepoint case study intranet, 2 (diameter of 4) in our pentagonal construction on the left is the outcome of using the shortest applied distance as the unit 1 . This is not because you couldn't divide by two (you can -- and work with ? as the essay about india distance OA , for example), but if you construct other structures such as the the Great Pyramid with the shortest distance as the unit 1 , you will always be in sharepoint case study intranet, sync with your numbers from one structure to the next. If you want to look at it metaphysically, each number has its own personality and you want to organizational behavior assignments keep track. Sharepoint Case Study Intranet! If you want to have more fun, think of the unit distance OA as an irrational number.

Even Euclid did not think of the coursework number 1 as just a counting number. On the sharepoint case study political side, particularly in the association with Communist power , you want to be cognizant that the school five pointed star issues from orbits and the star is always a 2D entity made from case 1D constructs. Making the star into state university a 3D star (the likes of the Kremlin) points to the lack of understanding on the root of the star's creation. Sharepoint Case Study! The purpose and utility of the five pointed star could also be said to be misunderstood by the Communists, not unlike the swastika adoption by the Nazis. School! [If the Nazi technology was as advanced in case intranet, the flying saucer technology as is school coursework rumored then the swastika would not be far off.] For the time being I'm not doing full 2D (area) or 3D red stars until the bloody aspects dissipate -- oh, about a hundred years, considering China. These stars are fancies anyway. Actually, Darwin started the whole mess with his 'strongest survive' evolution simplification, and it was the opportunism of Communists and Fascists who took in the reduction and used it literally. (There were alternatives available at Darwin's time but Mendel was pushed aside for the critical 15 years and at Mendel's rediscovery the industrial revolution was in full swing. Sharepoint! Book review: The Monk in The Garden .)

What to look for. People bent on power will promote and support the following: 1. Nature is on our side. Best represented by essay note Dawkins' The Selfish Gene , the idea is that being loaded with money is natural (you guessed it, it's Gates' favorite). A virus is selfish, a gene is not. Sharepoint! In the UK the Oxford U nicely masks its ignorance with arrogance. Essay State University! In the sharepoint study intranet US the Harvard U is big on this kind of spin [they put out the best crap]. You will recall the dinosaurs and the dino eats dino times [I don't think they died out without a fight].

2. Running out of energy. Usually about (peak) oil, this mentality replaced Running out of food from the assignments last century. This allows wars to sharepoint intranet go on, as it conjures up there is not enough for both of essay in m mathematics, us. This is but one example of reductionism. [If you don't see God, there are plenty of bosses to work under #150; here and on the other side.] The beauty of free energy is that it is really about smarts and without a large up front investment. Case Study Intranet! Once you do a bit of reading, you will be LOL at the experts, but you'll also have to do the free energy yourself. If you complain that the govt does not release free energy, you are not getting it. 3. Organizational Assignments! Socialized medicine. The mind job here is to convince you that you need the institutions of state and selected private hospitals and clinics for you to sharepoint study stay healthy but there is an obligation to pay extra premiums.

It ends up that the healthier you are the more you pay and this becomes a tax on on fast food causing your health. Because you are smart and stay healthy by paying attention to your body's needs, you are pressured to sharepoint study intranet pay for the ones who are not, and the power chasers are a sick lot. You may have to move to another state and/or become politically active (for example, AMA should not have a monopoly). You really begin to writing india understand this when you start looking forward to stopping the payments of your premiums. You may find out it is the best thing for actually being healthy. There are three components : understand fear, pick up specialized exercise, and keep up with alternate immunity discoveries (such as Dr. Jan Raa's) as well as the revival of Raymond Rife technology. Once you understand the fear component, talk openly about the health alternatives should you meet an AMA doctor, for intranet, the tables might have turned. 4. Culture or religion-embedded values of about, guilt, fear, and sharepoint case intranet, intolerance.

Once embedded they can be invoked without explanation (prejudice will not be seen for what it is). This is usually about essay state, Bible and Koran waiving and could be difficult to deal with outside the sharepoint case study US. Coursework! In some cases the fear and/or weakness and/or ignorance justifies betrayal [needs to be watched, even self-watched]. Betrayal is also a component of power, and power has its own category (power is reversed in sharepoint study intranet, the virtual domain and food causing obesity, there it is not based on specific might but on infinity). In the Pythagorean and Buddhist traditions the friendship works well. I also like Ronald Reagan's attitude because he 'liked all and feared none.' You might get hurt but you will have the last word. So you think you know your numbers and might think it's okay to reduce them to your liking. Case Study Intranet! But if you construct the Great Pyramid with the essay for salem state golden numbers and use the sharepoint case intranet shortest distance as the for salem state university unit 1 , you will arrive at the pyramid's base as having the side length of 4 . The base of the Great Pyramid is then 4 times of some unit of measure. Case Study! So now the pyramid's base periphery (4+4+4+4) and base area (4x4) carry the same square number 16 . You see, if you reduce the numbers and think of the pyramid's base as having the unit length of, say, two, the base periphery would have eight units of length but the base area would be but four (square) units. If you do not reduce the numbers you can think of the humanistic in m mathematics note number 16 in the context of acceleration (unit of measure per time squared) and derive the unit of length that is most appropriate for sharepoint case study, this planet [yeah, it's a foot].

Rational numbers are commensurable numbers -- that is, they all have finite or repeating sub-unity part of a number (mantissa) and obesity, all can be expressed as a ratio of two integers. Rational numbers can also be called the exact, finite, or absolute numbers because we can write them down and sharepoint study, agree on essay for christmas their value. At times, rational numbers are called real numbers because all real things have a finite measure. Rational numbers happen when we ratio two integers. All mainstream mathematicians define the study intranet rational number as the ratio of any two integers. In M Mathematics Note! So, a mainstream math guy would say, Of course the sharepoint study intranet rational number is essay a ratio of two integers -- it is defined that way. Yet, you really do not want to be mainstream and acquire but an encyclopedia knowledge of the world. You do not want to sharepoint intranet think of somebody's definition as complete or adequate knowledge.

You know that a rational number is essay a finite number (has a finite or repeating mantissa) and once it is finite it can be expressed as a fraction of two integers. As a smart person, moreover, you know that if another operation produces a naturally finite number then such operation also creates a rational number. The circumference of sharepoint case, a circle is a transcendental number. Many of for salem, circle's round segments (arches) are transcendental numbers and their straight cord could be an irrational number -- and case, both of these numbers have an infinite mantissa (infinite precision). Essay On Fast Obesity! The question now is: If you divide (ratio) some particular circular segment by its corresponding cord, will you get a finite (rational) number as a result? Some Pythagoreans view the number two as a problem number because it divides the sharepoint intranet unity. Pythagoreans discourage division of the essay unit 1 until you understand the sharepoint study intranet context of each degree of freedom -- but in any case the number 2 is organizational assignments not the culprit. Case Study! (The number 2 is in the denominator of the golden ratio and school, there it should stay as the number 2.) As you get familiar with this site the sub-unity will become applicable to atomic orbitals and hence the number 1 is the Great Divide between the macro-cosmic and micro-atomic. [My guess is intranet that macro concepts are taught before the micro in the Pythagorean School.] Tetractys of behavior, Pythagoras deals with the organization of matter, among other things.

What makes you a Pythagorean? Short of visiting the case Pythagorean page, you are interested in the actual construction of the visible universe. As a Pythagorean you want to know why some stars are constructible exactly and essay writing about, muse at sharepoint, the people who draw stars without regard to their actualization. Drawing stars just for assignments, fun is case intranet okay but to a Pythagorean that's in an entertainment category. The. compilations about for christmas, stars are trivia, which quickly become distracting as well. Sharepoint Case Study Intranet! Working the five pointed star is a wonderful start, for this star is geometrically, that is exactly, constructible. Constructing the real universe is, moreover, the greatest show there is.

Construction and deconstruction of atoms are similar endeavors -- and you have no need for a hammer to construct or deconstruct something. The forces therein can add up in controlled fashion, too. There are dozens of philosophers and gurus talking about the omniscient nonlocal instant infinity of the conscious universe, but to a Pythagorean this is but one half of the show : You still have to put all that knowledge to work. Yes, we have pictures. In M Note! The upside down star has no negative meaning in study, the micro domain. There are in organizational behavior assignments, fact several stars nested inside the sharepoint case study intranet larger stars because there are many orbit jump opportunities with each pair of orbitals.

Yes again, ALL triangles are golden. Oftentimes we think of star patterns only when tiling in 2D or building the Platonic solids (in 3D). But the patterns we encounter in the micro are usually made with overlapping stars and that makes nifty art shapes as well. Behavior! The overlap comes from the sharepoint study intranet inclusiveness of waves. On July 17, 1991 at Barbury Castle there appeared a crop circle named the Tetrahedron (a triangular pyramid). For its 20th anniversary we have a summary-update. Here is a poster for a Graphics show I had in Prague (where I teach now) in humanistic note, February 2013. Large-print format is becoming affordable. With a careful equipment selection, one can avail to a high quality original poster that is not only less than the price of a reproduction, but is good for your health as well. Just about ready (second picture). Consider the sharepoint case study existence of the even and odd symmetries as the point of departure between the Pythagorean and Aristotelian physics.

Pythagoreans continue basing new concepts on numbers and then the even aka twofold symmetry issues from and relates to the number two (and the feminine). Aristotle refers to the Pythagoreans and essay about, flatly claims in Metaphysics that 'two' and 'twofold' are not the same and that 'twofold does not subsist in the two.' (Of course) the two and case intranet, twofold are not the same but the number two spawns the even symmetry as two-points-make-axis construct and then the number two is not just a counting number. If Aristotle rejects the Pythagorean 'number two is behind even symmetry,' does he propose something better or different? It does not seem so, and this could be a nice example of ancient Greek debunking. Aristotle does not like it, and that's okay, but without offering his own reasons for school coursework, the existence of symmetries he will not be able to advance it. Sure enough, we don't hear from Aristotle on symmetries. Some star constructions speak of fixed length sticks, which at first glance can construct any size polygons. Sharepoint Case Study! Here is where the executability of angles comes up. Assignments! In space, the irrational angle is constructible only sharepoint case study approximately and only some angles will be actualized #150; think snowflake formation.

Also, we can calculate the points of a polygon along a circle but using sticks that have finite (rational) and equal lengths for essay for salem university, the cords will not always fit in such points. In fact, a not-so-difficult case can be made that geometry takes precedence (has priority) over sharepoint study arithmetic. [If you are a scientist, you may think of essay writing india, Emmy Noether who ignored the nature's beauty of sharepoint case study, snowflakes and made simplifying assumptions about space that proved the behavior 'ignorance is bliss' postulate #150; for sharepoint case, in her world everything is essay in m note reduced and snowflakes and crystals don't exist.] You can calculate the area of any polygon by taking the case study area of the triangle and multiplying by coursework the number of sides. When working the area of a circle or a polygon, the center point is (becomes) excluded . (If you are metaphysically inclined, think Isis looking for all parts.) In your Pythagorean mind, you need to link the area to its physics application. For example, a physical property that is proportional to radius squared is then also proportional to intranet the area, which gives merit to area calculations. This is bigger than it seems. Essay For Christmas! You are not just sweating your teacher's assignments -- you are actually working the physics entities if you know what they are. This one comes from Yosifusa Hirano of 19th Century Japan. It is elegant and also constructs the pentagon or pentacle on radius 2. All pentagram angles are a rithmetically divisible by nine.

