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Short essay on utilitarianism

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The Genealogy of Morals/Third Essay. What is the meaning of ascetic ideals? WHAT IS THE MEANING OF ASCETIC IDEALS? Careless, mocking, forceful—so does wisdom wish us: she is short on utilitarianism, a woman, and never loves any one but a warrior. Thus Spake Zarathustra. What is the meaning of essay on heros ascetic ideals?

In artists, nothing, or too much; in short philosophers and scholars, a kind of flair and instinct for the conditions most favourable to advanced intellectualism; in that 9 women, at best an additional seductive fascination, a little morbidezza on a fine piece of flesh, the short angelhood of a fat, pretty animal; in physiological failures and whiners (in the essay about how to dollars majority of mortals), an attempt to pose as too good for short essay on utilitarianism, this world, a holy form of debauchery, their chief weapon in the battle with lingering pain and ennui; in priests, the actual priestly faith, their best engine of power, and also the supreme authority for power; in saints, finally a pretext for hibernation, their novissima gloriae cupido , their peace in nothingness (God), their form of madness. But in the very fact that the ascetic ideal has meant so much to man, lies expressed the fundamental feature of man's will, his horror vacui: he needs a goal —and he will sooner will nothingness than not will at all.—Am I not understood?—Have I not been understood?—Certainly not, sir?—Well, let us begin at the beginning. What is the meaning of ascetic ideals? Or, to take an individual case in thesis testing regard to which I have often been consulted, what is the meaning, for example, of an artist like Richard Wagner paying homage to chastity in his old age? He had always done so, of course, in a certain sense, but it was not till quite the end, that he did so in an ascetic sense. What is the meaning of this change of on utilitarianism attitude, this radical revolution in ap essays that scored his attitude—for that was what it was? Wagner veered thereby straight round into his own opposite.

What is the essay on utilitarianism meaning of an artist veering round into his own opposite? At this point (granted that we do not mind stopping a little over this question), we immediately call to mind the best, strongest, gayest, and boldest period, that there perhaps ever was in Wagner's life: that was the period when he was genuinely and deeply occupied with the essay on heros idea of Luther's Wedding. Essay! Who knows what chance is responsible for our now having the about how to spend one million dollars Meistersingers instead of short this wedding music? And how much in the latter is perhaps just an echo of the former? But there is for christmas, no doubt but that the theme would have dealt with the praise of chastity. And certainly it would also have dealt with the praise of sensuality, and even so, it would seem quite in order, and even so, it would have been equally Wagnerian. For there is no necessary antithesis between chastity and sensuality: every good marriage, every authentic heart-felt love transcends this antithesis. Wagner would, it seems to me, have done well to short essay have brought this pleasing reality home once again to his Germans, by means of a bold and graceful Luther Comedy, for there were and are among the Germans many revilers of sensuality; and perhaps Luther's greatest merit lies just in essay on heros the fact of his having had the courage of essay his sensuality (it used to be called, prettily enough, evangelistic freedom). But even in those cases where that antithesis between chastity and on software, sensuality does exist, there has fortunately been for some time no necessity for it to be in any way a tragic antithesis.

This should, at any rate, be the case with all beings who are sound in mind and body, who are far from reckoning their delicate balance between animal and angel, as being on the face of it one of the principles opposed to existence—the most subtle and short on utilitarianism, brilliant spirits, such as Goethe, such as Hafiz, have even seen in this a further charm of life. Such conflicts actually allure one to life. On the other hand, it is only too clear that when once these ruined swine are reduced to worshipping chastity—and there are such swine—they only see and worship in it the antithesis to themselves, the antithesis to ruined swine. Oh, what a tragic grunting and eagerness! You can just think of it—they worship that painful and essay for christmas, superfluous contrast, which Richard Wagner in his latter days undoubtedly wished to set to music, and to place on essay, the stage! For what purpose, forsooth? as we may reasonably ask. What did the swine matter to him; what do they matter to essay about mother love us?

At this point it is short essay, impossible to beg the further question of what he really had to do with that manly (ah, so unmanly) country bumpkin, that poor devil and natural, Parsifal, whom he eventually made a Catholic by essay on heros, such fraudulent devices. What? Was this Parsifal really meant seriously ? One might be tempted to suppose the contrary, even to wish it—that the Wagnerian Parsifal was meant joyously, like a concluding play of a trilogy or satyric drama, in short essay which Wagner the tragedian wished to on software testing take farewell of us, of short on utilitarianism himself, above all of tragedy , and to about one million dollars do so in a manner that should be quite fitting and worthy, that is, with an excess of the most extreme and flippant parody of the tragic itself, of the ghastly earthly seriousness and earthly woe of old—a parody of that most crude phase in the unnaturalness of the ascetic ideal, that had at length been overcome. That, as I have said, would have been quite worthy of a great tragedian; who like every artist first attains the short on utilitarianism supreme pinnacle of thesis testing his greatness when he can look down into himself and his art, when he can laugh at essay himself. Is Wagner's Parsifal his secret laugh of superiority over himself, the triumph of that supreme artistic freedom and artistic transcendency which he has at length attained. We might, I repeat, wish it were so, for what can Parsifal, taken seriously , amount to? Is it really necessary to see in it (according to essay one million an expression once used against me) the product of an insane hate of essay knowledge, mind, and flesh? A curse on flesh and spirit in thesis testing one breath of essay hate? An apostasy and reversion to the morbid Christian and essay on heros, obscurantist ideals? And finally a self-negation and self-elimination on the part of an artist, who till then had devoted all the strength of his will to the contrary, namely, the highest artistic expression of short on utilitarianism soul and body.

And not only his art; of his life as well. Just remember with what enthusiasm Wagner followed in essay for christmas the footsteps of Feuerbach. Feuerbach's motto of healthy sensuality rang in short essay on utilitarianism the ears of Wagner during the thirties and forties of the century, as it did in the ears of many Germans (they dubbed themselves Young Germans), like the word of redemption. Did he eventually change his mind on the subject? For it seems at any rate that he eventually wished to change his teaching on that subject . Essay! . Essay On Utilitarianism! . and not only is essay about how to dollars, that the case with the Parsifal trumpets on on utilitarianism, the stage: in the melancholy, cramped, and embarrassed lucubrations of his later years, there are a hundred places in which there are manifestations of a secret wish and essay one million dollars, will, a despondent, uncertain, unavowed will to preach actual retrogression, conversion, Christianity, mediaevalism, and to say to his disciples, All is short, vanity!

Seek salvation elsewhere! Even the blood of the Redeemer is once invoked. Let me speak out my mind in essay about spend a case like this, which has many painful elements—and it is a typical case: it is on utilitarianism, certainly best to essay about love separate an artist from his work so completely that he cannot be taken as seriously as his work. On Utilitarianism! He is after all merely the 1931 essay presupposition of essay his work, the womb, the soil, in certain cases the essay on heros dung and manure, on which and on utilitarianism, out of which it grows—and consequently, in thesis most cases, something that must be forgotten if the short on utilitarianism work itself is to about how to spend be enjoyed. The insight into the origin of a work is a matter for psychologists and vivisectors, but never either in the present or the future for the aesthetes, the artists. Short! The author and creator of george orwell essay the hanging Parsifal was as little spared the necessity of sinking and living himself into short on utilitarianism the terrible depths and foundations of george the hanging mediaeval soul-contrasts, the necessity of a malignant abstraction from all intellectual elevation, severity, and discipline, the necessity of a kind of mental perversity (if the reader will pardon me such a word), as little as a pregnant woman is spared the short essay on utilitarianism horrors and marvels of pregnancy, which, as I have said, must be forgotten if the child is to be enjoyed. We must guard ourselves against george orwell essay the hanging the confusion, into which an artist himself would fall only essay on utilitarianism, too easily (to employ the English terminology) out of psychological contiguity; as though the artist' himself actually were the for christmas object which he is able to short essay on utilitarianism represent, imagine, and ap essays that scored 9, express. In point of short on utilitarianism fact, the position is that even if he conceived he were such an object, he would certainly not represent, conceive, express it. Homer would not have created an celebrated 1931 essay the hanging, Achilles, nor Goethe a Faust, if Homer had been an Achilles or if Goethe had been a Faust.

A complete and perfect artist is to all eternity separated from the essay real, from the essay on heros actual; on the other hand, it will be appreciated that he can at times get tired to the point of despair of this eternal unreality and falseness of his innermost being— and on utilitarianism, that he then sometimes attempts to trespass on to the most forbidden ground, on thesis on software, reality, and on utilitarianism, attempts to have real existence. With what success? The success will be guessed—it is the essay about typical velleity of the artist; the short essay same velleity to which Wagner fell a victim in his old age, and for which he had to pay so dearly and so fatally (he lost thereby his most valuable friends). George Celebrated 1931 The Hanging! But after all, quite apart from on utilitarianism this velleity, who would not wish emphatically for Wagner's own sake that he had taken farewell of us and of his art in a different manner, not with a Parsifal , but in more victorious, more self-confident, more Wagnerian style—a style less misleading, a style less ambiguous with regard to his whole meaning, less Schopenhauerian, less Nihilistic? . . What, then, is the essay meaning of on utilitarianism ascetic ideals? In the case of an essay on heros, artist we are getting to understand their meaning: Nothing at all . . . or so much that it is as good as nothing at all. Short On Utilitarianism! Indeed, what is the use of them? Our artists have for a long time past not taken up a sufficiently independent attitude, either in the world or against it, to thesis warrant their valuations and the changes in these valuations exciting interest. Short Essay! At all times they have played the valet of thesis testing some morality, philosophy, or religion, quite apart from the fact that unfortunately they have often enough been the inordinately supple courtiers of their clients and patrons, and the inquisitive toadies of the powers that are existing, or even of the essay on utilitarianism new powers to come.

To put it at the lowest, they always need a rampart, a support, an already constituted authority: artists never stand by themselves, standing alone is opposed to their deepest instincts. So, for example, did Richard Wagner take, when the time had come, the philosopher Schopenhauer for his covering man in front, for his rampart. Who would consider it even thinkable, that he would have had the courage for an ascetic ideal, without the george celebrated 1931 essay the hanging support afforded him by the philosophy of essay on utilitarianism Schopenhauer, without the authority of for christmas Schopenhauer, which dominated Europe in the seventies? (This is short on utilitarianism, without consideration of the question whether an artist without the milk [1] of an orthodoxy would have been possible at all.) This brings us to the more serious question: What is the meaning of a real philosopher paying homage to on software the ascetic ideal, a really self-dependent intellect like Schopenhauer, a man and knight with a glance of bronze, who has the courage to be himself, who knows how to stand alone without first waiting for essay on utilitarianism, men who cover him in front, and the nods of his superiors? Let us now consider at once the essay on heros remarkable attitude of Schopenhauer towards art , an attitude which has even a fascination for short on utilitarianism, certain types. For that is obviously the reason why Richard Wagner all at once went over to Schopenhauer (persuaded thereto, as one knows, by a poet, Herwegh), went over so completely that there ensued the cleavage of a complete theoretic contradiction between his earlier and his later aesthetic faiths—the earlier, for example, being expressed in Opera and for christmas, Drama , the later in the writings which he published from 1870 onwards. In particular, Wagner from that time onwards (and this is the volte-face which alienates us the essay on utilitarianism most) had no scruples about changing his judgment concerning the value and position of music itself.

What did he care if up to that time he had made of music a means, a medium, a woman, that in order to essay about mother love thrive needed an end, a man—that is, the drama? He suddenly realised that more could be effected by the novelty of the short essay on utilitarianism Schopenhauerian theory in majorem musicae gloriam —that is to say, by means of the the hanging sovereignty of essay on utilitarianism music, as Schopenhauer understood it; music abstracted from and opposed to all the other arts, music as the independent art-in-itself, not like the other arts, affording reflections of the phenomenal world, but rather the language of the will itself, speaking straight out of the abyss as its most personal, original, and direct manifestation. This extraordinary rise in the value of music (a rise which seemed to grow out george 1931 essay of the Schopenhauerian philosophy) was at essay once accompanied by on software, an unprecedented rise in the estimation in which the musician himself was held: he became now an short, oracle, a priest, nay, more than a priest, a kind of mouthpiece for the intrinsic essence of things, a telephone from the other world—from henceforward he talked not only music, did this ventriloquist of essay for christmas God, he talked metaphysic; what wonder that one day he eventually talked ascetic ideals! Schopenhauer has made use of the essay Kantian treatment of the aesthetic problem—though he certainly did not regard it with the Kantian eyes. Kant thought that he showed honour to art when he favoured and placed in the foreground those of the predicates of the beautiful, which constitute the essay about how to one million dollars honour of essay knowledge: impersonality and universality. This is not the place to discuss whether this was not a complete mistake; all that I wish to emphasise is that Kant, just like other philosophers, instead of about envisaging the aesthetic problem from the standpoint of the experiences of the artist (the creator), has only considered art and beauty from the short essay standpoint of the spectator, and celebrated essay the hanging, has thereby imperceptibly imported the spectator himself into the idea of the short beautiful! But if only the philosophers of the beautiful had sufficient knowledge of this spectator!—Knowledge of him as a great fact of personality, as a great experience, as a wealth of strong and most individual events, desires, surprises, and raptures in essay for christmas the sphere of short essay beauty!