So, what's the big deal if the number 360 (degrees in sharepoint study, a circle) is no big deal? If you line up all angles from the humanistic in m mathematics pentagram : 36, 72, 108, 144, etc. and sum their individual digits you will always get 9. That may seem like magic, but once you appreciate that the number 360 is arbitrary, you don't need to case study ooh and ahh about it. If the number of degrees in a circle were 320 or 260 or 364 the summing magic would not happen for 9. The circumference of a circle is 2Pi and essay humanistic note, putting in a number to stand for sharepoint case study, degrees is purely a practical consideration. In the case of 360, this number is 4x9x10 and on fast food causing, now, because the angles of case intranet, a pentagram are in tenths of a circle, the essay number that is left is a multiple of 9 (and 4) and so it will be always divisible by 9 (or 4). Case Study! All numbers divisible by 9 have their digits sum up to 9 (modulo 9 #151; thank you, Gauss ). Essay Writing India! So, always work with fractions of a circle (or fractions of 2Pi) even if the case study intranet numerical sub-unity pushes your right brain into infinities. There is plenty of on fast food causing obesity, real magic left in this subject, particularly if you get into the squaring of a circle.

We have a collection of cool and hot designs inspired by the five-point star. Sharepoint Case Study Intranet! View select designs -- or visit our store at school coursework, Zazzle ( . Study! com/Mike_Geo) and see how well you could look in a tee, hoodie, long sleeve shirt, or a polo. If you have new ideas you want to explore designs from the constructs of nature. All our designs come from nature and center on the golden proportion. Design on right is called the Adventure of The Red Sun.

A pentagon and the Great Pyramid are related, but it hadn't been easy to show both of essay note, them relating through the golden proportion. I construct them together using the new Golden Eye method in the Quantum Pythagoreans book and case study, now the construction is available in color for your shirt or Tshirt as well -- in the Golden Eye design. The golden proportion is between the behavior assignments pyramid side and the half-base. Case Study Intranet! The Great Pyramid is shown in a vertical cut through the mid-face. Much detail is on the golden numbers page. The five pointed stars attract energies on account of the golden proportions. Because under rotation the five fold symmetry can be either harmonious or disharmonious, you want to know which is which (ccw is harmonious on a pentagram, cw is harmonious on a pentagon) because you really cannot hide under a rock and hope for the best. Some people rely on intuition and some want to understand things a bit first.

Either way, I wish this site and the book will do it for for christmas, you. Two pentagons make a decagon, a regular ten pointed star. A regular pentagon made with the Hirano method can be used to easily make a regular decagon #151; an exact ten-point star. A pentagon that is made by the exact division of a single circle can be duplicated 180 degrees out-of-phase (upside down) and decagon results from two pentagons. Study Intranet! One pentagon is on fast food thus rotated about the center of the circle or, if you prefer, rotated/flipped about the horizontal axis. However, a regular ten pointed star that is a regular decagon is not a hyperstar. Case! (Hyperstar is discussed in the right column.) While both stars are created from two regular five pointed stars, a decagon is essay in m always convex.

A hyperstar has some straight segments spanning three points. A decagon has its points on a single circle. A hyperstar has 8 of its 10 points on two identical circles separated by the golden ratio parameters. [I think the mathematical discoveries of construction ratios is what Plato refers to as 'Logistics,' which is sharepoint thought to be a lost Pythagorean knowledge. In the case of a pentagon Diameter priority the ratio is with square numbers (1:4) because we go from essay mathematics note 1D (unit length) to 2D (circle). The same ratio of 1:4 holds for the pyramidal construction because one unit of length ends up as four area units of a pyramid base. For a pentagon point-to-point Length priority, however, the intranet ratio is 1:2 because one length becomes another length (1D to 1D) but the construction now must include rotation . In general, there is a rotational aspect in the Pythagorean Theorem even though the arithmetic of the Theorem does not capture it (it uses squares). Logically, any line (any 1D distance) inherently contains a direction and when staying in writing, 1D a change in sharepoint case study intranet, direction amounts to rotation. Obesity! Squares (area, 2D) do not contain a static direction but they have something else.] Every time you double something #150; think octave.

Every time you halve something #150; think node (or fit) for standing waves. Every time you rotate by 45 degrees #150; think transformation. Every time you rotate by a right angle #150; think.. The funny thing is this works for Tai Chi when your body, your arms, and your legs are doing the movements. Geometry and case, movement is about your health too. Harmonious ten pointed star. The star below, if drawn counterclockwise, is classified as a (10+ 7 )/10 star using my method that is (x+y)/x in general y is between 1 and x #151; that is, xy=1 . The decagram star looks nice #151; it is unicursal, is for salem university regular during construction (advances by the same angle), has parallel sides and is harmonious.

This star skips every six points and is the only harmonious ten pointed star in the macro. (Decagon and all other ten-point stars are not harmonious, cw or ccw.) The Pythagorean style rationing (really proportioning) method (x+y)/x as well as the corresponding musical harmony or disharmony is explained in the book, and you'll know why the case intranet proportioning approach presented here is much more useful than what the mainstream puts out. You noted x and y are integers but if x and y are the golden numbers then (x+y) : x is the golden proportion #151; and enter both the micro and the macro. (Rationing is not commutative because A/B is food causing not B/A. Sharepoint Study Intranet! Proportioning, however, is school coursework commutative because A : B is the sharepoint case same as B : A, and playing two musical notes has the same effect whether you analyze at it as A : B or B : A. Sometimes I think mainstream math is pathetic, for ignoring waves is the food causing norm.) There exists symmetry about case study, one point called the point symmetry (or odd or radial or rotational symmetry) [masculine]. There also exists symmetry about essay india, two points called the even symmetry (or axial or twofold or mirror line symmetry) [feminine] #151; the two points making an axis by which the original image rotates. These two kinds of symmetries are all-pervasive in atomic construction where they are called the odd and case study, even wavefunctions. Yes, everything is coming up numbers. Now, how would you marry these two symmetries?

You might have noticed that in the five-fold division of a circle the essay food causing obesity three points made by a compass' pin are at the corners of a right angle triangle having sides 1 and 2 . (A pin of a compass centers the radial symmetry [masculine].) It is no coincidence that the Great Pyramid's Grand Gallery has the vertical height (rise) of 1 and case study, the horizontal length of 2 while the Trough is the hypotenuse spanning the distance of SQRT (5) . For Christmas! (This also establishes the case intranet unit length 1 of coursework, this pyramid.) Is it a coincidence that to define Pi we need distances 1 and case study, 2 ? Is it a coincidence that to construct the golden numbers we start with a right angle triangle with sides 1 and 2 ? There is more to 5. It is very easy to get excited about the number 5 and begin to associate each of the five points with other things. This is a Pythagorean site and we love the number five but Pythagoreans also know that using numbers for counting is introductory to the power of numbers while correspondences are about the elemental #151; that is differentiating, power of numbers. For Christmas! The five discrete elements in Wicca and Tao are fine, yet the study visual-geometric imagery based on the Penta. is about the essay for christmas infinity (irrationality) of the golden proportions stemming from the square root of five . With the golden numbers you construct many shapes that extend the Penta. beyond counting. The images are also more than pretty pictures, for the waves in space readily interact with such shapes in a computing relationship and things happen. You do not need to get esoteric to appreciate that energies have preferences for geometric shapes and the golden proportions have a unique predisposition to case intranet the operation of the reciprocal . (Yes, energies make things grow but also think about the nature's way of actually capturing the school coursework waves' energies.) So it is nice to recognize the golden shapes around you even though neither the star or the number five jump out at you.

The meaning could be shifted by another application but now it is not hidden. [There are also large corrupting influences in place just to keep you astray.] What if the Queen's Chamber in the Great Pyramid has its spatial distances in the golden proportion? What if the sharepoint case intranet spiral on the Eye of Horus were made through the golden rectangle or a golden triangle? How can you visualize the golden ratio in financial terms? Throughout the Hyperflight site I like to make fun of india, mainstream science. These folks lower our understanding and sharepoint intranet, appreciation of nature and their favorite first step is on fast obesity that 'this or that cannot be done or found out.' The best modern example is Einstein and I don't know of any of study intranet, his concepts that are correct: This includes the special and general relativity theories (stemming from his inability to determine absolute motion/rest); photonic work function (a photon puts no pressure on a mirror); Brownian motion (molecules vibrate in place); and energy-matter mechanics (not reversible, i.e., nova or supernova). Errors of omission and commission are also applied to corrupt the reality around us.

The basic difficulty is that science popularizers use the right math but apply it to wrong concepts. It may take a while to get to the bottom of this and what really helps is that equations cannot make wrong concepts right, and school coursework, therefore are suspect. On this page I said that 'up' and 'down' cannot be distinguished in the solar system under odd symmetry alone. Everything works and sharepoint case intranet, continues to grow, evolve, and can also be created whole in writing india, a particular context. It is then the context that needs to be understood in addition to any some such conclusion. The 'up' and 'down' manner of speaking is relevant when the context has a line : things above the line are 'up' (above) and below the line are 'down' (below).

However, orbits and sharepoint case intranet, orbitals and spin in humanistic note, general have a point as its construct of rotational/spinning existence and it is then appropriate to say that when dealing with point symmetry there is no fixed 'up' or 'down' because there intrinsically is sharepoint no (fixed) line. The point is that if you understand the context you will understand whether someone's pronouncements are true, not true, or corruptive. For example, ignoring 0D (a point) as the fourth dimension of freedom -- which provides a movement construct just as 1D, 2D, and essay on fast causing, 3D do -- is corruptive because it does not recognize the spin/orbit that accounts for 99% of the moving energy found in sharepoint study, the universe. There are several ways of getting to the truth, too. Geometry is one. For Salem University! Tarot works nicely and in this case it's The Wheel of Fortune card.

Tarot has four suits, which stand for .. (your brainwork). You will then be in position to sharepoint study intranet either speak out essay food causing obesity and/or just do what you know is better : Free energy, Martial arts, spiritual medicine, telepathy/RV, superluminal travel, atom/matter creation -- all, not coincidentally, based on ether scientists deny. Sharepoint Study! Speaking out means that you have enough info based on merit and then your statements become less political. For example, I'd get a Tarot card deck without the Hebrew letters, for these lack symmetries and could be disruptive. (If you know the Hebrew letters were added to organizational Tarot later on, you'll also know it is about corruption.) As you learn how things really work the misconceptions will release and you become healthier. After reading a book on the history of the Chinese philosophy that weaves through the Confucian, Taoist, and sharepoint case intranet, Buddhist pursuits over essay 2300 years there, it seems the Chinese never got to the understanding, and then the differentiation, of the symmetries.

Yet I would not relax too much after this. Sharepoint Case Study! There are the philosophical and religious versions of essay on fast obesity, Taoism and if you stay with the academia's version of philosophy you'll learn next to nothing. Once you get to the religious side you will read a lot about circles and spirits and case study, demons, about for salem state university, keeping centered (weighed) in a point and having light crystallized -- but all this is pure alchemy and sharepoint case study, it takes some dedication for the ideas to assignments work their way through (just as you would do with the ancient Egyptians). While the case study intranet Chinese did not push the three philosophies/religions into the objective realm we call science, the Chinese pursuit in the improvement of the individual's mind-body yielded Tai Chi with most significant implications -- and leaving a formidable gap for the West. Wang Fuzhi (b. Organizational! 1619) gets very close, giving Chi (Qi, Ether) the female-male aspects of Yin-Yang (ancient Egyptian Tefnut-Shu) and then nicely extends this to coexisting energy-matter duality along with a dynamic balance of the two. Wang Fuzhi is describing a free electron all right but then its detection and case study, use happens in a body (yes, yours) rather than in an external and objective instrument. (Damn the self-serving Emperor/one-party systems and invest in yourself, literally?) Wang Fuzhi, or anyone after him, does not advance Li (order/construct/distance/1D) to geometry or symmetries, and this also means the Pythagorean tradition did not make it to China (until recently perhaps). Organizational Behavior! We can then also say that the Taoist five pointed star of the elements is study indigenous to China (could've been discovered in more than one place) and testifies to the universal power and utility of the five fold division of a circle. The Chinese elements correspond roughly to those of essay for christmas, Wicca except that 'spirit' is taken as 'wood.' This seems strange but think of wood as the circles of tree rings, too. This also gives you an idea how hidden Chinese alchemy is. (Note the prominent spiritual link to the trees in the Druid tradition and a very explicit tree related experience of Joan of Arc.) The Taoist movement starts with Lao-tzu's Te-Tao Ching of sharepoint case study intranet, 500 BCE (or so) and Te translates as Virtue. I am happy to have named the largest chapter in the Quantum Pythagoreans book the Virtual Domain (and before reading Te-Tao).

The virtual domain is about infinities and there is much to explore there -- yes, this is an understatement. (One can also destabilize in John Nash fashion. If you don't figure out you are among infinities while using real/rational methods, you may stay there forever.) If I were to talk in Lao-tzu's puzzling way, the organizational behavior virtual domain Te holds nothing because it has everything (and now you'd have to figure out the virtual domain Te has everything in sharepoint case study intranet, the form of knowledge). At times Te translates as Power (and knowledge is a close relative of power). Lao-tzu described Tao in the most general way. It was only later that the Tao symbol arose from that and along with the religious side of Taoism. But of course, the Tao symbol is but the Chinese version of what the infinite Tao is school coursework or could be used for, including the label of 'Tao.' The virtual domain deals with knowledge that is linked by associations.

The Western alchemy's condensed virtual language could speak of the philosopher/sorcerer entering the stone only to discover there is no stone. Case Intranet! Bewildered, the philosopher breaks out of the stone and finds the about stone the same as before. Case! He cannot break into the stone and for christmas, yet he does not have to break up the the stone to reenter it. The philosopher's stone can be had -- but not physically. Yikes! Here is s'more on stability via organization.

So you think you know your numbers metaphysically and feel comfy about the masculine-feminine stuff. You might be dividing by 2 and think it feminine. Not so. Study! Real cutting is for christmas masculine : it makes two halves of an apple, severs an interconnection of a relationship, or spatially reduces a spread out electron (QM). However, when you observe a biological cell division, don't rush to call it masculine, for it is sharepoint intranet feminine. You'll have to get into essay for christmas symmetries to case study understand this.

Meanwhile, don't make the silly mistake of equating masculine with a man and school coursework, feminine with a woman -- unless you want to study give up on one half of your brain. Oh, and think about The One. Analytically attacking all three major pyramids at Giza as one layout can earn you a label or two, but on this site Jiri starts with a square and then looks for the golden proportion #150; and gets very, very close to the actual measurements. Ready to bury the Pharaohs someplace else? Some basic geometry. School Coursework! From a square angle to a square. There does not appear much we can do with a square. A square is pretty, has a lot of symmetries, but that's about it. Case Study! But as we go on, things are going to get interesting once we start to make cubes.

Also, as a plain square, two circles can be fitted and defined by causing obesity a square: an outer circle and intranet, an inner circle. The illustration on essay left is sharepoint intranet taken from our ether page and it actually results in geometrically determining the for salem state speed of sharepoint, light. A square and a circle have been engaged from before Pythagoras (Thales) and there are several pages on this site (here and there and here too) on circle squaring. Pythagoreans love square numbers. In the present day vernacular, moving energy is essay state university proportional to velocity square d. Any square can be made into any number of rectangles and any rectangle can be made into an exactly same-area square via the geometric mean. Geometric mean works with all distances, including irrational distances (but you need rotation). And so any and sharepoint case study, all velocities resulting from, say, gravitational acceleration or collisions or explosions, have corresponding and exact energy values.

Any square (any amount of energy) can be divided into as many squares as you want #151; and essay, so the case energy of one moving object is essay on fast obesity conserved exactly even if the object is broken up into many other objects. Here is intranet a simple yet powerful construction that. 1) Divides any distance exactly in humanistic in m mathematics note, half; 2) Erects the perfect right and square angle (making the Cartesian Coordinates); and. 3) Makes a true square using any circle centered at O (at the intercept of horizontal and vertical axes that are the coordinates). A square is also a four pointed star. Only straightedge and compass are needed. (Straightedge is an unmarked ruler.) Both arcs (arches) have the same radius. Distance AB can be either rational or irrational, for sharepoint study, there are no limitations on spatial distance between two (zero-dimensional) points A and B. Drawing a line between two points is about direction (1D) and yields a perfect line, too. If you want to know the minimum separation between points before a line could become the real line, take a look at Absolute Minimum Length (it's about the infinitesimal). If distance AB is irrational, should it be dashed?

If so, why? You will note that all geometric constructions start with the creation of the Cartesian Coordinates. Once you have them, you can make any square using a compass (a circle) and then make any star from the perfect star family. A square, then, is inherent in all star constructions. A square is feminine and causing, a circle is masculine. Some people get into spirituality and claim a circle is feminine because it is rounded. That is how you can tell a beginner. Symmetries are the key here because they have very high priority -- on par with energy conservation.

Ancient Egyptians, Native Americans, and sharepoint case study, Chinese have no problem here. Pythagoreans and Plato are technically fine because of symmetrical 3D solids. Aristotle would not get into symmetries at all (and his historical contribution ends [should've stayed and die in Baghdad]). The Western applications of symmetries are generally weak, although, the Western alchemy is okay and at times superior (3 vs. 4). Three pointed star. Construct the perfect triangle on a circle and another triangle on a semicircle #150; in three steps. Triangle as a logical and mathematical construct. Because three-pointed and six-pointed stars are geometrically perfect they can be used, circled, as a symbol for essay in m mathematics note, 3 or 6 wavelengths wrapping around the nucleus. However, a hexagon and hexagram reduce into a triangle under modulo math for harmonious ratios and do not manifest in orbits (macro) #151; that is, showing a six-pointed star with two circles does not reflect nature. A hexagon is also prominent in free energy work.

Hexagon is full of different symmetries and, for better or for worse, enables rapid transformations or projections. Study! A six sided star of hexagon could be of some interest regarding energy accumulation in humanistic mathematics, the micro and we included it in the numerology section on the Pythagorean page. Without a circle, a triangle symbolizes 3-state systemic (complete and never-ending) systems, each state being in one corner. Such three pointed arrangement has no metric as it is a logical, say clockwise, process. (Some systemic processes call for quaternaries #151; think ancient Egyptians.) For Pythagoreans a triangle provides bounds for the ten dots of Tetractys (a triangular numeral 10), which also becomes one facet of a tetrahedron (projection from the apex [or from your eye]). The right angle triangle does have metric of the sharepoint Pythagorean Theorem, which relates 1D to 2D via (ir)rational numbers (but does not solve for transcendentals). There is a very special place for the golden triangles. Behavior! Two kinds of triangles apply here, depending on whether the shorter or longer distance is used for the triangle's base.

Golden triangles facilitate a perfect relationship between particular two circle's circumferences and a straight distance. Yes, this is the sharepoint case intranet fundamental reason for the existence of particular atomic orbitals, which is driven by the exchange in the electron's 2D and photon's 1D energy . This is not strictly about the squaring of on fast causing, a circle but it is close (it's about the difference in 2D energies). Differentiate by 3. Finally, there is an aspect to the number 3 as the fundamental qualitative differentiator of nature. We are mostly familiar with the dualities such as the real-virtual (Yang-Yin) or odd-even or ordered-creative but there is also a lesser known differentiator by three. Yes, we say animal, mineral, vegetable and sharepoint study, think it special, but here we are very fundamental. Pre-atomic, I'd say.

So much so the crop circles are worth studying just for that. [I would not go inside a crop circle for more than a few seconds when the circle is less than a day old #151; it is about the 3D energies.] Alchemy's sulphur, salt, and mercury gets into that as well but without geometry it's an essay state arduous road. The Quantum Pythagoreans book explains what is at each corner of the sharepoint study intranet Tetractys and essay on fast causing, that's what it's about. When you see a triangle with some symbol in the center (a dot, an eye, dragon), take such symbol into case study intranet 3D of the apex of a tetrahedron to assignments see if it means something to you. Instructions: Draw horizontal and vertical lines. The intersect is the origin O.

Draw a semicircle of radius r around O . This makes point V. Draw a circle around V of radius r. Now that we divided a circle into exact thirds, you can make a three pointed (Mercedes) star or a three sided star of a perfect triangle. In the illustration the larger triangle divides the circle with three exact cords of length c for a perfect three pointed star. The smaller (red) triangle divides the circle with six exact cords of length r resulting in a perfect hexagon or hexagram. You can verify (using the case study Pythagorean Theorem) that the relation between the cord c and essay, cord (radius) r is: What physical entity is proportional to r 2 ? If you know what that is, consider that the square of the cord c is three times that.

A puzzle of a bad souffle: Given a square, construct a new square that is exactly one third of the original square. You can be fairly certain that the person will try to partition the square in sharepoint case intranet, some way but the solution is to erect a triangle on the square's side and then obtain the radius for the circle that covers the triangle. Radius r is the essay on fast food causing side of the new square. Sharepoint! [In our case the bad souffle does not cave in but runs over the rim.] It is not possible to organizational behavior assignments reverse engineer a souffle without stepping back and intranet, understanding the relationships between the ingredients and state university, their proportions #150; as well as the study intranet irreversible nature of the baking process. Can you apply the construction of the for salem geometric mean in the solution of this puzzle? Could you use the sharepoint study geometric mean to essay obesity generalize this puzzle for all possible ratios of square areas? If so, you would then be able to study intranet divide a square into any number of squares, including squares with irrational sides.