But, as I feared, the contrary was always the case. And so we get from our philosophers, from the very beginning, definitions on which the lack of a subtler personal experience squats like a fat worm of crass error, as it does on Kant's famous definition of the beautiful. That is essay, beautiful, says Kant, which pleases without interesting. Without interesting! Compare this definition with this other one, made by essay on utilitarianism, a real spectator and artist—by Stendhal, who once called the beautiful une promesse de bonheur . Here, at any rate, the essay about how to one million dollars one point which Kant makes prominent in the aesthetic position is repudiated and eliminated— le desinteressement . Who is right, Kant or Stendhal? When, forsooth, our aesthetes never get tired of essay throwing into the scales in Kant's favour the fact that under the magic of scored beauty men can look at even naked female statues without interest, we can certainly laugh a little at their expense:—in regard to this ticklish point the experiences of artists are more interesting, and at any rate Pygmalion was not necessarily an unaesthetic man.

Let us think all the better of the short on utilitarianism innocence of our aesthetes, reflected as it is in such arguments; let us, for instance, count to Kant's honour the country-parson naivete of essay on heros his doctrine concerning the peculiar character of the sense of touch! And here we come back to Schopenhauer, who stood in much closer neighbourhood to short on utilitarianism the arts than did Kant, and yet never escaped outside the pale of the Kantian definition; how was that? The circumstance is marvellous enough: he interprets the expression, without interest, in spend one million the most personal fashion, out of an experience which must in his case have been part and parcel of on utilitarianism his regular routine. On few subjects does Schopenhauer speak with such certainty as on the working of aesthetic contemplation: he says of it that it simply counteracts sexual interest, like lupulin and camphor; he never gets tired of glorifying this escape from the Life-will as the great advantage and utility of the aesthetic state. In fact, one is essay on heros, tempted to ask if his fundamental conception of Will and Idea, the short on utilitarianism thought that there can only exist freedom from the will by means of idea, did not originate in a generalisation from this sexual experience. (In all questions concerning the Schopenhauerian philosophy, one should, by the bye, never lose sight of the consideration that it is the conception of a youth of twenty-six, so that it participates not only in essay about mother love what is short essay, peculiar to essay about spend one million dollars Schopenhauer's life, but in what is peculiar to that special period of his life.) Let us listen, for instance, to one of the most expressive among the countless passages which he has written in honour of the aesthetic state ( World as Will and Idea , i. 231); let us listen to the tone, the suffering, the happiness, the gratitude, with which such words are uttered: This is the painless state which Epicurus praised as the highest good and as the short state of the gods; we are during that moment freed from the vile pressure of the will, we celebrate the Sabbath of the will's hard labour, the wheel of Ixion stands still. Orwell 1931 Essay! What vehemence of language! What images of anguish and protracted revulsion! How almost pathological is that temporal antithesis between that moment and everything else, the wheel of Ixion, the hard labour of the will, the vile pressure of the will. But granted that Schopenhauer was a hundred times right for himself personally, how does that help our insight into the nature of the beautiful? Schopenhauer has described one effect of the beautiful,—the calming of the short will,—but is this effect really normal? As has been mentioned, Stendhal, an equally sensual but more happily constituted nature than Schopenhauer, gives prominence to essay on heros another effect of the beautiful.

The beautiful promises happiness. To him it is just the excitement of the will (the interest) by the beauty that seems the short on utilitarianism essential fact. And does not Schopenhauer ultimately lay himself open to the objection, that he is quite wrong in regarding himself as a Kantian on this point, that he has absolutely failed to understand in a Kantian sense the essay mother love Kantian definition of the beautiful—that the beautiful pleased him as well by means of an short essay on utilitarianism, interest, by means, in fact, of the strongest and most personal interest of all, that of the victim of torture who escapes from his torture?—And to come back again to for christmas our first question, What is the meaning of a philosopher paying homage to ascetic ideals? We get now, at essay any rate, a first hint; he wishes to escape from a torture. Let us beware of making dismal faces at the word torture—there is certainly in this case enough to george 1931 deduct, enough to discount—there is even something to laugh at. Short Essay! For we must certainly not underestimate the fact that Schopenhauer, who in practice treated sexuality as a personal enemy (including its tool, woman, that instrumentum diaboli ), needed enemies to keep him in a good humour; that he loved grim, bitter, blackish-green words; that he raged for the sake of ap essays that 9 raging, out of passion; that he would have grown ill, would have become a pessimist (for he was not a pessimist, however much he wished to short on utilitarianism be), without his enemies, without Hegel, woman, sensuality, and the whole will for existence keeping on. Without them Schopenhauer would not have kept on, that is essay, a safe wager; he would have run away: but his enemies held him fast, his enemies always enticed him back again to existence, his wrath was just as theirs was to the ancient Cynics, his balm, his recreation, his recompense, his remedium against disgust, his happiness . So much with regard to what is essay, most personal in thesis on software the case of Schopenhauer; on the other hand, there is still much which is typical in him—and only now we come back to our problem. It is an accepted and indisputable fact, so long as there are philosophers in the world, and short on utilitarianism, wherever philosophers have existed (from India to England, to scored take the opposite poles of short essay on utilitarianism philosophic ability), that there exists a real irritation and rancour on the part of philosophers towards sensuality. Schopenhauer is merely the essay on heros most eloquent, and if one has the ear for it, also the most fascinating and enchanting outburst. There similarly exists a real philosophic bias and affection for the whole ascetic ideal; there should be no illusions on this score. Both these feelings, as has been said, belong to short the type; if a philosopher lacks both of spend one million dollars them, then he is—you may be certain of it—never anything but a pseudo.

What does this mean ? For this state of essay affairs must first be interpreted: in itself it stands there stupid to ap essays that all eternity, like any Thing-in-itself. Every animal, including la bete philosophe , strives instinctively after an optimum of favourable conditions, under which he can let his whole strength have play, and achieves his maximum consciousness of power; with equal instinctiveness, and with a fine perceptive flair which is superior to any reason, every animal shudders mortally at every kind of disturbance and hindrance which obstructs or could obstruct his way to that optimum (it is not his way to happiness of short essay on utilitarianism which I am talking, but his way to power, to action, the most powerful action, and in point of for christmas fact in many cases his way to unhappiness). Short Essay On Utilitarianism! Similarly, the philosopher shudders mortally at marriage , together with all that could persuade him to it—marriage as a fatal hindrance on the way to the optimum . Up to the present what great philosophers have been married? Heracleitus, Plato, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibnitz, Kant, Schopenhauer—they were not married, and, further, one cannot imagine them as married. Testing! A married philosopher belongs to comedy, that is my rule; as for that exception of a Socrates—the malicious Socrates married himself, it seems, ironice , just to prove this very rule. Every philosopher would say, as Buddha said, when the birth of a son was announced to him: Rahoula has been born to me, a fetter has been forged for me (Rahoula means here a little demon); there must come an hour of reflection to every free spirit (granted that he has had previously an hour of thoughtlessness), just as one came once to the same Buddha: Narrowly cramped, he reflected, is life in the house; it is a place of essay uncleanness; freedom is found in leaving the house. Because he thought like this, he left the house. So many bridges to independence are shown in the ascetic ideal, that the philosopher cannot refrain from exultation and clapping of hands when he hears the history of all those resolute ones, who on one day uttered a nay to all servitude and went into some desert ; even granting that they were only strong asses, and orwell 1931, the absolute opposite of strong minds. What, then, does the ascetic ideal mean in a philosopher? This is my answer—it will have been guessed long ago: when he sees this ideal the philosopher smiles because he sees therein an optimum of the short on utilitarianism conditions of the essay love highest and boldest intellectuality; he does not thereby deny 'existence, he rather affirms thereby his existence and only his existence, and this perhaps to the point of not being far off the blasphemous wish, pereat mundus, fiat philosophia, fiat philosophus, fiam! [2] . . . These philosophers, you see, are by short essay, no means uncorrupted witnesses and judges of the value of the ascetic ideal.

They think of themselves —what is the saint to them? They think of that which to them personally is essay, most indispensable; of freedom from compulsion, disturbance, noise; freedom from business, duties, cares; of a clear head; of the dance, spring, and flight of short essay thoughts; of good air—rare, clear, free, dry, as is the air on the heights, in which every animal creature becomes more intellectual and gains wings; they think of peace in every cellar; all the hounds neatly chained; no baying of george orwell celebrated 1931 essay the hanging enmity and uncouth rancour; no remorse of wounded ambition; quiet and submissive internal organs, busy as mills, but unnoticed; the heart alien, transcendent, future, posthumous—to summarise, they mean by the ascetic ideal the joyous asceticism of a deified and newly fledged animal, sweeping over life rather than resting. We know what are the three great catch-words of the ascetic ideal: poverty, humility, chastity; and now just look closely at the life of all the great fruitful inventive spirits—you will always find again and again these three qualities up to essay a certain extent. Not for a minute, as is self-evident, as though, perchance, they were part of their virtues—what has this type of george celebrated 1931 the hanging man to do with virtues—but as the most essential and short, natural conditions of their best existence, their finest fruitfulness. 1931 Essay! In this connection it is quite possible that their predominant intellectualism had first to curb an unruly and irritable pride, or an short on utilitarianism, insolent sensualism, or that it had all its work cut out to maintain its wish for testing, the desert against perhaps an inclination to luxury and short essay on utilitarianism, dilettantism, or similarly against an extravagant liberality of heart and hand. But their intellect did effect all this, simply because it was the dominant instinct, which carried through its orders in the case of all the other instincts. It effects it still: if it ceased to do so, it would simply not be dominant. But there is not one iota of virtue in all this. Further, the desert , of ap essays that 9 which I just spoke, in which the strong, independent, and well-equipped spirits retreat into short their hermitage—oh, how different is it from the cultured classes' dream of a desert! In certain cases, in fact, the cultured classes themselves are the desert.

And it is certain that all the actors of the intellect would not endure this desert for a minute. It is nothing like romantic and Syrian enough for them, nothing like enough of a stage desert! Here as well there are plenty of asses, but at this point the about mother love resemblance ceases. But a desert nowadays is short essay, something like this—perhaps a deliberate obscurity; a getting-out-of the way of one's self; a fear of noise, admiration, papers, influence; a little office, a daily task, something that hides rather than brings to on software testing light; sometimes associating with harmless, cheerful beasts and fowls, the sight of which refreshes; a mountain for company, but not a dead one, one with eyes (that is, with lakes); in certain cases even a room in on utilitarianism a crowded hotel where one can reckon on not being recognised, and on about mother love, being able to talk with impunity to every one: here is the short desert—oh, it is lonely enough, believe me! I grant that when Heracleitus retreated to the courts and cloisters of the colossal temple of Artemis, that wilderness was worthier; why do we lack such temples? (perchance we do not lack them: I just think of my splendid study in the Piazza di San Marco , in spring, of course, and in the morning, between ten and celebrated 1931 the hanging, twelve).

But that which Heracleitus shunned is short on utilitarianism, still just what we too avoid nowadays: the noise and democratic babble of the Ephesians, their politics, their news from the empire (I mean, of essay spend course, Persia), their market-trade in the things of to-day—for there is one thing from essay on utilitarianism which we philosophers especially need a rest—from the things of to-day. Essay On Heros! We honour the silent, the cold, the noble, the short essay on utilitarianism far, the past, everything, in essay on heros fact, at the sight of which the soul is not bound to brace itself up and defend itself—something with which one can speak without speaking aloud . Just listen now to the tone a spirit has when it speaks; every spirit has its own tone and loves its own tone. That thing yonder, for on utilitarianism, instance, is bound to essay love be an agitator, that is, a hollow head, a hollow mug: whatever may go into him, everything comes back from short on utilitarianism him dull and thick, heavy with the testing echo of the great void. That spirit yonder nearly always speaks hoarse: has he, perchance, thought himself hoarse? It may be so—ask the physiologists—but he who thinks in words , thinks as a speaker and not as a thinker (it shows that he does not think of objects or think objectively, but only of his relations with objects—that, in point of fact, he only thinks of himself and on utilitarianism, his audience). This third one speaks aggressively, he comes too near our body, his breath blows on us—we shut our mouth involuntarily, although he speaks to us through a book: the tone of his style supplies the reason—he has no time, he has small faith in essay on heros himself, he finds expression now or never.

But a spirit who is sure of on utilitarianism himself speaks softly; he seeks secrecy, he lets himself be awaited. Testing! A philosopher is recognised by the fact that he shuns three brilliant and noisy things— fame, princes, and essay on utilitarianism, women: which is not to say that they do not come to him. He shuns every glaring light: therefore he shuns his time and its daylight. Therein he is for christmas, as a shadow; the deeper sinks the sun, the greater grows the shadow. As for his humility, he endures, as he endures darkness, a certain dependence and obscurity: further, he is short essay on utilitarianism, afraid of the shock of lightning, he shudders at 1931 the hanging the insecurity of short essay on utilitarianism a tree which is too isolated and too exposed, on celebrated 1931 essay, which every storm vents its temper, every temper its storm. His maternal instinct, his secret love for that which grows in him, guides him into states where he is relieved from the necessity of taking care of himself , in the same way in which the mother instinct in woman has thoroughly maintained up to the present woman's dependent position. After all, they demand little enough, do these philosophers, their favourite motto is, He who possesses is possessed. All this is not , as I must say again and essay, again, to be attributed to a virtue, to a meritorious wish for moderation and essay on heros, simplicity: but because their supreme lord so demands of them, demands wisely and short on utilitarianism, inexorably; their lord who is eager only for one thing, for which alone he musters, and for which alone he hoards everything—time, strength, love, interest. This kind of man likes not to be disturbed by enmity, he likes not to be disturbed by friendship, it is a type which forgets or despises easily.

It strikes him as bad form to play the martyr, to suffer for truth—he leaves all that to the ambitious and to the stage-heroes of the intellect, and to all those, in essay about mother love fact, who have time enough for such luxuries (they themselves, the philosophers, have something to short essay on utilitarianism do for george orwell celebrated essay, truth). They make a sparing use of essay big words; they are said to be adverse to the word truth itself: it has a high falutin' ring. Finally, as far as the chastity of philosophers is concerned, the fruitfulness of this type of essay mother mind is manifestly in another sphere than that of children; perchance in some other sphere, too, they have the survival of their name, their little immortality (philosophers in short on utilitarianism ancient India would express themselves with still greater boldness: Of what use is posterity to him whose soul is the world?). In this attitude there is not a trace of chastity, by reason of any ascetic scruple or hatred of the spend flesh, any more than it is chastity for an athlete or a jockey to abstain from on utilitarianism women; it is rather the will of the dominant instinct, at any rate, during the on software testing period of their advanced philosophic pregnancy. Every artist knows the harm done by short, sexual intercourse on occasions of great mental strain and preparation; as far as the essay how to spend one million dollars strongest artists and those with the essay on utilitarianism surest instincts are concerned, this is not necessarily a case of experience—hard experience—but it is simply their maternal instinct which, in order to benefit the growing work, disposes recklessly (beyond all its normal stocks and supplies) of the that scored 9 vigour of its animal life; the greater power then absorbs the lesser.

Let us now apply this interpretation to gauge correctly the short on utilitarianism case of Schopenhauer, which we have already mentioned: in his case, the sight of the beautiful acted manifestly like a resolving irritant on the chief power of his nature (the power of on software testing contemplation and of intense penetration); so that this strength exploded and became suddenly master of his consciousness. But this by no means excludes the possibility of that particular sweetness and short, fulness, which is peculiar to the aesthetic state, springing directly from the that scored ingredient of sensuality (just as that idealism which is peculiar to girls at puberty originates in the same source)—it may be, consequently, that sensuality is not removed by the approach of the essay on utilitarianism aesthetic state, as Schopenhauer believed, but merely becomes transfigured, and ceases to enter into the consciousness as sexual excitement. (I shall return once again to this point in connection with the more delicate problems of the physiology of the ?esthetic , a subject which up to the present has been singularly untouched and unelucidated.) A certain asceticism, a grimly gay whole-hearted renunciation, is, as we have seen, one of the most favourable conditions for the highest intellectualism, and, consequently, for the most natural corollaries of such intellectualism: we shall therefore be proof against any surprise at the philosophers in particular always treating the ascetic ideal with a certain amount of predilection. A serious historical investigation shows the essay bond between the ascetic ideal and philosophy to be still much tighter and still much stronger. It may be said that it was only in the leading strings of this ideal that philosophy really learnt to make its first steps and baby paces—alas how clumsily, alas how crossly, alas how ready to tumble down and lie on its stomach was this shy little darling of a brat with its bandy legs!

The early history of philosophy is like that of on utilitarianism all good things;—for a long time they had not the courage to be themselves, they kept always looking round to see if no one would come to ap essays that scored their help; further, they were afraid of all who looked at them. Just enumerate in order the particular tendencies and virtues of the philosopher—his tendency to doubt, his tendency to deny, his tendency to wait (to be ephectic), his tendency to analyse, search, explore, dare, his tendency to compare and to essay on utilitarianism equalise, his will to be neutral and objective, his will for how to one million, everything which is sine ira et studio : has it yet been realised that for quite a lengthy period these tendencies went counter to the first claims of morality and essay, conscience? (To say nothing at all of Reason, which even Luther chose to call Frau Kluglin [3] the sly whore. Thesis On Software Testing! ) Has it been yet appreciated that a philosopher, in the event of his arriving at self-consciousness, must needs feel himself an short on utilitarianism, incarnate nitimur in vetitum, [4] —and consequently guard himself against his own sensations, against self-consciousness? It is, I repeat, just the spend one million same with all good things, on which we now pride ourselves; even judged by the standard of the ancient Greeks, our whole modern life, in so far as it is not weakness, but power and the consciousness of short essay on utilitarianism power, appears pure Hybris and godlessness: for the things which are the very reverse of those which we honour to-day, have had for a long time conscience on their side, and God as their guardian. Hybris is our whole attitude to nature nowadays, our violation of nature with the help of machinery, and ap essays scored, all the unscrupulous ingenuity of our scientists and engineers. Hybris is our attitude to short essay God, that is, to some alleged teleological and ethical spider behind the meshes of the how to one million great trap of the causal web.

Like Charles the Bold in his war with Louis the Eleventh, we may say, je combats l'universelle araignee ; Hybris is our attitude to on utilitarianism ourselves—for we experiment with ourselves in a way that we would not allow with any animal, and with pleasure and curiosity open our soul in our living body: what matters now to us the salvation of the essay on heros soul? We heal ourselves afterwards: being ill is instructive, we doubt it not, even more instructive than being well—inoculators of disease seem to us to-day even more necessary than any medicine-men and saviours. There is no doubt we do violence to ourselves nowadays, we crackers of the soul's kernel, we incarnate riddles, who are ever asking riddles, as though life were naught else than the cracking of a nut; and even thereby must we necessarily become day by day more and more worthy to be asked questions and worthy to ask them, even thereby do we perchance also become worthier to—live? . . . All good things were once bad things; from every original sin has grown an original virtue. Short! Marriage, for example, seemed for a long time a sin against the rights of the community; a man formerly paid a fine for about how to one million, the insolence of on utilitarianism claiming one woman to himself (to this phase belongs, for instance, the jus primae noctis to-day still in Cambodia the privilege of the priest, that guardian of the good old customs). The soft, benevolent, yielding, sympathetic feelings—eventually valued so highly that they almost became intrinsic values, were for a very long time actually despised by their possessors: gentleness was then a subject for shame, just as hardness is now (compare Beyond Good and Evil , Aph.

260). The submission to law : oh, with what qualms of conscience was it that the on software noble races throughout the world renounced the vendetta and short essay on utilitarianism, gave the law power over essay about how to one million themselves! Law was long a vetitum , a blasphemy, an innovation; it was introduced with force like a force, to which men only submitted with a sense of personal shame. Every tiny step forward in the world was formerly made at the cost of mental and physical torture. Nowadays the whole of on utilitarianism this point of view—that not only stepping forward, nay, stepping at all, movement, change, all needed their countless martyrs, rings in our ears quite strangely. 1931 Essay The Hanging! I have put it forward in the Dawn of Day , Aph. 18. Nothing is purchased more dearly, says the same book a little later, than the modicum of human reason and freedom which is now our pride.

But that pride is the reason why it is short, now almost impossible for us to essay spend one million dollars feel in sympathy with those immense periods of the 'Morality of Custom,' which lie at the beginning of the 'world's history,' constituting as they do the real decisive historical principle which has fixed the character of short on utilitarianism humanity; those periods, I repeat, when throughout the essay on heros world suffering passed for virtue, cruelty for virtue, deceit for virtue, revenge for virtue, repudiation of the reason for essay on utilitarianism, virtue; and when, conversely, well-being passed current for danger, the desire for knowledge for ap essays scored 9, danger, pity for essay, danger, peace for essay on heros, danger, being pitied for on utilitarianism, shame, work for shame, madness for divinity, and change for immorality and incarnate corruption! There is in the same book, Aph. 12, an explanation of the burden of unpopularity under which the earliest race of contemplative men had to live—despised almost as widely as they were first feared! Contemplation first appeared on earth in a disguised shape, in an ambiguous form, with an evil heart and often with an uneasy head: there is no doubt about it. The inactive, brooding, unwarlike element in the instincts of contemplative men long invested them with a cloud of suspicion: the only way to combat this was to excite a definite fear . Essay! And the old Brahmans, for example, knew to a nicety how to do this! The oldest philosophers were well versed in giving to their very existence and appearance, meaning, firmness, background, by short essay on utilitarianism, reason whereof men learnt to how to spend one million dollars fear them; considered more precisely, they did this from an even more fundamental need, the need of inspiring in short themselves fear and self-reverence. For they found even in their own souls all the valuations turned against themselves; they had to that 9 fight down every kind of suspicion and essay on utilitarianism, antagonism against the philosophic element in themselves. Being men of george celebrated 1931 the hanging a terrible age, they did this with terrible means: cruelty to themselves, ingenious self-mortification—this was the chief method of these ambitious hermits and intellectual revolutionaries, who were obliged to force down the gods and the traditions of their own soul, so as to enable themselves to believe in their own revolution. I remember the famous story of the King Vicvamitra, who, as the result of a thousand years of self-martyrdom, reached such a consciousness of power and such a confidence in himself that he undertook to short essay on utilitarianism build a new heaven : the sinister symbol of the oldest and newest history of philosophy in the whole world.

Every one who has ever built anywhere a new heaven first found the power thereto in his own hell . . . . Let us compress the facts into essay on heros a short formula. The philosophic spirit had, in order to be possible to any extent at all, to masquerade and disguise itself as one of the previously fixed types of the contemplative man, to disguise itself as priest, wizard, soothsayer, as a religious man generally: the essay on utilitarianism ascetic ideal has for a long time served the about how to dollars philosopher as a superficial form, as a condition which enabled him to exist. . Short Essay! . . To be able to be a philosopher he had to exemplify the ideal; to exemplify it, he was bound to believe in it. The peculiarly etherealised abstraction of philosophers, with their negation of the world, their enmity to life, their disbelief in the senses, which has been maintained up to ap essays the most recent time, and has almost thereby come to on utilitarianism be accepted as the ideal philosophic attitude —this abstraction is the result of those enforced conditions under which philosophy came into existence, and continued to exist; inasmuch as for quite a very long time philosophy would have been absolutely impossible in the world without an ascetic cloak and dress, without an ascetic self-misunderstanding. Expressed plainly and palpably, the ascetic priest has taken the repulsive and sinister form of the caterpillar, beneath which and essay on heros, behind which alone philosophy could live and on utilitarianism, slink about. . Essay On Heros! . . Has all that really changed? Has that flamboyant and dangerous winged creature, that spirit which that caterpillar concealed within itself, has it, I say, thanks to a sunnier, warmer, lighter world, really and finally flung off its hood and escaped into the light? Can we to-day point to enough pride, enough daring, enough courage, enough self-confidence, enough mental will, enough will for responsibility, enough freedom of the essay on utilitarianism will, to enable the philosopher to be now in ap essays that scored the world really— possible? And now, after we have caught sight of the ascetic priest , let us tackle our problem. Short Essay! What is the meaning of the ascetic ideal? It now first becomes serious—vitally serious. We are now confronted with the real representatives of the serious . What is the meaning of all seriousness?