The geometric mean equates the perimeter (or area) of essay in m mathematics note, any rectangle to the side (or area) of a particular square. Could squares with irrational sides be included in the general division of a square into sharepoint case study any and all other squares? If so, does it mean that geometry does one up on arithmetic once again because arithmetic cannot give you the exact irrational number for the square's side? Finally, if energy of a moving body is proportional to its velocity square(d) , can you divide such energy square into as many smaller square energy components as you wish? (Via a collision, gravitational attraction, or some other action-at-distance?) A six sided star, a hexagon, is prominent in virus structures. Hexagons are partioned into a six-triangle grid, which serves -- through a geometric relation -- to identify almost all viruses.

This is a complex topic. For example, a virus' hexagon is rendered benign with a pentagon [my own thing]. The overall structure in 90+% of organizational assignments, viruses is icosahedron . Although labeled 'an esthetically most pleasing shape' by sharepoint study some -- with 5-fold, 3-fold, and 2-fold symmetries -- all mainstream scientists ignore the morphing nature of the behavior virus first brought forth by Rife (bio) [virus approaches under a friendly flag and morphs]. Because the current work on viruses discloses but the stained (i.e. dead) viruses, the mainstream is still way behind Rife. If you understand the corrupting mechanisms in the present day medicine, you will know why you do not have to join a walk for or against intranet this or that disease. You don't have to follow, or agree with, generally published explanations but spend your money and time your way -- and a better way at for christmas, that.

There are several recent breakthroughs in sharepoint intranet, virus' geometric construction. The geometric steps in virus' formation are : diagonal projection of a cube resulting in a hexagon; slicing-and-projecting a cube grid resulting in a hexagram (aka the Star of David); and essay in m mathematics, rotating-and-zooming (as shown above, [which is the case final projection onto school, the material plane]). I see some of study, these elements in essay on fast, the crop circles and, short of sharepoint, taking sides, I'd like the virus construction viewpoint represented in crop circle analysis. We are dealing with a very advanced technology but it is very advanced only coursework because the mainstream science coming from the sharepoint study intranet universities is primitive and essay on fast food causing, corrupt. In practical terms the case study twelve pointed construction is about the design of a clock's face. In astrology the twelve Signs of the humanistic Zodiac is about the twelve sided division of the Solar ecliptic. There is an even more interesting side : There are twelve computable states along the case intranet periphery at for christmas, the third level of the Great (Golden) Pyramid.

In the infinite superposition of the sharepoint study virtual variables (aka wavefunctions), there are geometrically enabled states inside the pyramid that allow a computable state to for christmas form. Case! Yes, infinities can be worked and the Quantum Pythagoreans book gets into that and at all levels of the assignments pyramid. Our construction for the twelve fold division of a circle also divides a circle into eight exact segments, or angles, because the 45 degree diag onals are available for free from our twelve point construction if you make full circles (and don't stop at the intersects with the central circle). Sharepoint! This is also true the other way: When constructing the eight point division that is a regular octagon, the twelve fold division happens as well if the central circle is drawn in essay writing about, full (and you don't just mark the intersects with the cardinals). So here you have the combined 8 12 point star construction. After a short Internet search I did not find an 8 12 point star common construction . I found one logical assembly having the case study intranet Chinese Zodiac on the outside circle and eight binary Paqua states on the inside circle. (This tells me divination is intended but, because of our inherent construction feature, I'd turn it around the other way : 12 sides on the inside circle and 8 points on the outside circle. This is counter-intuitive but there could be [is] a form of Tai Chi in this.) The common construction of the eight and 12 pointed stars starts with the combined two and three pointed stars.

As you double the count the ratio stays the same : 3 to 2. (As you double the points you go up by an octave.) This is a musical ratio and a harmonious one at that. What planets subscribe to this ratio? It is not Venus-Earth but it is on the Venus page. The eight pointed star is full of organizational behavior, symbolism associated with Venus and the transformations via the diagonals. Study Intranet! The ccw octagon is harmonious and made by Earth-Mars interplay, too. So enjoy the eight-point star construction here via the cardinal and semi-cardinal directions but the Venus page has a lot more on the eight fold division of essay for christmas, a circle, including the Hunab Ku symbol. These watch face designs are inspired by the Mesoamerican Hunab Ku symbol. Instructions for drawing a 12-pointed/12-sided star: 1. Case! Draw a horizontal line and erect the vertical line.

The intersect is the essay for salem origin O. 2. Sharepoint Case! Draw a full circle of radius R around O . This will be the clock face. 3. Essay On Fast Food! At each of the horizontal and vertical intercepts draw additional circles of the same radius R. 4. The intercepts of the central circle with the cardinals and with the other circles yield the twelve points exactly distanced around the central circle. Can you see how you could make a 24 point star using the diagonals? Almost every month we offer quick topics of general interest. In May 2011 a single construction shows how to make both the 24-point and 16-point stars in sharepoint case study, just one construction. Perfect star families.

It is easy to draw stars using geometry's tools, a straightedge and essay for salem state university, compass. Sharepoint! By now we want to about india make stars geometrically, not just for perfection, but also because only the perfect stars manifest in nature. A circle can be divided exactly into sharepoint intranet 2 , 3 , 5, 15 , and 17 equal segments, technically called constructible polygons. (Some exclude the 2-segment division because it yields but a virtual line of a circle's diameter #151; but I include it.) You may call this the essay food 'fundamental' or 'primary' or direct sequence of perfect stars. Since any and all segments can be also exactly (evenly) divided by 2, you can find all stars that have their points exactly spatially distanced by geometric means. You can also say that the doubling expansion forms a perfect star family. For example, you can make an eight point star or a 64 point star from a two point star through simple halving of intranet, distances. From a three point star (above) you can make the exact hexagon and from there the twelve point star of the Zodiac or do a layout of a twenty four point star for on fast food causing obesity, Feng Shui. Starting with a 2 point star #151; the study only direct even star #151; you can construct 4, 8, 16, etc. stars you could also label the 'evenly even' sequence of stars. This is the original Pythagoreans' terminology, which presently would be called the 'binary' sequence of stars.

From the 3 point star you can continue to organizational behavior halve each side to make the 6, 12, 24, etc. point stars. From the five-point star you can make the 10, 20, or 40 point stars. Every perfect star with the even number of points will have symmetry about an study axis and about a point. Essay For Christmas! If you think there is no such thing as a two point star, it is on the Venus page and it is formed by sharepoint study the combined Neptune-Pluto 3:2 orbit. The stars that are left out from direct and doubling constructions cannot be constructed exactly. For example, you cannot make a nine point star directly #151; or indirectly from a three point star. The seven, eleven, and thirteen pointed stars are also not constructible. Numbers that divide a circle exactly could have a name of their own. Coursework! A good fit is 'circumpositional,' for these numbers compose in a circle exactly and will be [are] prominent in atomic constructions.

Carl Gauss recently added the 17 sided polygon as the perfect star. The 15 sided polygon is in Euclid 's Elements , Book 4, Proposition 16, and is made by sharepoint intranet a combo of a three and a five pointed star (a 5-point star is humanistic evenly rotated three times around the circle). One interesting property of the perfect star families is that they do not intersect directly. A sequence growing from each of the direct perfect star number does not match (overlap) with another sequence. That is, from 2 we get 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024 , 2048, 4096, 8192, 16384, 32768, etc. from 3 we get 6, 12 , 24 , 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1536, 3072, 6144, 12288, 24576.. from 5 we get 10 , 20, 40, 80 , 160, 320 , 640, 1280, 2560, 5120, 10240, 20480.. from 15 we get 30, 60 , 120, 240, 480, 960, 1920 , 3840, 7680, 15360, 30720.. from 17 we get 34, 68, 136, 272, 544, 1088, 2176, 4352, 8704, 17408, 34816..

Each member of the perfect all-star family has but one origin. Once a number becomes even it stays even. 3, 5, 15, and 17 make the case study only exact odd stars. A circle is a zero pointed star having an behavior assignments infinite number of points. On a circle there are no inbound-outbound changes and, therefore, no points. Topologically, however, a circle is composed of infinitely many geometric points. This is a technical play on words. However, a single geometric point, a 0D point, has an infinity built within it [yeah, takes work]. 360 does not divide a circle exactly.

260 does not divide a circle exactly (Mayan Tzoltek calendar). The end of the Tzoltek calendar is not (cannot be) synchronized with a rotational parameter such as the precession. It is conceivable the Mayans had difficulties reconciling the rotational parameters (based on transcendental numbers) with some linear time-measuring parameters. The numbers' unexact nature would lead to disaster conclusions. Well, yes, it could have been their own square-a-circle problem.

320 does divide a circle exactly and the 1/320 (reciprocal) is called ro by the ancient Egyptians. While a circle can be divided exactly by hours (24) or minutes (60), a circle cannot be divided by hours and minutes (24x60=1440). 60 does divide a circle exactly and the sexagesimal (60-base) system is first used by the Sumerians (2000+ BCE). Although all mainstream math books claim we use 60 minutes and 60 seconds as a result of Sumerian and sharepoint case, Babylonian cultures, none of these math references mention that while 60 does divide a circle exactly, a circle cannot be divided exactly by minutes and on fast food causing, seconds (by 3600). But of course, mainstream math is cluless on intranet what the exact geometric circle division brings to the table. While a circle is divisible by 10 exactly, a circle is not divisible exactly by a hundred or a thousand or any higher decimal multiple. The decimal fraction format aka the decimal fraction notation is not suitable for the circular geometry beyond the first decimal point. Is it strange the Mayans #151; while having the positional notation of base 20 #151; had no sub-unity base-20 fractions? Perhaps not. Just as in the decimal and essay writing about, sexagesimal systems, the base 20 (vigesimal) system is useless past the study intranet first vigesimal point in circular geometry.

One star inside another star. Among the applications are spatial designs that combine perfect stars. In watch design, for example, the circle being divided by mathematics note twelve looks fine and sharepoint case study, is harmonious. In addition, it is essay humanistic note harmonious to overlay the 12 point layout with triangular, square, or pentagonal designs. You would not want to put a seven point star with a triangle together in the same (concentric) circle, for example, unless you want to invoke disharmony. Six gets tricky because it is disharmonious with larger numbers but is harmonious with five, making a pentagon (not a pentacle). Study Intranet! There is also a disharmonious ccw pentagon and that one does not include six. When using but a single star you choose one from the perfect star families. When combining stars, however, you also must deal with harmony. A doubled star is always harmonious with its parent star -- they differ by an octave, but not all star combinations are harmonious.

We are talking about harmony in point symmetry, which is applicable to both the micro and the macro. See the book. If a musical tone x is harmonious with tone y and y is harmonious with z , is z harmonious with x ? Not always. The book explains harmony's geometric foundation and then the star drawings bring harmony into the visual range. Organizational Behavior! Quantum Pythagoreans provides the case intranet formula for harmonious musical notes and humanistic note, you will also know why some stars just do not feel right. Harmony is not just extended to the macro. Case Study Intranet! Harmony is fundamental to both the micro and macro constructions and, therefore, to stability in general. Thanks to Paganism, a five-pointed pentacle star is presently classified as harmonious (opening) or disharmonious (banishing). In the state book you'll learn how ANY and all stars can be classified as harmonious or disharmonious. In the sharepoint beginning was the number #150; and the power of numbers begins .. The perfect star families of numbers introduce some changes to our perception of universe building and how everyday reality happens to coursework come about.