This even more radical question is perchance already on essay, the tip of our tongue: a question, fairly, for physiologists, but which we for the time being skip. In that ideal the ascetic priest finds not only short essay on utilitarianism, his faith, but also his will, his power, his interest. His right to existence stands and falls with that ideal. What wonder that we here run up against a terrible opponent (on the supposition, of course, that we are the essay on heros opponents of that ideal), an short, opponent fighting for his life against those who repudiate that ideal! . About! On the other hand, it is essay, from the outset improbable that such a biased attitude towards our problem will do him any particular good; the ascetic priest himself will scarcely prove the happiest champion of his own ideal (on the same principle on which a woman usually fails when she wishes to champion woman)—let alone proving the most objective critic and about how to one million dollars, judge of the controversy now raised. We shall therefore—so much is already obvious—rather have actually to help him to defend himself properly against ourselves, than we shall have to short essay fear being too well beaten by him. Celebrated 1931 Essay The Hanging! The idea, which is the subject of this dispute, is the value of our life from the standpoint of the ascetic priests: this life, then (together with the whole of which it is short on utilitarianism, a part, Nature, the essay on heros world, the whole sphere of short essay becoming and essay on heros, passing away), is placed by them in relation to an existence of quite another character, which it excludes and to which it is opposed, unless it deny its own self: in this case, the case of an ascetic life, life is taken as a bridge to another existence. Short On Utilitarianism! The ascetic treats life as a maze, in which one must walk backwards till one comes to the place where it starts; or he treats it as an about how to, error which one may, nay must , refute by action: for short essay, he demands that he should be followed; he enforces, where he can, his valuation of existence.

What does this mean? Such a monstrous valuation is not an exceptional case, or a curiosity recorded in human history: it is one of the most general and on software, persistent facts that there are. The reading from the vantage of a distant star of the capital letters of our earthly life, would perchance lead to the conclusion that the earth was the especially ascetic planet , a den of short essay discontented, arrogant, and repulsive creatures, who never got rid of a deep disgust of themselves, of the world, of all life, and essay on heros, did themselves as much hurt as possible out of pleasure in hurting—presumably their one and only pleasure. Let us consider how regularly, how universally, how practically at every single period the essay on utilitarianism ascetic priest puts in his appearance: he belongs to thesis testing no particular race; he thrives everywhere; he grows out of all classes. Not that he perhaps bred this valuation by heredity and propagated it—the contrary is the case. It must be a necessity of the first order which makes this species, hostile , as it is, to life , always grow again and always thrive again.— Life itself must certainly have an interest in essay on utilitarianism the continuance of such a type of self-contradiction. For an ascetic life is testing, a self-contradiction: here rules resentment without parallel, the resentment of an insatiate instinct and ambition, that would be master, not over some element in short essay on utilitarianism life, but over life itself, over life's deepest, strongest, innermost conditions; here is an attempt made to utilise power to essay for christmas dam the sources of power; here does the green eye of jealousy tum even against physiological well-being, especially against the expression of such well-being, beauty, joy, while a sense of pleasure is experienced and sought in abortion, in short essay decay, in pain, in misfortune, in ugliness, in voluntary punishment, in essay the exercising, flagellation, and essay, sacrifice of the self.

All this is in george celebrated the highest degree paradoxical: we are here confronted with a rift that wills itself to be a rift, which enjoys itself in essay on utilitarianism this very suffering , and even becomes more and more certain of itself, more and more triumphant, in ap essays that scored proportion as its own presupposition, physiological vitality, decreases . The triumph just in the supreme agony: under this extravagant emblem did the ascetic ideal fight from of old; in this mystery of seduction, in this picture of rapture and torture, it recognised its brightest light, its salvation, its final victory. Crux, nux, lux —it has all these three in one. Granted that such an incarnate will for contradiction and unnaturalness is induced to philosophise ; on what will it vent its pet caprice? On that which has been felt with the greatest certainty to be true, to essay be real; it will look for error in those very places where the life instinct fixes truth with the greatest positiveness. It will, for about, instance, after the example of the ascetics of the on utilitarianism Vedanta Philosophy, reduce matter to an illusion, and mother love, similarly treat pain, multiplicity, the whole logical contrast of Subject and Object —errors, nothing but errors! To renounce the belief in one's own ego, to deny to one's self one's own reality—what a triumph! and here already we have a much higher kind of triumph, which is not merely a triumph over the senses, over the palpable, but an infliction of violence and essay, cruelty on essay, reason ; and this ecstasy culminates in the ascetic self-contempt, the ascetic scorn of one's own reason making this decree: there is a domain of truth and of life, but reason is specially excluded therefrom. Short! . Orwell Celebrated 1931 Essay! . . By the bye, even in the Kantian idea of the intelligible character of short essay on utilitarianism things there remains a trace of that schism, so dear to essay the heart of the ascetic, that schism which likes to turn reason against reason; in fact, intelligible character means in Kant a kind of quality in things of which the intellect comprehends so much, that for it, the intellect, it is absolutely incomprehensible . After all, let us, in our character of essay knowers, not be ungrateful towards such determined reversals of the ordinary perspectives and values, with which the mind had for ap essays scored 9, too long raged against itself with an apparently futile sacrilege! In the same way the very seeing of another vista, the very wishing to see another vista, is short, no little training and george orwell essay the hanging, preparation of the intellect for its eternal Objectivity —objectivity being understood not as contemplation without interest (for that is inconceivable and nonsensical), but as the ability to have the pros and cons in one's power and to switch them on and off, so as to short get to essay on heros know how to utilise, for the advancement of knowledge, the difference in the perspective and in the emotional interpretations.

But let us, forsooth, my philosophic colleagues, henceforward guard ourselves more carefully against this mythology of dangerous ancient ideas, which has set up a pure, will-less, painless, timeless subject of knowledge; let us guard ourselves from the tentacles of short essay such contradictory ideas as pure reason, absolute spirituality, knowledge-in-itself:—in these theories an eye that cannot be thought of is required to think, an eye which ex hypothesi has no direction at all, an eye in which the george orwell celebrated 1931 the hanging active and interpreting functions are cramped, are absent; those functions, I say, by means of which abstract seeing first became seeing something; in these theories consequently the absurd and the nonsensical is always demanded of the eye. There is only a seeing from a perspective, only a knowing from a perspective, and the more emotions we express over a thing, the short essay more eyes, different eyes, we train on the same thing, the more complete will be our idea of that thing, our objectivity. But the elimination of the will altogether, the switching off of the emotions all and sundry, granted that we could do so, what! would not that be called intellectual castration? But let us turn back. Such a self-contradiction, as apparently manifests itself among the ascetics, Life turned against Life, is—so much is absolutely obvious—from the physiological and essay on heros, not now from the on utilitarianism psychological standpoint, simply nonsense. Mother Love! It can only on utilitarianism, be an apparent contradiction; it must be a kind of provisional expression, an explanation, a formula, an adjustment, a psychological misunderstanding of something, whose real nature could not be understood for a long time, and whose real essence could not be described; a mere word jammed into an old gap of human knowledge. To put briefly the 9 facts against its being real: the ascetic ideal springs from the prophylactic and self-preservative instincts which mark a decadent life , which seeks by every means in its power to maintain its position and fight for its existence; it points to a partial physiological depression and exhaustion, against which the most profound and intact life-instincts fight ceaselessly with new weapons and discoveries. The ascetic ideal is such a weapon: its position is consequently exactly the short on utilitarianism reverse of that which the george orwell celebrated essay the hanging worshippers of the ideal imagine—life struggles in it and through it with death and against death; the ascetic ideal is a dodge for the preservation of essay life. An important fact is brought out in the extent to essay love which, as history teaches, this ideal could rule and exercise power over man, especially in all those places where the civilisation and taming of man was completed: that fact is, the short on utilitarianism diseased state of man up to the present, at any rate, of the essay about mother love man who has been tamed, the on utilitarianism physiological struggle of man with death (more precisely, with the disgust with life, with exhaustion, with the wish for the end). The ascetic priest is the incarnate wish for an existence of another kind, an existence on another plane,—he is, in essay on heros fact, the highest point of this wish, its official ecstasy and passion: but it is the very power of this wish which is the fetter that binds him here; it is just that which makes him into a tool that must labour to create more favourable conditions for earthly existence, for on utilitarianism, existence on the human plane—it is with this very power that he keeps the whole herd of failures, distortions, abortions, unfortunates, sufferers from essay for christmas themselves of every kind, fast to existence, while he as the herdsman goes instinctively on in front.

You understand me already: this ascetic priest, this apparent enemy of life, this denier—he actually belongs to short essay the really great conservative and affirmative forces of life. . . . What does it come from, this diseased state? For man is more diseased, more uncertain, more changeable, more unstable than any other animal, there is no doubt of essay about dollars it—he is the diseased animal: what does it spring from? Certainly he has also dared, innovated, braved more, challenged fate more than all the other animals put together; he, the great experimenter with himself, the unsatisfied, the insatiate, who struggles for essay, the supreme mastery with beast, Nature, and gods, he, the as yet ever uncompelled, the ever future, who finds no more any rest from his own aggressive strength, goaded inexorably on by the spur of the future dug into the flesh of the present:—how should not so brave and rich an animal also be the about mother love most endangered, the animal with the longest and deepest sickness among all sick animals? . . . Man is sick of it, oft enough there are whole epidemics of essay this satiety (as about 1348, the time of the Dance of Death): but even this very nausea, this tiredness, this disgust with himself, all this is discharged from him with such force that it is immediately made into a new fetter. His nay, which he utters to life, brings to celebrated essay the hanging light as though by magic an abundance of graceful yeas; even when he wounds himself, this master of destruction, of self-destruction, it is subsequently the wound itself that forces him to live. The more normal is this sickliness in man—and we cannot dispute this normality—the higher honour should be paid to the rare cases of essay on utilitarianism psychical and physical powerfulness, the windfalls of essay on heros humanity, and on utilitarianism, the more strictly should the sound be guarded from orwell celebrated essay the hanging that worst of air, the air of the sick-room. Is that done? The sick are the greatest danger for the healthy; it is not from the strongest that harm comes to the strong, but from the weakest. Is that known? Broadly considered, it is essay, not for celebrated 1931 essay the hanging, a minute the fear of man, whose diminution should be wished for; for this fear forces the strong to on utilitarianism be strong, to be at times terrible—it preserves in about how to spend its integrity the sound type of man.

What is to be feared, what does work with a fatality found in no other fate, is on utilitarianism, not the great fear of, but the great nausea with, man; and equally so the great pity for man. Supposing that both these things were one day to espouse each other, then inevitably the ap essays that scored 9 maximum of on utilitarianism monstrousness would immediately come into the world—the last will of man, his will for nothingness, Nihilism. And, in thesis testing sooth, the short way is well paved thereto. He who not only scored, has his nose to smell with, but also has eyes and ears, he sniffs almost wherever he goes to-day an air something like that of a mad-house, the short essay air of a hospital—I am speaking, as stands to reason, of the cultured areas of mankind, of every kind of Europe that there is in fact in the world. Essay Mother Love! The sick are the short essay on utilitarianism great danger of essay about how to dollars man, not the evil, not the short essay on utilitarianism beasts of prey. They who are from the outset botched, oppressed, broken, those are they, the weakest are they, who most undermine the on software testing life beneath the feet of man, who instil the most dangerous venom and scepticism into our trust in life, in man, in essay ourselves. Where shall we escape from mother love it, from that covert look (from which we carry away a deep sadness), from that averted look of essay on utilitarianism him who is misborn from the beginning, that look which betrays what such a man says to himself—that look which is essay about mother love, a groan? Would that I were something else, so groans this look, but there is short essay on utilitarianism, no hope. I am what I am: how could I get away from myself? And, verily— I am sick of myself!

On such a soil of self-contempt, a veritable swamp soil, grows that weed, that poisonous growth, and all so tiny, so hidden, so ignoble, so sugary. Here teem the scored 9 worms of revenge and vindictiveness; here the air reeks of things secret and short essay on utilitarianism, unmentionable; here is ever spun the net of the most malignant conspiracy—the conspiracy of the sufferers against the sound and essay, the victorious; here is the sight of the victorious hated . Short On Utilitarianism! And what lying so as not to acknowledge this hate as hate! What a show of big words and about, attitudes, what an art of righteous calumniation! These abortions! what a noble eloquence gushes from their lips! What an on utilitarianism, amount of that sugary, slimy, humble submission oozes in their eyes! What do they really want? At any rate to represent righteousness, love, wisdom, superiority, that is the ambition of these lowest ones, these sick ones! And how clever does such an ambition make them!

You cannot, in fact, but admire the counterfeiter dexterity with which the stamp of virtue, even the ring, the golden ring of virtue, is here imitated. They have taken a lease of virtue absolutely for short, themselves, have these weaklings and how to dollars, wretched invalids, there is no doubt of it; We alone are the good, the righteous, so do they speak, we alone are the homines bonce voluntatis . They stalk about in our midst as living reproaches, as warnings to us—as though health, fitness, strength, pride, the sensation of power, were really vicious things in essay themselves, for which one would have some day to do penance, bitter penance. Oh, how they themselves are ready in their hearts to exact penance, how they thirst after being hangmen ! Among them is an abundance of revengeful ones disguised as judges, who ever mouth the word righteousness like a venomous spittle—with mouth, I say, always pursed, always ready to spit at everything, which does not wear a discontented look, but is of good cheer as it goes on its way. Among them, again, is that most loathsome species of the vain, the lying abortions, who make a point of representing beautiful souls, and essay, perchance of bringing to the market as purity of short essay on utilitarianism heart their distorted sensualism swathed in verses and other bandages; the species of self-comforters and masturbators of their own souls. The sick man's will to represent some form or other of superiority, his instinct for crooked paths, which lead to a tyranny over the healthy—where can it not be found, this will to ap essays scored power of the very weakest? The sick woman especially: no one surpasses her in short essay on utilitarianism refinements for ruling, oppressing, tyrannising.

The sick woman, moreover, spares nothing living, nothing dead; she grubs up again the most buried things (the Bogos say, Woman is a hyena). Look into the background of every family, of every body, of every community: everywhere the thesis on software testing fight of the sick against the healthy—a silent fight for short, the most part with minute poisoned powders, with pin-pricks, with spiteful grimaces of patience, but also at times with that diseased pharisaism of pure pantomime, which plays for the choice role of righteous indignation. Right into the hallowed chambers of knowledge can it make itself heard, can this hoarse yelping of sick hounds, this, rabid lying and frenzy of such noble Pharisees (I remind readers, who have ears, once more of that Berlin apostle of revenge, Eugen Duhring, who makes most disreputable and scored 9, revolting use in all present-day Germany of moral refuse; Duhring, the paramount moral blusterer that there is to-day, even among his own kind, the Anti-Semites). They are all men of resentment, are these physiological distortions and short on utilitarianism, worm-riddled objects, a whole quivering kingdom of burrowing revenge, indefatigable and insatiable in its outbursts against the happy, and equally so in disguises for revenge, in pretexts for revenge: when will they really reach their final, fondest, most sublime triumph of revenge? At that time, doubtless, when they succeed in pushing their own misery, in fact, all misery, into essay the consciousness of the happy: so that the latter begin one day to be ashamed of their happiness, and perchance say to themselves when they meet, It is a shame to be happy; there is too much misery! . . . But there could not possibly be a greater and more fatal misunderstanding than that of the happy, the fit, the strong in body and soul, beginning in short essay on utilitarianism this way to how to spend dollars doubt their right to happiness. Away with this perverse world! Away with this shameful soddenness of sentiment! Preventing the on utilitarianism sick making the healthy sick—for that is what such a soddenness comes to—this ought to be our supreme object in the world—but for this it is mother love, above all essential that the healthy should remain separated from the sick, that they should even guard themselves from the look of the sick, that they should not even associate with the essay sick. Or may it, perchance, be their mission to be nurses or doctors? But they could not mistake and disown their mission more grossly—the higher must not degrade itself to celebrated essay the hanging be the tool of the lower, the pathos of distance must to all eternity keep their missions also separate. The right of the happy to existence, the right of essay on utilitarianism bells with a full tone over the discordant cracked bells, is verily a thousand times greater: they alone are the sureties of the future, they alone are bound to man's future.

What they can, what they must do, that can the sick never do, should never do! but if they are to be enabled to do what only they must do, how can they possibly be free to play the doctor, the comforter, the Saviour of the ap essays that scored 9 sick? . . . Short Essay! And therefore good air! good air! and orwell celebrated 1931, away, at any rate, from the neighbourhood of all the madhouses and hospitals of civilisation! And therefore good company, our own company, or solitude, if it must be so! but away, at any rate, from the evil fumes of essay on utilitarianism internal corruption and the secret worm-eaten state of the sick! that, forsooth, my friends, we may defend ourselves, at any rate for still a time, against the two worst plagues that could have been reserved for us—against the great nausea with man! against the great pity for man! If you have understood in all their depths—and I demand that you should grasp them profoundly and understand them profoundly—the reasons for the impossibility of its being the business of the healthy to nurse the sick, to orwell celebrated make the short sick healthy, it follows that you have grasped this further necessity—the necessity of doctors and nurses who themselves are sick . And now we have and hold with both our hands the essence of the 1931 essay ascetic priest. The ascetic priest must be accepted by us as the predestined saviour, herdsman, and champion of the sick herd: thereby do we first understand his awful historic mission. The lordship over sufferers is his kingdom, to that points his instinct, in that he finds his own special art, his master-skill, his kind of happiness. He must himself be sick, he must be kith and kin to the sick and the abortions so as to understand them, so as to arrive at an understanding with them; but he must also be strong, even more master of himself than of others, impregnable, forsooth, in his will for power, so as to acquire the trust and essay on utilitarianism, the awe of the essay on heros weak, so that he can be their hold, bulwark, prop, compulsion, overseer, tyrant, god. He has to protect them, protect his herds— against short essay whom? Against the healthy, doubtless also against the envy towards the healthy.

He must be the natural adversary and scorner of every rough, stormy, reinless, hard, violently-predatory health and power. The priest is the first form of the more delicate animal that scorns more easily than it hates. He will not be spared the waging of war with the beasts of prey, a war of guile (of spirit) rather than of force, as is how to spend one million dollars, self-evident—he will in certain cases find it necessary to conjure up out of himself, or at essay on utilitarianism any rate to represent practically a new type of the beast of prey—a new animal monstrosity in which the polar bear, the supple, cold, crouching panther, and, not least important, the fox, are joined together in a trinity as fascinating as it is fearsome. If necessity exacts it, then will he come on the scene with bearish seriousness, venerable, wise, cold, full of treacherous superiority, as the herald and mouthpiece of thesis on software mysterious powers, sometimes going among even the other kind of on utilitarianism beasts of prey, determined as he is to sow on their soil, wherever he can, suffering, discord, self-contradiction, and thesis, only too sure of his art, always to be lord of sufferers at all times. He brings with him, doubtless, salve and balsam; but before he can play the physician he must first wound; so, while he soothes the pain which the wound makes, he at the same time poisons the wound . Well versed is he in this above all things, is this wizard and on utilitarianism, wild beast tamer, in whose vicinity everything healthy must needs become ill, and everything ill must needs become tame. George Orwell Celebrated! He protects, in sooth, his sick herd well enough, does this strange herdsman; he protects them also against themselves, against the sparks (even in the centre of the herd) of short wickedness, knavery, malice, and all the other ills that the plaguey and the sick are heir to; he fights with cunning, hardness, and stealth against 9 anarchy and against the ever imminent break-up inside the herd, where resentment , that most dangerous blasting-stuff and explosive, ever accumulates and accumulates.

Getting rid of this blasting-stuff in such a way that it does not blow up the herd and the herdsman, that is his real feat, his supreme utility; if you wish to comprise in the shortest formula the value of the priestly life, it would be correct to say the priest is the diverter of the course of resentment . Every sufferer, in short on utilitarianism fact, searches instinctively for a cause of his suffering; to put it more exactly, a doer,—to put it still more precisely, a sentient responsible doer ,—in brief, something living, on which, either actually or in effigy , he can on any pretext vent his emotions. For the venting of emotions is the sufferer's greatest attempt at alleviation, that is to on software say, stupefaction , his mechanically desired narcotic against pain of essay on utilitarianism any kind. It is in ap essays that scored 9 this phenomenon alone that is found, according to my judgment, the real physiological cause of resentment, revenge, and essay, their family is to essay on heros be found—that is, in a demand for short, the deadening of pain through emotion : this cause is essay for christmas, generally, but in my view very erroneously, looked for in the defensive parry of a bare protective principle of reaction, of a reflex movement in the case of essay on utilitarianism any sudden hurt and essay on heros, danger, after the manner that a decapitated frog still moves in on utilitarianism order to get away from a corrosive acid. But the difference is fundamental. In one case the object is to prevent being hurt any more; in the other case the object is to deaden a racking, insidious, nearly unbearable pain by a more violent emotion of any kind whatsoever, and at any rate for the time being to drive it out of the consciousness—for this purpose an emotion is needed, as wild an emotion as possible, and to excite that emotion some excuse or other is needed. It must be somebody's fault that I feel bad—this kind of reasoning is peculiar to all invalids, and is but the more pronounced, the more ignorant they remain of the real cause of their feeling bad, the how to spend one million physiological cause (the cause may lie in a disease of the nervous sympathicus , or in essay an excessive secretion of bile, or in ap essays 9 a want of sulphate and phosphate of potash in the blood, or in pressure in short on utilitarianism the bowels which stops the circulation of the that scored blood, or in degeneration of the ovaries, and so forth). All sufferers have an awful resourcefulness and ingenuity in finding excuses for painful emotions; they even enjoy their jealousy, their broodings over base actions and apparent injuries, they burrow through the intestines of their past and present in their search for obscure mysteries, wherein they will be at liberty to wallow in a torturing suspicion and get drunk on the venom of their own malice—they tear open the short essay on utilitarianism oldest wounds, they make themselves bleed from the scars which have long been healed, they make evil-doers out of essay friends, wife, child, and everything which is nearest to them. On Utilitarianism! I suffer: it must be somebody's fault—so thinks every sick sheep. But his herdsman, the ascetic priest, says to him, Quite so, my sheep, it must be the fault of some one; but thou thyself art that same one, it is all the fault of thyself alone— it is all the fault of thyself alone against thyself : that is essay how to spend, bold enough, false enough, but one thing is at least attained; thereby, as I have said, the course of resentment is— diverted . You can see now what the remedial instinct of life has at least tried to short on utilitarianism effect, according to my conception, through the ascetic priest, and the purpose for which he had to employ a temporary tyranny of such paradoxical and anomalous ideas as guilt, sin, sinfulness, corruption, damnation. What was done was to make the sick harmless up to a certain point, to destroy the on software testing incurable by means of short on utilitarianism themselves, to turn the milder cases severely on to themselves, to give their resentment a backward direction (man needs but one thing), and to exploit similarly the bad instincts of all sufferers with a view to self-discipline, self-surveillance, self-mastery. Essay Mother! It is short essay, obvious that there can be no question at all in the case of a medication of this kind, a mere emotional medication, of any real healing of the scored 9 sick in the physiological sense; it cannot even for a moment be asserted that in on utilitarianism this connection the instinct of life has taken healing as its goal and purpose.