Mathematicians can make all kinds of study intranet, star constructions, in 2D and 3D #150; but only the perfect star families can begin to bridge the straight line energies, such as photonic energy, with circular orbits and essay causing, orbital energies. Because the vast majority of the real energy in the universe is in the form of spinning or orbital energy #150; that is, energy having angular momentum, the perfect star families of numbers take the front seat. Scientists can draw all kinds of curves but these are usually fancies. Mathematicians in intranet, particular insist their work has no bounds, yet in their hearts they know their discoveries should have some practical application. Starting with 24 hours per day and having 80 minutes in an hour, every minute of essay humanistic in m note, every day (24x80= 1920 ) would divide a circle exactly. Such is not the sharepoint intranet case today. Mathematics Note! After that, a binary number 1024 would stand for study intranet, seconds and continue to mathematics divide the case study day's circle exactly. One of the new seconds would then be the exact 1,966,080th part of behavior, a day. The new second would be somewhat faster than one twentieth of the present second (0.05). While adequate for sharepoint intranet, almost all sports without further division, additional circle-exact divisions are always available #150; something that is not possible to do today. (Once you lose the exact circle division it cannot be recovered.) The sweep of the seconds hand would be 1/3 faster than the present sweep to make one full revolution in 1/80th of an hour.

At all numerical markings in the illustration on right #150; the hours, minutes, and seconds #150; would not be fractions. For example, the sweep of the seconds hand spanning one half of the quadrant adds up to 128 seconds . One half quadrant, then, is behavior 128 seconds or 10 minutes or 3 hours. The new minute count of 80 per hour divides a circle exactly and using 80 points around the circle can make the perfect 4, 5, 8, 10, 16, 20, 40, and 80 pointed stars. From the 24 hour clock face one would make the perfect 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 pointed stars. A pentagram star is case intranet harmonious (opening in Wicca speak) if drawn counter-clockwise and food obesity, disharmonious (banishing) if drawn clockwise. Once you understand the harmony/disharmony, you will be able to extend it to other stars besides pentagram. Sharepoint Case Study! Some counter-clockwise 8 and 10 pointed stars are harmonious but these stars are disharmonious if drawn clockwise. This does not mean the clock's hands rotation should reverse. See the Venus page.

Now, could you come up with another sequence that always makes an exact circle division, both locally (by itself) and overall (with respect to the starting circle)? Yes. Start with 20 hours per day and divide each hour by 192 minutes. Both 20 and 192 divide a circle exactly but, in addition, 20 times 192 is 3840, which also divides a circle exactly. Is there more to this than making new and different watches? You bet. Tiling of pentagons and stars.

Tiling does not involve direct construction but only essay for christmas translation and/or rotation in two dimensions. Translations are linear (straight) motions. The line provides symmetry about a (such) line [feminine] while rotations are always symmetrical about a point [masculine]. This does not seem like a big deal but the sharepoint case study property that allows (in this case pentagon's) translation or rotation to get to an identical solution is exceptionally important in universe building (and in the group theory, too) . Tiling of note, five pentagons to make a cool five pointed star was (first?) published by Kepler in Harmonic es Mundi (1619) When the study intranet ancients instructed us to use the straightedge and compass, they were not really talking about constraints because they were talking about essay on fast food, geometry.

Rotation about a point is study about the use of the compass. Straight movement (translation) is about a symmetry about a line and perhaps you could see now that the line of symmetry is a virtual line #150; that is, the essay state university line of symmetry is an empty slit. (Would you go as far as to have Justice brandishing her sword with a slit down the middle of the blade?) The virtual line has powerful geometric properties but you do not want to ask a woman about that. Not that you couldn't, it's just that the explanation is nonverbal. The pentagon template for case, the illustration on the left was obtained with MS PowerPoint by selecting AutoShapes .. Basic Shapes. Pick the essay pentagon object. On the newer versions it is Insert .. Shapes .. Basic Shapes. If you tile five pentagons you get the five-point star in the center. Study! Now, if you take five five-point stars and arrange them around with their points touching, do you get a pentagon in coursework, the center? You always want to test for reversibility , even at the expense of appearing dyslexic. Relations are reversible only under certain conditions and you want to case study intranet know what they are.

If you assume relations are always reversible as they are in algebra, you will 1 ) understand but a limited subset of reality [if you are lucky] and/or 2 ) misinterpret relations that are not reversible. For example, if there is a quantum mechanical explanation of essay, gas pressure, there could be a way of making the phenomena reversible. Now, how would you reverse the case study rotation of for christmas, a light mill? (Give it a thought and get the answer .) We readily apply force to get things moving. So, how would you reverse 'something' and study intranet, have the force arise? A circle of stars, a pattern of stars: Testing for reversibility is crucial in in m mathematics, the understanding of relationships. Dyslexia is a condition that is constantly reversing relationships in all modalities: verbal, tonal, geometric, written -- to see if the intranet reversal possibly acquires another meaning, or if the reversal carries no meaning.

The Quantum Pythagoreans book treats the difficult topic of relationships by novel exploration of dependent-independent properties of a relationship. You will then understand and normalize the difference between, for example, 'planning your work' and essay university, 'working your plan.' The tiling construction #151; that is, movement about sharepoint intranet, a point and/or translation along a line, of some objects may result in the appearance of another object. This is at times referred to as negative space. While it is true that the original object is real and in school coursework, some respects positive, the 'negative space' label is but an introductory way of looking at it (and a left-brain way at that). A good way is to sharepoint case see this as the act of creation of the essay virtual object . When working the Great Pyramid, you may want to think of the chambers and passageways as virtual objects or empty-space objects. Intranet! It really helps.

Self test:-) Straighten up two adjacent fingers. Do you see a difference if you think of behavior assignments, these fingers as two closely spaced pencils #150; or as an sharepoint study empty slit or space that is between the pencils? Photons and electrons do, for they make very different patterns for a single bar, two bars, a single slit, or a dual slit. For brainwork: 1 ) How is it possible, and 2 ) What is the utility of the result that one pattern ends up in the left side of the brain while the other in the right side? Ancient Greek-speaking scholars debated geometry and arithmetic, and understood the complexities even without a PC. A circle is an angle (of 360 degrees) that is on fast divisible by three exactly using geometric means. Sharepoint Case Study Intranet! This result is essay state significantly more interesting than the mainstream mathematicians' proof that an angle is not, in sharepoint intranet, general, divisible by three.

If you think of a circle with the orbit (cosmic) and/or orbital (atomic) applications in mind, you will see there is lots of fun in figuring out essay writing about india what works[, rather than beefing up your resume with things that don't]. So, the ancient riddle about dividing the angle into thirds has more than one answer and no answer is the wrong answer. It is, however, a parting, or the Tau riddle that to some makes all the difference. But again, no angle can be divided by three exactly arithmetically. Sharepoint Case Intranet! No angle can be arithmetically divided exactly by any rational number even if such angle was first obtained geometrically and exactly. A circle cannot be divided by 7 or 9 equally and india, exactly.

This fact may lead to some new discoveries but if your skills are mostly in arithmetic you'll likely think of it as a curiosity. That is the basis of reductionism, for a reductionist first makes a claim that arithmetic is just as good as geometry (brain grouping), and sharepoint case study, then happily ignores the advantages of geometry. Similarly, equating irrational and writing india, rational numbers is erroneous but the mainstream math guys think them equal and miss a lot (see incommensurables). Yet, the case study best example of the organizational behavior assignments power of geometry is in the construction of the so-called geometric mean. Here, the semicircle and the Pythagorean Theorem produce a square root of any rational or irrational number. Moreover, the case intranet geometric mean can multiply two irrational numbers together and produce an exact result, the humanistic mathematics infinite mantissa and all. No computer can do that.

The bottom line: Geometry always leads, arithmetic always follows. For example, I came up with a nice infinite series that relates the power (exponent) of the golden ratio to two terms of the numbers from the Fibonacci series F n . Case Study! What this relation shows is that any power n of the golden ratio a/b can be expressed as a multiple of a single golden ratio a/b . Initially I called this the IG series for I nstant G old series. I liked the label 'instant' because Kepler got to the golden ratio a/b using the infinite progression of the essay india Fibonacci series F -- but here and study intranet, now the Fibonacci is not taken to the infinite limit to behavior get a/b . I also discovered that this equation, in a form a bit different from mine, already exists. Study! After a while and once I figured out what is on fast happening geometrically, I could not help but calling it the I vsin G old series [yes, thank you], simply because the geometric understanding opens up a whole new world of applications . The arithmetic equation by itself is sharepoint okay but the applications just do not reveal themselves if you look at it algebraically. Try it yourself ..

In another example, you know that 360 degrees in a circle is arbitrary. Very soon (just below) you'll see why a circle cannot have another number of degrees that would match the essay university power of geometry. A circle becomes (is) a unitary entity of its own and arithmetic can deal with a circle only via an infinite series. Having said that, a circle would not be possible to turn into a square #151; but, by using the virtual numbers and understanding the infinite superposition .. .. A circle can be constructed or divided in sharepoint study, finite time only geometrically. Moreover, a circle's manipulations must be exact if you want to understand how an india atom is or could be made. It is sharepoint case intranet now time to visit the angles of humanistic in m mathematics note, a circle. Can we map the case study intranet angles in such a way as to obtain correspondence between geometry and arithmetic? Arithmetic makes it strange. In a calculator, the angle of 360 degrees is divisible by 9 without a remainder, but this is but an arithmetic computation. In geometry, the circumference of essay humanistic in m note, a circle issues from case Pi, which is a transcendental number and so you cannot be arbitrary about the length of the circle or the humanistic in m exactness of an angle inside a circle. Yes, the angle of 40 degrees is not constructible exactly because a circle is not divisible by 9 exactly.

But it does happen that a circle is divisible by case study 40 exactly and then an angle of for salem university, 9 degrees can be had exactly. Division of a circle into an arbitrary integer quantity of equal and exact segments (or angles) is not possible. What then is the advantage in dividing the circle exactly by this or that number? The atom holds together by intranet having electrons wrapping around the nucleus. Because the food electron's momentum is also a wave ( de Broglie ), the electron's wave must evenly, that is exactly, close upon itself to form a standing and a round wave that is symmetrical about a point.

To the case study Pythagoreans the numbers are everything and this is because numbers actually create things. The mainstream scientists' argument that computer's representation of an irrational number is for salem state university close enough is, unfortunately, not relevant to intranet atomic construction. Scientists just do not know how to organizational assignments interpret 'precise' and 'exact' in an applications setting. The scientist can divide the circle by nine to a very large number of decimal places, but there will never be a wavelength that would fit nine times around the sharepoint intranet circle of the orbital. Incidentally, 'fit' is the food causing obesity original (superior?) word for a 'node' that was used by Newton in his description of standing waves. In today's terminology, we would say that a nine-wavelength, or 18-node, standing circular wave cannot and will not happen (will not fit). Numbers 7, 9, 11, 13, 19, 21, 22, 23, 25 and others cannot divide a circle exactly. Most of these numbers are incomposite (prime) numbers. Number 9, though, is sharepoint study intranet a composite number as well as a square number, but it cannot be used to divide a circle exactly. Essay For Salem! [Does this mean the Chinese Emperors could not sing?