On the one hand, a kind of congestion and organisation of the sick (the word Church is the most popular name for it); on the other, a kind of provisional safeguarding of the comparatively healthy, the for christmas more perfect specimens, the cleavage of a rift between healthy and sick—for a long time that was all! and it was much! it was very much! I am proceeding, as you see, in this essay, from an hypothesis which, as far as such readers as I want are concerned, does not require to be proved; the hypothesis that sinfulness in man is essay on utilitarianism, not an essay on heros, actual fact, but rather merely the short essay on utilitarianism interpretation of a fact, of a physiological discomfort,—a discomfort seen through a moral religious perspective which is no longer binding upon us. The fact, therefore, that any one feels guilty, sinful, is certainly not yet any proof that he is right in feeling so, any more than any one is healthy simply because he feels healthy. George! Remember the essay celebrated witch-ordeals: in those days the most acute and humane judges had no doubt but that in these cases they were confronted with guilt,—the witches themselves had no doubt on the point ,—and yet the guilt was lacking. Let me elaborate this hypothesis: I do not for a minute accept the very pain in the soul as a real fact, but only as an essay about how to one million dollars, explanation (a casual explanation) of facts that could not hitherto be precisely formulated; I regard it therefore as something as yet absolutely in the air and devoid of scientific cogency—just a nice fat word in the place of a lean note of interrogation. When any one fails to get rid of his pain in the soul, the cause is, speaking crudely, to be found not in his soul but more probably in his stomach (speaking crudely, I repeat, but by no means wishing thereby that you should listen to me or understand me in a crude spirit). A strong and well-constituted man digests his experiences (deeds and misdeeds all included) just as he digests his meats, even when he has some tough morsels to swallow. If he fails to relieve himself of an experience, this kind of indigestion is quite as much physiological as the other indigestion—and indeed, in more ways than one, simply one of the results of the other.

You can adopt such a theory, and yet entre nous be nevertheless the strongest opponent of all materialism. But is he really a physician , this ascetic priest? We already understand why we are scarcely allowed to call him a physician, however much he likes to feel a saviour and essay, let himself be worshipped as a saviour. [5] It is essay mother, only the actual suffering, the discomfort of the sufferer, which he combats, not its cause, not the actual state of sickness—this needs must constitute our most radical objection to priestly medication. But just once put yourself into short on utilitarianism that point of view, of which the for christmas priests have a monopoly, you will find it hard to on utilitarianism exhaust your amazement, at what from that standpoint he has completely seen, sought, and found. The mitigation of suffering, every kind of consoling—all this manifests itself as his very genius: with what ingenuity has he interpreted his mission of that scored consoler, with what aplomb and audacity has he chosen weapons necessary for the part. Christianity in particular should be dubbed a great treasure-chamber of ingenious consolations,—such a store of refreshing, soothing, deadening drugs has it accumulated within itself; so many of the most dangerous and short on utilitarianism, daring expedients has it hazarded; with such subtlety, refinement.

Oriental refinement, has it divined what emotional stimulants can conquer, at that scored any rate for short on utilitarianism, a time, the about mother love deep depression, the leaden fatigue, the black melancholy of physiological cripples—for, speaking generally, all religions are mainly concerned with fighting a certain fatigue and heaviness that has infected everything. Essay! You can regard it as prima facie probable that in certain places in essay about mother love the world there was almost bound to prevail from essay on utilitarianism time to time among large masses of the population a sense of physiological depression , which, however, owing to their lack of physiological knowledge, did not appear to their consciousness as such, so that consequently its cause and its cure can only be sought and essayed in the science of moral psychology (this, in fact, is my most general formula for what is generally called a religion ). Such a feeling of depression can have the about one million dollars most diverse origins; it may be the result of the crossing of too heterogeneous races (or of short essay classes—genealogical and racial differences are also brought out in the classes: the European Weltschmerz, the Pessimism of the scored nineteenth century, is really the short essay on utilitarianism result of an absurd and sudden class-mixture); it may be brought about by a mistaken emigration—a race falling into a climate for which its power of love adaptation is insufficient (the case of the Indians in India); it may be the effect of old age and fatigue (the Parisian pessimism from 1850 onwards); it may be a wrong diet (the alcoholism of the Middle Ages, the nonsense of vegetarianism—which, however, have in their favour the authority of Sir Christopher in Shakespeare); it may be blood-deterioration, malaria, syphilis, and the like (German depression after the Thirty Years' War, which infected half Germany with evil diseases, and thereby paved the way for German servility, for German pusillanimity). In such a case there is essay, invariably recourse to a war on a grand scale with the feeling of depression; let us inform ourselves briefly on its most important practices and phases (I leave on one side, as stands to reason, the actual philosophic war against the feeling of thesis depression which is usually simultaneous—it is essay, interesting enough, but too absurd, too practically negligible, too full of cobwebs, too much of a hole-and-corner affair, especially when pain is proved to be a mistake, on the naif hypothesis that pain must needs vanish when the mistake underlying it is recognised—but behold! it does anything but vanish . On Software! . Short Essay On Utilitarianism! .). That dominant depression is primarily fought by weapons which reduce the consciousness of life itself to essay on heros the lowest degree. Wherever possible, no more wishes, no more wants; shun everything which produces emotion, which produces blood (eating no salt, the fakir hygiene); no love; no hate; equanimity; no revenge; no getting rich; no work; begging! as far as possible, no woman, or as little woman as possible; as far as the intellect is essay on utilitarianism, concerned, Pascal's principle, il faut s'abetir. [6] To put the result in ethical and psychological language, self-annihilation, sanctification; to put it in physiological language, hypnotism—the attempt to find some approximate human equivalent for what hibernation is for certain animals, for what ( aestivation is for many tropical plants, a minimum of assimilation and metabolism in which life just manages to subsist without really coming into the consciousness. Essay On Heros! An amazing amount of human energy has been devoted to short essay on utilitarianism this object—perhaps uselessly?

There cannot be the slightest doubt but that such sportsmen of saintliness, in whom at times nearly every nation has abounded, have really found a genuine relief from that which they have combated with such a rigorous training —in countless cases they really escaped by the help of their system of hypnotism away from deep physiological depression; their method is consequently counted among the essay how to spend one million dollars most universal ethnological facts. Short Essay! Similarly it is improper to consider such a plan for starving the physical element and the desires, as in essay itself a symptom of insanity (as a clumsy species of roast-beef-eating freethinkers and Sir Christophers are fain to short on utilitarianism do); all the more certain is it that their method can and does pave the essay way to all kinds of short essay mental disturbances, for instance, inner lights (as far as the case of Hesychasts of Mount Athos), auditory and visual hallucinations, voluptuous ecstasies and effervescences of sensualism (the history of essay St. Short Essay On Utilitarianism! Theresa). Ap Essays Scored 9! The explanation of such events given by the victims is always the short acme of essay on heros fanatical falsehood; this is self-evident. Note well, however, the tone of implicit gratitude that rings in the very will for an explanation of such a character.

The supreme state, salvation itself, that final goal of universal hypnosis and peace, is always regarded by them as the mystery of mysteries, which even the most supreme symbols are inadequate to express; it is regarded as an entry and homecoming to the essence of things, as a liberation from all illusions, as knowledge, as truth, as being, as an escape from every end, every wish, every action, as something even beyond Good and Evil. Good and short essay on utilitarianism, Evil, quoth the Buddhists, both are fetters. The perfect man is master of them both. The done and that scored, the undone, quoth the disciple of the short on utilitarianism Vedanta, do him no hurt; the good and the evil he shakes from off him, sage that he is; his kingdom suffers no more from any act; good and about, evil, he goes beyond them both.—An absolutely Indian conception, as much Brahmanist as Buddhist. Neither in the Indian nor in the Christian doctrine is this Redemption regarded as attainable by means of virtue and moral improvement, however high they may place the essay on utilitarianism value of the hypnotic efficiency of virtue: keep clear on this point—indeed it simply corresponds with the facts. The fact that they remained true on this point is perhaps to be regarded as the best specimen of realism in the three great religions, absolutely soaked as they are with morality, with this one exception. For those who know, there is no duty. Redemption is not attained by the acquisition of virtues; for essay about, redemption consists in on utilitarianism being one with Brahman, who is incapable of acquiring any perfection; and equally little does it consist in the giving up of faults , for the Brahman, unity with whom is what constitutes redemption, is eternally pure (these passages are from the about love Commentaries of the Cankara, quoted from the first real European expert of the Indian philosophy, my friend Paul Deussen). We wish, therefore, to pay honour to the idea of redemption in the great religions, but it is somewhat hard to on utilitarianism remain serious in view of the appreciation meted out to the deep sleep by these exhausted pessimists who are too tired even to dream—to the about spend dollars deep sleep considered, that is, as already a fusing into Brahman, as the attainment of the unio mystica with God. When he has completely gone to sleep, says on this point the oldest and most venerable script, and come to essay perfect rest, so that he sees no more any vision, then, oh dear one, is he united with Being, he has entered into his own self—encircled by mother love, the Self with its absolute knowledge, he has no more any consciousness of that which is without or of that which is within.

Day and night cross not these bridges, nor age, nor death, nor suffering, nor good deeds, nor evil deeds. In deep sleep, say similarly the believers in this deepest of the three great religions, does the soul lift itself from short essay out this body of ours, enters the supreme light and stands out therein in its true shape: therein is it the supreme spirit itself, which travels about, while it rests and plays and mother, enjoys itself, whether with women, or chariots, or friends; there do its thoughts turn no more back to this appanage of a body, to which the short on utilitarianism 'prana' (the vital breath) is harnessed like a beast of burden to the cart. None the for christmas less we will take care to realise (as we did when discussing redemption) that in spite of all its pomps of Oriental extravagance this simply expresses the same criticism on life as did the clear, cold, Greekly cold, but yet suffering Epicurus. The hypnotic sensation of nothingness, the peace of deepest sleep, anaesthesia in short—that is what passes with the sufferers and the absolutely depressed for, forsooth, their supreme good, their value of values; that is what must be treasured by them as something positive, be felt by them as the essence of the Positive (according to the same logic of the feelings, nothingness is in all pessimistic religions called God). Such a hypnotic deadening of sensibility and susceptibility to essay on utilitarianism pain, which presupposes somewhat rare powers, especially courage, contempt of opinion, intellectual stoicism, is essay on heros, less frequent than another and certainly easier training which is tried against states of depression. I mean mechancal activity . Short! It is indisputable that a suffering existence can be thereby considerably alleviated. On Software! This fact is short, called to-day by the somewhat ignoble title of the Blessing of work.

The alleviation consists in the attention of the sufferer being absolutely diverted from suffering, in the incessant monopoly of the essay on heros consciousness by action, so that consequently there is little room left for suffering—for narrow is it, this chamber of human consciousness! Mechanical activity and its corollaries, such as absolute regularity, punctilious unreasoning obedience, the short on utilitarianism chronic routine of life, the complete occupation of essay on heros time, a certain liberty to be impersonal, nay, a training in impersonality, self-forgetfulness, incuria sui [7] —with what thoroughness and expert subtlety have all these methods been exploited by the ascetic priest in his war with pain! When he has to tackle sufferers of the lower orders, slaves, or prisoners (or women, who for the most part are a compound of labour-slave and prisoner), all he has to do is to juggle a little with the names, and to essay on utilitarianism rechristen, so as to essay about spend make them see henceforth a benefit, a comparative happiness, in objects which they hated—the slave's discontent with his lot was at any rate not invented by short on utilitarianism, the priests. An even more popular means of essay on heros fighting depression is the ordaining of a little joy , which is easily accessible and can be made into essay on utilitarianism a rule; this medication is essay mother, frequently used in conjunction with the short essay former ones. The most frequent form in which joy is prescribed as a cure is the joy in producing joy (such as doing good, giving presents, alleviating, helping, exhorting, comforting, praising, treating with distinction); together with the prescription of love your neighbour. The ascetic priest prescribes, though in the most cautious doses, what is practically a stimulation of the strongest and most life-assertive impulse—the Will for Power. The happiness involved in the smallest superiority which is the for christmas concomitant of all benefiting, helping, extolling, making one's self useful, is the most ample consolation, of which, if they are well-advised, physiological distortions avail themselves: in other cases they hurt each other, and naturally in obedience to essay the same radical instinct. An investigation of the origin of Christianity in the Roman world shows that co-operative unions for for christmas, poverty, sickness, and burial sprang up in the lowest stratum of contemporary society, amid which the chief antidote against short depression, the little joy experienced in mutual benefits, was deliberately fostered.

Perchance this was then a novelty, a real discovery? This conjuring up of the will for cooperation, for family organisation, for communal life, for Caenacula, necessarily brought the Will for Power, which had been already infinitesimally stimulated, to a new and much fuller manifestation. The herd organisation is a genuine advance and triumph in the fight with depression. With the growth of the community there matures even to individuals a new interest, which often enough takes him out of the more personal element in his discontent, his aversion to himself, the despectus sui of Geulincx. All sick and ap essays, diseased people strive instinctively after a herd-organisation, out of a desire to shake off their sense of oppressive discomfort and weakness; the ascetic priest divines this instinct and promotes it; wherever a herd exists it is the instinct of weakness which has wished for the herd, and essay on utilitarianism, the cleverness of the priests which has organised it, for, mark this: by essay on heros, an equally natural necessity the strong strive as much for short essay on utilitarianism, isolation as the weak for union : when the former bind themselves it is only with a view to an aggressive joint action and joint satisfaction of orwell celebrated the hanging their Will for Power, much against short the wishes of their individual consciences; the latter, on the contrary, range themselves together with positive delight in such a muster—their instincts are as much gratified thereby as the instincts of the born master (that is, the essay on heros solitary beast-of-prey species of man) are disturbed and wounded to short on utilitarianism the quick by organisation. There is always lurking beneath every oligarchy—such is the universal lesson of history—the desire for tyranny. Every oligarchy is continually quivering with the tension of the effort required by celebrated 1931, each individual to keep mastering this desire. (Such, e.g. , was the Greek; Plato shows it in a hundred places, Plato, who knew his contemporaries—and himself .) The methods employed by the ascetic priest, which we have already learnt to know—stifling of all vitality, mechanical energy, the little joy, and especially the method of love your neighbour herd-organisation, the awaking of the communal consciousness of power, to such a pitch that the individual's disgust with himself becomes eclipsed by short essay, his delight in the thriving of the community—these are, according to modern standards, the innocent methods employed in the fight with depression; let us turn now to the more interesting topic of the guilty methods. The guilty methods spell one thing: to produce emotional excess —which is used as the most efficacious anesthetic against their depressing state of protracted pain; this is why priestly ingenuity has proved quite inexhaustible in thinking out this one question: By what means can you produce an emotional excess? This sounds harsh: it is manifest that it would sound nicer and would grate on one's ears less, if I were to say, forsooth: The ascetic priest made use at all times of the enthusiasm contained in thesis on software testing all strong emotions. Essay On Utilitarianism! But what is the good of still soothing the delicate ears of our modern effeminates?

What is the about one million dollars good on our side of budging one single inch before their verbal Pecksniffianism? For us psychologists to do that would be at once practical Pecksniffianism , apart from the fact of its nauseating us. The good taste (others might say, the righteousness) of a psychologist nowadays consists, if at all, in combating the shamefully moralised language with which all modern judgments on men and things are smeared. For, do not deceive yourself: what constitutes the chief characteristic of modern souls and of modern books is not the lying, but the innocence which is part and parcel of their intellectual dishonesty. The inevitable running up against this innocence everywhere constitutes the most distasteful feature of the somewhat dangerous business which a modern psychologist has to undertake: it is a part of our great danger—it is a road which perhaps leads straight to the great nausea—I know quite well the purpose which all modern books will and can serve (granted that they last, which I am not afraid of, and granted equally that there is to short essay on utilitarianism be at some future day a generation with a more rigid, more severe, and healthier taste)—the function which all modernity generally will serve with posterity: that of an emetic,—and this by reason of ap essays 9 its moral sugariness and falsity, its ingrained feminism, which it is pleased to call Idealism, and at any rate believes to be idealism. Our cultured men of essay on utilitarianism to-day, our good men, do not lie—that is scored 9, true; but it does not redound to essay their honour!

The real lie, the genuine, determined, honest lie (on whose value you can listen to mother Plato) would prove too tough and strong an article for them by a long way; it would be asking them to essay on utilitarianism do what people have been forbidden to ask them to do, to open their eyes to their own selves, and to learn to distinguish between true and false in their own selves. The dishonest lie alone suits them: everything which fools a good man is essay about love, perfectly incapable of any other attitude to anything than that of a dishonourable liar, an short essay on utilitarianism, absolute liar, but none the less an thesis, innocent liar, a blue-eyed liar, a virtuous liar. On Utilitarianism! These good men, they are all now tainted with morality through and george orwell celebrated 1931 the hanging, through, and as far as honour is short, concerned they are disgraced and corrupted for all eternity. Which of them could stand a further truth about man? or, put more tangibly, which of them could put up with a true biography? One or two instances: Lord Byron composed a most personal autobiography, but Thomas Moore was too good for it; he burnt his friend's papers. Essay For Christmas! Dr. Gwinner, Schopenhauer's executor, is said to have done the on utilitarianism same; for Schopenhauer as well wrote much about himself, and perhaps also against himself (??? ?????). The virtuous American Thayer, Beethoven's biographer, suddenly stopped his work: he had come to a certain point in george the hanging that honourable and simple life, and could stand it no longer. Moral: What sensible man nowadays writes one honest word about himself? He must already belong to the Order of Holy Foolhardiness.

We are promised an autobiography of Richard Wagner; who doubts but that it would be a clever autobiography? Think, forsooth, of the grotesque horror which the Catholic priest Janssen aroused in short essay Germany with his inconceivably square and harmless pictures of the testing German Reformation; what wouldn't people do if some real psychologist were to tell us about a genuine Luther, tell us, not with the moralist simplicity of a country priest or the on utilitarianism sweet and cautious modesty of a Protestant historian, but say with the fearlessness of a Taine, that springs from ap essays scored 9 force of character and not from essay on utilitarianism a prudent toleration of force. Essay For Christmas! (The Germans, by the bye, have already produced the classic specimen of this toleration—they may well be allowed to reckon him as one of their own, in Leopold Ranke, that born classical advocate of short essay on utilitarianism every causa fortior [8] , that cleverest of all the clever opportunists.) But you will soon understand me.—Putting it shortly, there is reason enough, is there not, for us psychologists nowadays never to get away from a certain mistrust of our own selves? Probably even we ourselves are still too good for our work; probably, whatever contempt we feel for this popular craze for about mother, morality, we ourselves are perhaps none the less its victims, prey, and slaves; probably it infects even us . Of what was that diplomat warning us, when he said to his colleagues: Let us especially mistrust our first impulses, gentlemen! they are almost always good? So should nowadays every psychologist talk to his colleagues. Essay On Utilitarianism! And thus we get back to our problem, which in point of fact does require from us a certain severity, a certain mistrust especially against first impulses. The ascetic ideal in the service of projected emotional excess: —he who remembers the previous essay will already partially anticipate the essential meaning compressed into these above ten words. The thorough unswitching of the human soul, the plunging of about love it into short terror, frost, ardour, rapture, so as to free it, as through some lightning shock, from all the smallness and pettiness of unhappiness, depression, and discomfort: what ways lead to this goal? And which of these ways does so most safely? . . . At bottom all great emotions have this power, provided that they find a sudden outlet—emotions such as rage, fear, lust, revenge, hope, triumph, despair, cruelty; and, in essay sooth, the ascetic priest has had no scruples in taking into his service the whole pack of essay hounds that rage in the human kennel, unleashing now these and now those, with the same constant of waking man out of his protracted melancholy, of chasing away, at any rate for a time, his dull pain, his shrinking misery, but always under the sanction of a religious interpretation and justification. This emotional excess has subsequently to thesis on software testing be paid for , this is self-evident—it makes the ill more ill—and therefore this kind of remedy for pain is according to modern standards a guilty kind.

The dictates of fairness, however, require that we should all the more emphasise the fact that this remedy is essay, applied with a good conscience , that the ascetic priest has prescribed it in the most implicit belief in its utility and indispensability;—often enough almost collapsing in the presence of the pain which he created;—that we should similarly emphasise the fact that the violent physiological revenges of that such excesses, even perhaps the mental disturbances, are not absolutely inconsistent with the general tenor of this kind of short on utilitarianism remedy; this remedy, which, as we have shown previously, is not for the purpose of healing diseases, but of fighting the unhappiness of that depression, the alleviation and deadening of which was its object. The object was consequently achieved. The keynote by which the ascetic priest was enabled to get every kind of agonising and ecstatic music to play on the fibres of the human soul—was, as every one knows, the exploitation of the feeling of guilt. I have already indicated in the previous essay the origin of orwell 1931 the hanging this feeling—as a piece of animal psychology and nothing else: we were thus confronted with the feeling of guilt, in its crude state, as it were. It was first in the hands of the priest, real artist that he was in the feeling of guilt, that it took shape—oh, what a shape! Sin—for that is the name of the new priestly version of the animal bad-conscience (the inverted cruelty)— has up to the present been the greatest event in the history of the diseased soul; in sin we find the most perilous and fatal masterpiece of religious interpretation. Imagine man, suffering from himself, some way or other but at any rate physiologically, perhaps like an animal shut up in a cage, not clear as to the why and the wherefore! imagine him in his desire for reasons—reasons bring relief—in his desire again for remedies, narcotics at last, consulting one, who knows even the occult—and see, lo and behold, he gets a hint from his wizard, the short essay on utilitarianism ascetic priest, his first hint on the cause of his trouble: he must search for it in himself , in his guiltiness, in a piece of the past, he must understand his very suffering as a state of punishment . He has heard, he has understood, has the unfortunate: he is now in the plight of a hen round which a line has been drawn. He never gets out of the circle of lines. The sick man has been turned into about mother the sinner—and now for a few thousand years we never get away from the sight of this new invalid, of a sinner—shall we ever get away from it?—wherever we just look, everywhere the hypnotic gaze of the sinner always moving in one direction (in the direction of guilt, the short only cause of suffering); everywhere the evil conscience, this greuliche Thier, [9] to use Luther's language; everywhere rumination over the past, a distorted view of action, the george orwell 1931 gaze of the green-eyed monster turned on all action: everywhere the wilful misunderstanding of suffering, its transvaluation into feelings of guilt, fear of short retribution; everywhere the essay how to one million scourge, the hairy shirt, the starving body, contrition; everywhere the sinner breaking himself on the ghastly wheel of a restless and morbidly eager conscience; everywhere mute pain, extreme fear, the agony of a tortured heart, the spasms of an unknown happiness, the shriek for redemption. In point of fact, thanks to short essay this system of procedure, the old depression, dullness, and fatigue were absolutely conquered, life itself became very interesting again, awake, eternally awake, sleepless, glowing, burnt away, exhausted and yet not tired—such was the figure cut by man, the sinner, who was initiated into these mysteries.

This grand old wizard of an ascetic priest fighting with depression—he had clearly triumphed, his kingdom had come: men no longer grumbled at pain, men panted after pain: More pain! More pain! So for centuries on end shrieked the demand of thesis on software his acolytes and initiates. Every emotional excess which hurt; everything which broke, overthrew, crushed, transported, ravished; the mystery of torture-chambers, the ingenuity of hell itself—all this was now discovered, divined, exploited, all this was at on utilitarianism the service of the wizard, all this served to promote the essay about spend one million dollars triumph of his ideal, the ascetic ideal. Short Essay! My kingdom is not of this world, quoth he, both at the beginning and at the end: had he still the right to essay on heros talk like that?—Goethe has maintained that there are only thirty-six tragic situations: we would infer from that, did we not know otherwise, that Goethe was no ascetic priest. Essay! He—knows more. So far as all this kind of priestly medicine-mongering, the guilty kind, is concerned, every word of criticism is superfluous. As for the suggestion that emotional excess of the type, which in about how to spend one million these cases the ascetic priest is fain to on utilitarianism order to his sick patients (under the most sacred euphemism, as is obvious, and for christmas, equally impregnated with the sanctity of his purpose), has ever really been of use to any sick man, who, forsooth, would feel inclined to maintain a proposition of essay that character? At any rate, some understanding should be come to as to the expression be of use.

If you only wish to express that such a system of treatment has reformed man, I do not gainsay it: I merely add that reformed conveys to my mind much as tamed, weakened, discouraged, refined, daintified, emasculated (and thus it means almost as much as injured). But when you have to deal principally with sick, depressed, and oppressed creatures, such a system, even granted that it makes the ill better, under any circumstances also makes them more ill : ask the mad-doctors the invariable result of a methodical application of penance-torture, contritions, and essay, salvation ecstasies. On Utilitarianism! Similarly ask history. In every body politic where the ascetic priest has established this treatment of the sick, disease has on every occasion spread with sinister speed throughout its length and breadth. What was always the about one million result?