Having said that, they might have been good golf players.] Number 5 is incomposite but can be used to divide a circle exactly. What is needed, then, is sharepoint case a class of on fast food causing obesity, numbers that compose in a circle , instead of just being composite numbers (composed of products of other numbers). These numbers, called circumpositional numbers [by yours truly], are prominent in atomic construction. Case! Above, we introduced these numbers as the perfect all-star family of numbers. If you don't mind additional complexity, or perhaps simplicity, a circle can be divided exactly only through geometric means.

Another way of saying 'geometric means' is 'spatial distance means.' Yes, the essay for salem state university circumference of study, a circle is a transcendental number and humanistic in m note, a division of any transcendental number by any real number remains transcendental (a real number is finite). The computer can use only real numbers and sharepoint case study intranet, the length of the organizational behavior circumference is then rounded off if it is to be stored in sharepoint study, a computer. What this also means is that a computer cannot give you a perfect star. School! What this really means is that you must have movement to create a perfect star. Study Intranet! In other words, you cannot make a perfect star via placement or measurement (statically, topologically) with a ruler or a computer or a computer-calibrated protractor. As a Pythagorean you might realize that you cannot construct a perfect star without a compass #150; that is, you need rotation to complete exact constructions.

A compass is the only tool that allows you to enter 2D from 1D. In other words, a compass allows you to turn. A larger implication is that there must be movement even at the atomic core level #151; and under radial symmetry the movement is also about frequency. (You might guess here is one of the gateways to gravitation and yes, the philosopher's stone opens up to the alchemist.) The necessity of state university, movement permeates everything. Even the ability to square a circle appears like basic stuff when developing (Tai) Chi in your body (think 3D). Arithmetic makes it practical. Pythagoreans had a category of numbers they called 'abundant.' Such numbers are evenly divisible (without a remainder) by many other numbers. Number 60 (minutes in case study intranet, an hour) is a good example as it is divisible by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30 and behavior, 60 -- which, not incidentally, are the number of points of stars one can make with minute watch face markings. Another convenient (abundant) number is 24 (hours in a day), but we presently divide the day only by study 2 (am and pm) and by 3 (work part), and state university, possibly by 12 (entertainment).

Facilitating easy workings in sharepoint intranet, the geometry of a circle, however, calls for a more abundant number. If you were to essay humanistic mathematics note come up with a good working number for the total number of intranet, degrees in essay for christmas, a circle, you may find 360 to be a very accommodating number. 360 degrees of a circle divide evenly into quarters (possibly the most important requirement right next to 365 days in a year). It divides evenly by 5, 10, and 20, too. You've already noted that the division by 5 (and consequently by sharepoint study 10) is assignments very practical because a circle division by five brings in the golden proportion. The practicality of this number won the day even though 360 is also evenly divisible by 9 and a circle cannot be divided by 9 exactly. Sharepoint Case! If you were a stickler for details such as this, you most definitely would insist on 2040 degrees in a circle. 2040 is evenly divisible by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 15, and 17 -- all numbers that divide a circle exactly through geometric means. The good old 360 is not evenly divisible by 17 and that means that exact geometrically-obtained angles do not necessarily have a corresponding whole number of degrees if we stick to the present 360 quantity notation.

Both 360 and 2040 are not evenly divisible by 7, 11, and 13 -- as it should be. But 2040 is also not evenly divisible by about india 9, and we have even better correspondence between geometry and arithmetic. Case! The year 2040 could be the most harmonious year coming up. [But don't tell IRS. They'll put this number on a form and spoil it.] Now that all people are smart enough to handle as huge number as 2040, is it time to make our circle geometry as sophisticated as it can be? Are you ready for the sum of internal angles in a triangle to equal 1020 degrees instead of 180? And the internal angle of an equilateral triangle would be 340 degrees instead of 60?

Even if you could legislate the change #150; and during the French Revolution they legislated 100 degrees in a circle and essay mathematics, 100 minutes in an hour -- the bottom line is that there is no perfect number for a quantity of degrees in a circle that would be a whole number or even a rational number. That is, there is no number that would be evenly divisible by those numbers that divide a circle exactly geometrically. In the example of the sharepoint study 2040, this number is school coursework not evenly divisible by sharepoint study intranet 16. [Some Masonic authors give Freemasons credit for leading the French Revolution. If so, they would certainly be quite ignorant on in m mathematics what to sharepoint case do in the aftermath #150; all their Gs notwithstanding.] Whole numbers and rational numbers are called real numbers #150; a good name. An incommensurable (transcendental or irrational) number can never become a real number unless it is transformed . For Christmas! The transformation is irreversible because we cannot save an irrational number such as SQRT(2) in a computer and retrieve it as (convert it back into) the original irrational number without first taking a nip off the number #150; think Ouroboros and visit Circle and Pi . Reversing the transformation calls for addition of the sharepoint case virtual energy [think Isis and possibly Thoth if you are familiar with his eye restoration story]. If you want to get deeper into transformations of rational (real) and university, irrational numbers #150; think ancient Egyptian fractions [here, you will need to appreciate three things: 1 ) Ancient Egyptian fractions are quite sophisticated; 2 ) Present day scientists are clueless as to the ancient Egyptian fraction applications or origin; and sharepoint, 3 ) Our present civilization is not necessarily advancing.] When dividing a circle with the straightedge and compass, the goal is to make the number to organizational become , for the number's geometric construction creates something specific to that number. Sharepoint Study Intranet! There is, then, more to numbers than philosophy, and about, you may want to visit the original number apps guys, Pythagoras and his fellow Pythagoreans . There is a treatment there of real, virtual, and irrational numbers. Irrationals and transcendentals are in the family of incommensurables but transcendentals are not constructible through the Pythagorean Theorem (from 2D of the curve to 1D of the sharepoint case hypotenuse), while additional differences between irrationals is based on applications. [There are good and bad numbers and essay mathematics note, some of them have an infinite mantissa.]

What does a star in a circle represent? What is the meaning and case, symbolism of a star inside a single circle? The point count of the star is school coursework about the wavelength multiples that curve and create the atom. Don't bother with scientists' point electron orbiting core pictures, for atomic electrons are really standing waves having point symmetries (symmetry about the case intranet core). As always, you will need to learn which stars are geometrically constructible and can be actualized, and which are just the arithmetic's (or computer's or religion's) fancy. Is the writing about atomic core composed of standing waves? You bet. Scientists have way too much invested in the solid and static core hypothesis and so it is safe to talk about the sharepoint case study intranet pulsing and standing waves of the core. Scientists are way off and, for example, they made up strong nuclear force because they do not understand the humanistic in m wave nature of the core. In a way this is okay, for you can make many advancements while the scientist remains clueless.

For example, the core's shape is not necessarily spherical. With all their equations, scientists think highly of sharepoint study, whatever it is they describe with them. Saying that the scientist will remain clueless is essay no idle talk, however. On our Circle Pi page we also highlight the inadequacy of case study intranet, algebra, for algebra's constructs cannot deal with the essay about india operation of case intranet, equivalence. Writing About! Algebra completely misses irreversibility, too. As a Pythagorean you want to figure out what entity will prevail in sharepoint study, the interaction with a standing-wave electron and with a standing-wave proton. Why, could you then do a precision surgery on the atom? Seven pointed star. A circle cannot be divided by seven exactly.

Yes, we can say that seven people cannot share a round pizza equally, and school, leave it at that, except that the number seven is the first number with such property. When things are happening inside a circle #151; that is, when things are spinning and evolving, the wave folding encounters the sharepoint case study number seven and consequent inability to fit around the circle (and make a perfect star). When you examine the humanistic in m mathematics note Mesoamerican Hunab Ku symbol, there are two seven-sided areas (heptagons) and now the challenge is to explain that. The seven sides are not drawn equal in case study, length and that gives the symbol some credibility. The heptagons pivot into 3D and now it gets really intriguing. If we don't take the Hunab Ku (some say Hanub Ku) as a product of coca leaf-chewing fancy, there are many interesting things happening around the number seven. I'd be careful in using the university seven pointed star. Adopting a regular heptagon or a regular seven pointed star shows you don't get it.

So I'd draw the sharepoint case study intranet star free hand or use an irregular heptagon. Mayans have a gap in their seven-segment Ouroboros too. The Goddess Seshat's symbol from ancient Egypt is a contextualized seven-leafed plant (she is behavior assignments a scribe, which means she is a magician). The leaves spread out in a star configuration, but the resulting seven pointed star is not regular. [If you think the intranet symbol is a cannabis plant then that's fine by for salem me. However, geometry prevails (has priority) while cannabis also has 5 and 9 leaf varieties.] The Statue of Liberty has a hair dress with seven rays. The symbolism of her 7-point star is rich with 'seven seas' and sharepoint case intranet, 'seven liberal arts' interpretations, but I prefer to look at it geometrically and enjoy the fact the rays are not regular. The wonderful part of the circular geometry is that it needs to be treated separately and essay state, carefully. Sharepoint! Euclid may have proved that no two Natural numbers (integers) when put in a ratio will result in an incommensurable (irrational) number. But some incommensurable numbers when put in the ratio (or are proportioned) could result in essay about, a rational number. You may want to reflect on what it means.

As far as Euclid goes, not much. Intranet! After all, Euclid talks about what does not happen. But what does it mean when transcendental -- that is in m curving -- and sharepoint study, straight line (ir)rational geometries meet at certain points? Think transformations and for christmas, visit the Proofs page that talks about the squaring of a circle. Understanding the angles in sharepoint study, a circle certainly takes you to another and coursework, very substantial pursuit of case study, universe building. Looking back, is there some work that was done just in essay for christmas, this area? But of course, you'll have to step over the reductionists, yawn at the popularizers, and laugh at people who allow to sharepoint case intranet be called experts. Assignments! [I'd bet 10:1 they will talk about running out of energy.] The ancient Egyptian fractions have the case numerator expressed as an oval having the organizational behavior assignments value of 1 . Sharepoint Case! It is in m mathematics note a symbol for a unitary entity that has symmetry about a point such as a circle or an ellipse. And if you have two circles that you want to divide into study intranet sub-unity fractions, are we really talking about two atomic orbitals and the possible (energy) fractional values they can acquire during an electron jump? So now you have yet another quest to make. A road where you will also discard all the modern mathematicians musing at for christmas, the awkwardness of the sharepoint study ancient Egyptian fractions.

The Rhind papyrus has the 2/n expansion and now you know what the 2 is about. Riemann sees a sphere with longitudinals that, with identical curvature, converge and meet at the poles at finite distance where they close upon themselves (think atomic orbitals in a closed 3D topology). Although Riemann, a math guy, did not have an for christmas atom in his mind, his geometry is 'parallel yet finite.' He discovered an unusual way of obtaining all incomposite (prime) numbers. We have three book reviews on this remarkable individual. Then there are the scales of the fish [yeah, the dumb fish]. The sweeps of the scales subtend a particular angle.

Do you think a fish could fly or extract energy from the swirling water around it by using the geometry of its scales? In reverse, could you work the straight-moving energy to close upon itself and make an atomic orbital? Think pyramid geometry and Schauberger . Illuminati, Masons and New Order Guys. Pythagoreans, too. Symbolism is about associating something with something similar. Pythagorean logic, for example, says that two points make an sharepoint case study intranet axis and then the number two is behind the mirror symmetry, aka the axial, even, or feminine symmetry.

As a Pythagorean you have no problem with that, and wouldn't use the on fast food causing term axis of case study intranet, evil because both the constructive and destructive energies exist about an axis (about 1D). You'd then apply one point of 0D as the source for for salem state, rotation and consequent (odd, masculine) symmetry. But you are also smart enough to figure out that after 3 points (of volume) you enter a different, virtual domain that is based on the number 4. Associations can go on and on and are thus unbounded, and in a fine distinction the associations become infinite relationships. Sharepoint Case Study Intranet! So now you can relate and associate from here to eternity and each time you may get to a different conclusion. You can now perhaps see the possibility of making something bad or evil out of something that is pedestrian or even boring. So you want to ask if the organizational result you reached is beneficial or not. If you think accusing someone of evil thoughts is beneficial to your religion then you are a part of a religion that is sustained by attempted oppression of others. Sharepoint! In short, your religion is not based on truth. In fact, all possible thoughts and all knowledge exist in infinite superposition with each other and is to a greater or lesser degree available to you. You are never fully locked out from knowledge you seek, but its usefulness may not be obvious. If you keep an open mind you will soon discover that working with infinities is no easy matter.

Shutting down your mind (narrow one's mind) is a defensive reaction to assignments an onslaught of information. You may even figure out that all religions attempt to understand infinities and sharepoint case, could well be defined just by that. So relax. Infinities can be worked but they need different methods. Things that don't add up simply won't happen. [So what is my Pythagorean take on the 7-point irregular star? It is about the creation or release (liberation) of organizational assignments, energy.

As with anything it could have a down side, but with superior assistance (God?) it can be managed and sharepoint study, be useful. Oh, the thing about essay for salem state university, God is that you have to ask. It's not because God is busy, but because you get a specific answer to a specific question. Most importantly, you will never get an order or a command: only knowledge. Sharepoint Case Intranet! The action (or non-action) is yours and is based on your free will and your consequent responsibility for your actions.] Johann Balmer was the guy who opened wide the barn doors of quantum mechanics. Fifteen years before Planck , he came up with the relation that produces a sequence of on fast causing obesity, numbers matching the case study wavelengths of light coming from hydrogen. These are not just any numbers #150; they are wavelengths corresponding to essay state particular electron jumps and no other.

Balmer did for quantum mechanics what Kepler did for case intranet, gravitation: He came up with the math equation that matched known experimental data and made successful predictions of other new, yet undiscovered, wavelengths. But there is a bit more to it. Balmer used integers and square numbers in his relation that were those of the about Pythagorean Theorem. Well, good ol' Pythagoras was not only right all along but the breadth of his #150; some say HIS #150; teaching was also the sharepoint case study intranet foundation of quantum mechanics. Natural numbers and his theorem are also the source of the quantum behavior of atoms. This topic is essay expanded and has a page of its own. Study Intranet! To reconcile the straight (1D) and the curving (2D or 3D), you will be dealing with the squaring of a circle. Algebra works fine when things are straight or polynomial or exponential. Generally, however, when geometry picks up another dimension and lines start to essay food causing obesity be circular, the study equations are not enough as the transcendentals come up.

The relationship of the behavior squaring of a circle to this page's perfect division of a circle is in the possibility of linearizing the study intranet curved segments (arcs) of a circle and note, then making a tractable exchange between curving and straight topologies. So there is a continuation to 'how to draw a star' and it deals with energy. Can we say that geometry is about energy? Can we say that the exactness of particular geometric solutions goes along with the exact conservation of energy? Of course, Pythagorean methods are used to find new ways while mainstream science continues to be arm chair science by playing up one trivial answer as the only answer. Sharepoint Study Intranet! At times politicians pick up the 'square a circle' analogy and then you should know they are trying to find excuses and explain failures to essay humanistic in m mathematics note their supposedly dumb constituents. Intranet! So, even though the for salem squaring of a circle is not possible using real methods , the squaring of a circle is possible. The complexity of our environment is oftentimes worked through alchemy.

There is a method behind the seemingly strange associations and we offer the interpretation of The Emerald Tablet on our Alchemy page. Summary, Cosmic (Macro) Pythagorean discovery of irrationals spawned the urgent pursuit of geometry lasting over 2400 years. Sharepoint Case! Kepler brought arithmetic to essay india the forefront by establishing the mathematical and arithmetic relations of heavenly orbits. In effect and in sharepoint case study, fact, Kepler introduced the parameter of time in the mathematical context, which made it possible to make planetary position forecasts #151; forecasting being Kepler's life long passion. Because any two gravitationally interacting bodies always have a solution, the for christmas parameter of time derived from such periodic solutions is sharepoint intranet also repeatable (periodic) and on fast causing, time can be used to make forecasts. Case! Even though time is always a derived (dependent) variable, the school coursework mathematical solution establishes reversibility and allows the time parameter derived from this system to be used. (The equal sign indicates reversibility but reversibility is by no means a given.) Another way of seeing the mathematical solution and consequent time reversibility is that the spatial distance (space) and time form an overlay. In a chaotic system, or in a non-periodic system such as the free economy system, the parameter of time cannot be used to case study intranet make predictions.

Geometrically, you can take any square and construct another square that has exactly twice the area of the original square. Organizational! A square can be increasing in study intranet, infinitely small increments, including irrationals, while the doubled square follows that exactly (think conservation of on fast causing, energy of a moving object). Study Intranet! This is writing about india something your computer cannot do. If you think this is sharepoint case no big deal and it is something for the ancients to contemplate #150; that's fine. The gateway question that makes all the difference is: Can you construct infinity? Certainly the most enticing question is: Can you stop moving bodies at a distance? Light is understood as moving or standing linear -- that is, straight, waves following Newton's analysis of fringes (first observed as fringe rings). As light becomes closely associated with matter, Balmer kicks off the QM atomic pursuit with a Pythagorean relation. A wavefunction is understood as a probability distribution of an atomic particle #151; a great step forward by Heisenberg and von Neumann.

A moving particle has momentum but momentum can also be worked as a wave #151; a second great step, this time by de Broglie. A moving electron now gets to become a wave as well, but this wave must curve #150; that is, become circular , and close upon organizational, itself in a symmetry about sharepoint case intranet, a point (about a core). The circular (or rounded) electron orbital and the straight path of light need to be energy-reconciled through the essay squaring of a circle #151; the intranet first difficult hurdle. Ether is taken out of science's purview, which is the Great Reduction making the scientist that much poorer in the end. Scientists cannot make headway and talk about impossibilities. They reduce everything until there is no intelligence in their design and take an early exit. (In their last hurrah the angry mob bashes and trashes cold fusion.) Scientists thus successfully reduced themselves into a group of believers in writing, 'light-is-real-and-puts-pressure-on-mirror.' While much of today's physics rests on it, the sharepoint case scientist has no guts and humanistic, no brains to perform the actual experiment measuring the presumed pressure light puts on case study intranet a mirror. Scientists are not able to face up to for christmas the truth that a light beam does not and case study, cannot put pressure on a mirror and so they are stuck perpetuating, defending, and proselytizing their dogma. Meanwhile, geometry is for salem state receiving new impetus by reviving its superiority over intranet arithmetic and algebra. The golden proportion, the infinite and instant wavefunction superposition, the understanding of irrational and transcendental numbers, linearizing particular segments of a circle, and for christmas, the possibility of sharepoint case intranet, creating electron waves with harmonics-series energy components just might get the atomic understanding going again #150; perhaps in another country, perhaps by another group of professionals. The cosmic (or planetary) pentagram and the five fold atomic orbital make the five pointed star a joining symbol for both the macro and the micro.

While the atom's orbitals are symmetrical about a point (have radial symmetry), the valence orbitals in a molecule need to close around two points of symmetry (the cores of the atoms are some distance apart). Yes, the Hyper s tar has an answer to that on our golden proportions page. Self-test:-) If you are not happy about the pentagon base and/or the pyramid being split up or broken up or separated, you are not getting the picture. You may want to essay for salem state university think about the red part as being the tangible component while the blue part is the intangible (knowledge, virtual) component. If that does not help, stay in 2D [earthbound?] where the pentagon is continuous. If you think Two rather than Four is feminine , you are very close. Study Intranet! You will need to appreciate that the virtual variables are double-ended and have opposites. Then you'll need to essay for christmas center these variables to relate them in infinite superposition. ( Quantum Pythagoreans book helps in this area too.) The engagement of Three and Four is just that: It can be supportive in some contexts and in others it could be conflicting, in which case rebalancing work is needed.

So, the recommendation for The Pentagon is to modify one of the pentagons (or build a new inner one) to reflect the separate golden trapezoid and the golden triangle. Case Study Intranet! The new construction slants upward toward a point. It does not need to top off in a point as long as the essay writing about india edges are converging toward a point. (If it does top off, think about the straightness of the edges -- it ain't straightforward.) This pentagonal pyramid is on sharepoint case study Mars. The picture credit most likely goes to NASA although I don't know the particulars of image enhancements processing -- none or too much. Note the essay about pentagonal aspect is not regular (a point-to-point straight line over a ridge and through the sharepoint center can be made). There is one symbol that uses a circle framed by two vertical lines. These lines are at times shown as two (usually) identical posts or columns.

At other times it is shown as a person holding two vertical sticks, candles, or wands. This symbolism, however, is not about the 3 vs. Essay For Salem State University! 4. Rather, the two lines or sticks or columns are about the sharepoint virtual line of the coursework even symmetry that is relevant to the virtual domain and the energy therein. The upcoming book (late 2013) deals with the construction in the micro domain via the stars, the rings and the symmetries. Yes, knowledge is organized energy. Three and Four must remain separate even though they are also joined. You can then see it as a five sided pyramid made from two pyramids that each have unique properties. Sharepoint Study Intranet! The overall 3D structure has almost all numbers in it but the on fast food point is that the numbers must play together to their best advantage (rather than just being represented).

Do you see the number zero? Or is it the case study infinity? Could it be both? Is the number zero combined with infinity the source of the Pythagorean fire? The root of the coursework pyra-mid? The Central fire? The hearth of Zeus? Archimedes' fulcrum of the heaven and the earth? Just a plain (free) electron?

The convergence of the north and the south poles on decreasing Riemann sphere? A point of the zero dimensional (0D) geometric construct? 'The One' of alchemy? Something even smaller than the sharepoint study infinitesimal of Newton and Leibniz? The dot in the semicircle on the AUM symbol? A computational construct for all of the above from all of the above? The top dot of Tetractys? My favorite : The eye Thoth sends to look for Tefnut when she runs away to Nubia (yes, the eye finds her). If you think this pyramid is about marriage, you are on the right track.

The Three [male] and Four [female] are joined through the point of the infinite. This joining is applicable to the actual marriage where the joining is through God #150; all there is. Essay For Salem University! The alchemical marriage would have the female part becoming more abstract although the four-sided pyramid geometry continues to be needed for dealing with the infinite. You are, perhaps surprisingly, also looking at the joining of matter at the atomic or micro level. The virtual component (in sky blue here; would be white for case, the ancient Egyptians) has the golden trapezoid for its base, for the longer to the shorter sides are in the golden proportion. The real component has one of the golden triangles for its base. If you like alchemy, the for salem university triangular pyramid is the king (or sun, gold) while the four-sided pyramid is the queen (moon, silver).

Yes, this is the 3 vs. 4. In the ancient Egyptian context, the crown of Egypt has two separate components: The white (upper, virtual) and sharepoint case study intranet, the red (lower, real). The gap between the two is the ancient Egyptian blue crown and is invoked at war. (The gap is mathematics note white in our pentagonal pyramid.) Book by Mike Ivsin. Pythagoreans use the sharepoint case study knowledge of numbers to arrive at harmonious and stable systems. Numbers' properties under different symmetries yield specific solutions. Numbers create the duality while the essay for salem university engagement of the duality's components leads to organization. Quantum Pythagoreans applies the Tetractys construct and that results in sharepoint case study intranet, all observable cosmic topologies. The book describes the nature's computational mechanism, especially as it applies to assignments waves.

What it takes to transform energies. Your body is sharepoint case study intranet a component and it is school coursework not the only one. The shapes inherent in the human body have certain geometric context that is revealed in the book and it is about your health, too. You will like and appreciate the simplicity and sharepoint case study intranet, the power of numbers. The Pythagorean management of numbers takes you on the road to writing reality and invites you to drive it as well. Go or select another topic from the gold post. HyperFlight home Portal in new window. 2005 -- 2013 Backbone Consultants Inc.

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Free Essays on sharepoint case study Homicide Detective. Homicide Detective ? By: Chauncey Jones Intro to Criminal Justice 12/10/2012 Training required. Homicide Investigations Identifying Best Particles. Homicide Investigations Identifying Best Particles There is a decline for clearance rate of homicides reported police departments. According to homicide investigations. Burk Research Paper A True Homicide Detective Life as a homicide detective can be tough being a detective is not saying you did it; it’s about your life being on the line every single day. For Christmas. It’s about putting away those bad people who have harmed the sharepoint case, innocent. A detective is essay investigator, either a member. Thompson Detective Thompson GUST 1270 21 November 2011 Homicide Detective I plan to become a homicide Detective . A detective is a investigator, either a member of intranet a police agency or a private person. In order to become a homicide detective. ? Detective Leah Hesman Mr.

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But who would call at this hour? The familiar voice of study intranet Detective Inspector Grouse yelled orders from the other end of the line, “Hinton Wood. IMMEDIATELY.” “B-but this is my-“, I was silenced by a click, as. killing of an unarm person. The three officers and Mr. Faulcon were also charged along Sgt.

Arthur Kaufman and former Sgt. Gerard Dugue, both homicide detectives who were assigned to investigate the behavior, shootings, in connection with a cover-up of the shootings (Campbell, 2010). If any normal person could. arrested at the age of 12, and sent to a home for boys called Jamesburg State Home for case study intranet, Boys, by Patterson detectives . Organizational Behavior Assignments. It was this incident that had made detectives weary of sharepoint case intranet Rubin; he had stabbed a man with a Boy Scout knife. Rubin had claimed the school, man was a pedophile. ? Gangs, Gang Homicide , and Gang Loyalty: Organized Crimes or Disorganized Criminals The article Gangs, Gang Homicide , and Gang Loyalty: Organized Crimes or Disorganized Criminals: Organized Crimes or Disorganized Criminals addresses two related questions; the differences between gang. Becoming a Crime Scene Investigator. consists of experts from law enforcement and various forensic science disciplines. There are municipal detectives , crime scene investigators, county prosecutors and major crime (death) detectives , and a medical examiner.

Some crime scene investigators are professional, and others are specialized and. punishment have homicide rates below the study intranet, national average, Federal Bureau of Investigation data shows, while half the states with the death penalty have homicide rates above the national average. In a state-by- state analysis, The Times found that during the last 20 years, the homicide rate in states. worker didn't report the incident and took the for salem state, tip money. In this episode the scene when the detectives roll up in a red lavish car and press Bodie shows how crime in Baltimore is socially constructed.

The detectives begins by telling jokes on Bodie and his crew. Sharepoint. The officer acts like Bodie is a good friend. Durrant’s. This is just the kind of thriller I like: an essay for salem, unstoppable serial killer, smart detectives who are obsessed with stopping that serial killer, and have some serious flaws in the personal lives of those detectives . This is sharepoint case study a very intriguing and interesting novel about the desire for revenge and how. Criminal Justice Ethics In this scenario I am a police detective with a partner. We handle majority of all homicide cases in our town.

Just recently, a woman in essay for salem state university our city was walking alone at night and study was later found brutally raped, beaten and left for dead. This woman is essay humanistic note now in a coma. Earlier that. Analysis Writers Name Institution Name Personal Crimes Analysis Homicide is the sharepoint study intranet, killing of a human being by another human being, and school coursework comes in various types. In this paper I will be analyzing the different types of homicide , and how they are associated with other forms of personal crimes. I will.

give it an R rating? Why or why not? 8. At least three characters in the film (President Lipnik of study intranet Capital Pictures, the for salem state, writer W.P. Mayhew, and Detective Mastrionotti) are constantly making racist remarks. Sharepoint Study Intranet. How would the story change if this dialogue were omitted? 9. Organizational Behavior. In the final scene, Barton meets. A Comparison of Criminal Justice in Two Murder Cases.

man was murdered in Memphis, TN. Sharepoint Study. “The Witness” takes place in Miami, Florida. In this case two people were shot and school killed. The victims of this homicide were twenty-eight year old Grace Armstrong and husband twenty-nine year old Adrian Johnson. They were high school sweet hearts and have been together. clothing or furniture. Study Intranet. Trace evidence is invisible to the naked eye and is collected by either brushing or vacuuming the area of the crime scene. Homicide cases and physical evidence go hand in hand with one another. Without evidence you are risking a loss of your case.

IOWA CITY, Iowa - In the hours. creates a perception of humanistic in m mathematics corporate social responsibility. Sharepoint Case. It proves that the bank has a responsibility to the community. The film also portrays an ethical dilemma. The detective needs to establish what to essay writing about india, do after the diamond was found in the pocket of the bank’s employee. Case. For this reason, the school coursework, film depicts the corpora. Variables and Risks Associated with Sudden, Unexpected, Violent Death Resulting from Accident, Suicide, Homicide vs. Anticipated Death Resulting from Lengthy Illness.

There are only sharepoint four modes of death: natural death, accidental death, suicide, or homicide . In contrast to natural death, Rynearson (1987) points out essay that unnatural death is “characterized by horror, brutality, and calamity”. He also notes that unnatural death presents at least three particularities. CRJ 306 Week 4 DQ 1 Homicide Ash Define the crimes of voluntary manslaughter, involuntary manslaughter, and negligent homicide . Provide examples for each type of homicide . Sharepoint Case Intranet. Evaluate whether the felony murder rule would apply to any (or all) of the three crimes? Check this A+ tutorial guideline. Multidisciplinary, Multijurisdictional, and Major Case Task Forces. specialists could include a forensic pathologist, a homicide investigator, an interrogator, or others that may be necessary or warranted. The pros to this approach are interdepartmental cooperation, all of the evidence being sent to the same lab, detectives not questioning how others work as they all work. Meet the Detectives We got a call at are Family Detective business. It’s been running for years but is for salem university going downhill. Sharepoint Case Intranet. This call was our last chance for the business to stay up and running.

The call was about a dangerous hacker. We don’t know how he does it but he does. He hackes traffic lights. There are three basic types of essay in m note homicide : justifiable, excusable, and criminal, the factors of study Homicides meet several criteria’s that enable the act of murder to be distinguished in a fashion that begets or negates a crime scene. Justifiable homicides Are those that are permitted. ?Initiation: Section 299 and Section 300 of the Penal Code deal with the offencing culpable homicide not amounting to murder and murder. Under the Mohammedan system there were three kinds of organizational assignments punishment namely relation, defined punishment and discretionary punishment and. The genre of the spoken text is an extract from a reality TV programme called ‘Murder in case Miami’, which follows two police officers from the for christmas, Homicide Team in study intranet Miami Dade Police Force. In the text, they have been called to the scene of a crime, where a 22 year old man has been murdered by a rival. sidney sheldons after the darkness.

KAREN WILLIS RUBBED HER EYES. On Fast Food Causing. IT was two in intranet the… Fourteen WARDEN MCINTOSH STORMED INTO THE CHILDREN’S CENTER. All the kids… Book 2 Fifteen DETECTIVE MITCH CONNORS RETURNED TO HIS desk in a pensive… Sixteen AS SHE CLIMBED INTO THE VAN, the warm air hit… Seventeen MARIA PRESTON FLOATED INTO. The Creator of Detective Stories and Psychological Thriller. Allan Poe During the about india, 1800’s many romantic writers emerged as the best writers of the time. Edgar Allan Poe, a dark romantic, was the creator of detective stories and perfected the sharepoint intranet, psychological thriller. Many aspects of essay on fast food causing obesity Poe’s life and his writings distinguished him from other authors. Edgar Allan. Standard Gravure building. Upon entering the facility I saw more people dead at that location than I have seen the sharepoint case study, entire three years when I worked as a homicide investigator with the Louisville Police Department. Essay Writing India. We proceeded to transport some of the wounded to University Hospital, once the perimeter was.

reported that Ramos had shot herself. Intranet. One officer heard about the possible suicide and instantly knew it was another murder. Fortunately for the detectives , they had found the .223 caliber bullet that shattered through Sara’s skull, exited through her neck, went through a window, and landed on essay note the floor. Domestic Violence Problems in America. An elite unit of study intranet investigations, it was the first team of its kind in the UK to specifically tackle domestic abuse in the same way that detectives would a homicide . It took a radical approach to serious and on fast food causing obesity serial domestic attackers, and aimed to case study, stop them in their tracks by investigating all aspects. You are here:HomeNews/IssuesLaw EnforcementCareers: PoliceTypes of essay about detectives Careers: Police/Types of detectives Advertisement Expert: Chris Wagoner - 7/25/2009 Question In advance, I want to apologize for the many questions.

I will be going to sharepoint study intranet, college soon and I want a better understanding. cover” yea well never judge a situation by essay in m note, its outcome. There is a reason why there are detectives and forensic science. These help find the guilty person. This was shown in the movie. Edward Norton was the detective who finally discovered his family corruption and case study intranet was able to get it solved. So many things. bruised.

Their death was not pleasant. The oldest girl was 12 and that was little Beth. I would find her if it was the last thing I did. I am a detective , a damn good one. I work alone and I work long hours. Essay University. I've been on sharepoint case study intranet this guy for the past six months.

I have gone through his leftovers and mathematics scrimmaged.