A shattered nervous system, in addition to the existing malady, and this in the greatest as in the smallest, in the individuals as in masses. We find, in consequence of the penance and redemption-training, awful epileptic epidemics, the greatest known to short essay history, such as the St. Vitus and St. John dances of the Middle Ages; we find, as another phase of its after-effect, frightful mutilations and chronic depressions, by means of about which the temperament of short on utilitarianism a nation or a city (Geneva, Bale) is turned once for all into its opposite;—this training , again, is responsible for the witch-hysteria, a phenomenon analogous to somnambulism (eight great epidemic outbursts of this only between 1564 and 1605);—we find similarly in its train those delirious death-cravings of large masses, whose awful shriek, evviva la morte! [10] was heard over the whole of Europe, now interrupted by voluptuous variations and anon by a rage for destruction, just as the same emotional sequence with the same intermittencies and sudden changes is now universally observed in every case where the ascetic doctrine of sin scores once more a great success (religious neurosis appears as a manifestation of the devil, there is no doubt of it. What is it? Quaeritur ). Speaking generally, the ascetic ideal and its sublime-moral cult, this most ingenious, reckless, and perilous systematisation of all methods of emotional excess, is writ large in a dreadful and unforgettable fashion on the whole history of man, and unfortunately not only on history. Essay Spend One Million! I was scarcely able to put forward any other element which attacked the health and race efficiency of Europeans with more destructive power than did this ideal; it can be dubbed, without exaggeration, the real fatality in the history of the on utilitarianism health of the European man. At the most you can merely draw a comparison with the specifically German influence: I mean the alcohol poisoning of Europe, which up to the present has kept pace exactly with the about how to dollars political and racial predominance of the Germans (where they inoculated their blood, there too did they inoculate their vice). Third in the series comes syphilis— magno sed proximo intervallo. The ascetic priest has, wherever he has obtained the mastery, corrupted the health of the essay soul, he has consequently also corrupted taste in artibus et litteris [11] —he corrupts it still.

Consequently? I hope I shall be granted this consequently; at any rate, I am not going to essay prove it first. One solitary indication, it concerns the arch-book of Christian literature, their real model, their book-in-itself. In the essay on utilitarianism very midst of the Graeco-Roman splendour, which was also a splendour of essay one million dollars books, face to face with an ancient world of writings which had not yet fallen into decay and essay, ruin, at essay on heros a time when certain books were still to be read, to possess which we would give nowadays half our literature in exchange, at that time the simplicity and vanity of Christian agitators (they are generally called Fathers of the Church) dared to declare: We too have our classical literature, we do not need that of the Greeks —and meanwhile they proudly pointed to essay their books of legends, their letters of apostles, and their apologetic tractlets, just in the same way that to-day the for christmas English Salvation Army wages its fight against short essay on utilitarianism Shakespeare and other heathens with an analous literature. George 1931 The Hanging! You already guess it, I do not like the New Testament; it almost upsets me that I stand so isolated in my taste so far as concerns this valued, this over-valued Scripture; the short essay on utilitarianism taste of two thousand years is against me; but what boots it! Here I stand! I cannot help myself [12] —I have the courage of my bad taste. The Old Testament—yes, that is something quite different, all honour to essay on heros the Old Testament! I find therein great men, an on utilitarianism, heroic landscape, and one of the rarest phenomena in the world, the incomparable naivete of the strong heart ; further still, I find a people.

In the New, on the contrary, just a hostel of petty sects, pure rococo of the soul, twisting angles and fancy touches, nothing but conventicle air, not to thesis on software forget an occasional whiff of bucolic sweetness which appertains to short essay on utilitarianism the epoch ( and the Roman province) and is less Jewish than Hellenistic. Essay For Christmas! Meekness and short on utilitarianism, braggadocio cheek by jowl; an emotional garrulousness that almost deafens; passionate hysteria, but no passion; painful pantomime; here manifestly every one lacked good breeding. Essay How To! How dare any one make so much fuss about their little failings as do these pious little fellows! No one cares a straw about it—let alone God. Finally they actually wish to short essay have the crown of eternal life, do all these little provincials! In return for what, in sooth? For what end? It is impossible to carry insolence any further. An immortal Peter! who could stand him! They have an ambition which makes one laugh: the thing dishes up cut and dried his most personal life, his melancholies, and common-or-garden troubles, as though the Universe itself were under an obligation to bother itself about them, for it never gets tired of wrapping up God Himself in the petty misery in which its troubles are involved.

And how about the atrocious form of this chronic hobnobbing with God? This Jewish, and not merely Jewish, slobbering and clawing importunacy towards God!—There exist little despised heathen nations in East Africa, from whom these first Christians could have learnt something worth learning, a little tact in worshipping; these nations do not allow themselves to say aloud the name of their God. This seems to me delicate enough, it is certain that it is too delicate, and not only for thesis testing, primitive Christians; to take a contrast, just recollect Luther, the most eloquent and insolent peasant whom Germany has had, think of the Lutherian tone, in which he felt quite the most in his element during his tete-a-tetes with God. Luther's opposition to the mediaeval saints of the Church (in particular, against that devil's hog, the Pope), was, there is essay on utilitarianism, no doubt, at essay about dollars bottom the opposition of a boor, who was offended at the good etiquette of the Church, that worship-etiquette of the sacerdotal code, which only admits to the holy of essay holies the initiated and the silent, and shuts the door against the boors. These definitely were not to be allowed a hearing in this planet—but Luther the peasant simply wished it otherwise; as it was, it was not German enough for him. He personally wished himself to talk direct, to talk personally, to talk straight from the shoulder with his God. Thesis Testing! Well, he's done it. The ascetic ideal, you will guess, was at short no time and in no place, a school of thesis on software testing good taste, still less of good manners—at the best it was a school for sacerdotal manners: that is, it contains in itself something which was a deadly enemy to essay on utilitarianism all good manners. Thesis On Software! Lack of measure, opposition to measure it is itself a non plus ultra. The ascetic ideal has corrupted not only health and taste, there are also third, fourth, fifth, and essay, sixth things which it has corrupted—I shall take care not to about love go through the catalogue (when should I get to the end?).

I have here to expose not what this ideal effected; but rather only what it means , on essay on utilitarianism, what it is based, what lies lurking behind it and under it, that of which it is the provisional expression, an essay, obscure expression bristling with queries and misunderstandings. Short On Utilitarianism! And with this object only in view I presumed not to spare my readers a glance at the awfulness of its results, a glance at its fatal results; I did this to prepare them for the final and most awful aspect presented to me by ap essays scored, the question of the significance of that ideal. What is the significance of the power of that ideal, the monstrousness of its power? Why is it given such an amount of short essay on utilitarianism scope? Why is essay, not a better resistance offered against it? The ascetic ideal expresses one will: where is the opposition will, in short which an opposition ideal expresses itself? The ascetic ideal has an aim—this goal is, putting it generally, that all the thesis other interests of human life should, measured by its standard, appear petty and narrow; it explains epochs, nations, men, in reference to this one end; it forbids any other interpretation, any other end; it repudiates, denies, affirms, confirms, only in the sense of its own interpretation (and there ever a more thoroughly elaborated system of interpretation?); it subjects itself to no power, rather does it believe in short its own precedence over celebrated 1931 the hanging every power—it believes that nothing powerful exists in the world that has not first got to receive from short it a meaning, a right to exist, a value, as being an instrument in its work, a way and means to its end, to one end. Where is the ap essays that counterpart of this complete system of will, end, and interpretation? Why is the counterpart lacking? Where is the other one aim?

But I am told it is essay on utilitarianism, not lacking, that not only has it fought a long and fortunate fight with that ideal, but that further it has already won the mastery over that ideal in all essentials: let our whole modern science attest this—that modern science, which, like the about genuine reality-philosophy which it is, manifestly believes in itself alone, manifestly has the courage to essay on utilitarianism be itself, the will to be itself, and has got on well enough without God, another world, and negative virtues. With all their noisy agitator-babble, however, they effect nothing with me; these trumpeters of reality are bad musicians, their voices do not come from the deeps with sufficient audibility, they are not the mouthpiece for the abyss of scientific knowledge—for to-day scientific knowledge is an essay on heros, abyss—the word science, in such trumpeter-mouths, is short on utilitarianism, a prostitution, an abuse, an impertinence. The truth is just the opposite from what is maintained in the ascetic theory. Science has to-day absolutely no belief in itself, let alone in on software testing an ideal superior to essay on utilitarianism Itself, and ap essays that scored, wherever science still consists of passion, love, ardour, suffering it is not the opposition to that ascetic ideal, but rather the incarnation of its latest and noblest form . Does that ring strange? There are enough brave and decent working people, even among the on utilitarianism learned men of to-day, who like their little corner, and who, just because they are pleased so to do, become at essay about love times indecently loud with their demand, that people to-day should be quite content, especially in science—for in science there is so much useful work to do. Short On Utilitarianism! I do not deny it—there is nothing I should like less than to spoil the delight of these honest workers in their handiwork; for I rejoice in their work. But the for christmas fact of science requiring hard work, the fact of on utilitarianism its having contented workers, is absolutely no proof of thesis on software testing science as a whole having to-day one end, one will, one ideal, one passion for a great faith; the contrary, as I have said, is the case. When science is not the latest manifestation of the ascetic ideal—but these are cases of such rarity, selectness, and exquisiteness, as to preclude the general judgment being affected thereby—science is a hiding-place for every kind of essay cowardice, disbelief, remorse, despectio sui [13] , bad conscience—it is the very anxiety that springs from having no ideal, the suffering from the lack of a great love, the discontent with an essay about mother love, enforced moderation. Oh, what does all science not cover to-day?

How much, at any rate, does it not try to cover? The diligence of our best scholars, their senseless industry, their burning the candle of short on utilitarianism their brain at both ends—their very mastery in their handiwork—how often is the real meaning of essay for christmas all that to prevent themselves continuing to see a certain thing? Science as a self-anaesthetic: do you know that? You wound them—every one who consorts with scholars experiences this—you wound them sometimes to the quick through just a harmless word; when you think you are paying them a compliment you embitter them beyond all bounds, simply because you didn't have the finesse to infer the real kind of customers you had to tackle, the short on utilitarianism sufferer kind (who won't own up even to scored 9 themselves what they really are), the short dazed and unconscious kind who have only one fear— coming to consciousness. And now look at the other side, at those rare cases, of which I spoke, the most supreme idealists to be found nowadays among philosophers and scholars. Essay On Heros! Have we, perchance, found in them the essay on utilitarianism sought-for opponents of the that scored 9 ascetic ideal, its anti-idealists? In fact, they believe themselves to short be such, these unbelievers (for they are all of them that): it seems that this idea is their last remnant of faith, the idea of thesis on software testing being opponents of this ideal, so earnest are they on this subject, so passionate in word and gesture;—but does it follow that what they believe must necessarily be true? We knowers have grown by degrees suspicious of all kinds of believers, our suspicion has step by step habituated us to draw just the opposite conclusions to what people have drawn before; that is to say, wherever the essay on utilitarianism strength of a belief is particularly prominent to draw the conclusion of the difficulty of essay about love proving what is believed, the conclusion of its actual improbability. We do not again deny that faith produces salvation: for that very reason we do deny that faith proves anything,—a strong faith, which produces happiness, causes suspicion of the object of that faith, it does not establish its truth, it does establish a certain probability of— illusion . What is now the position in these cases?

These solitaries and deniers of to-day; these fanatics in one thing, in their claim to short essay on utilitarianism intellectual cleanness; these hard, stern, continent, heroic spirits, who constitute the glory of essay dollars our time; all these pale atheists, anti-Christians, immoralists, Nihilists; these sceptics, ephectics, and hectics of the intellect (in a certain sense they are the latter, both collectively and individually); these supreme idealists of short knowledge, in whom alone nowadays the intellectual conscience dwells and is alive—in point of fact they believe themselves as far away as possible from the ascetic ideal, do these free, very free spirits: and yet, if I may reveal what they themselves cannot see—for they stand too near themselves: this ideal is essay mother, simply their ideal, they represent it nowadays and perhaps no one else, they themselves are its most spiritualised product, its most advanced picket of skirmishers and scouts, its most insidious delicate and short on utilitarianism, elusive form of seduction.—If I am in essay love any way a reader of riddles, then I will be one with this sentence: for some time past there have been no free spirits; for they still believe in truth . When the Christian Crusaders in the East came into collision with that invincible order of assassins, that order of free spirits par excellence, whose lowest grade lives in a state of discipline such as no order of short on utilitarianism monks has ever attained, then in orwell 1931 some way or other they managed to get an inkling of short that symbol and tally-word, that was reserved for the highest grade alone as their secretum , Nothing is essay on heros, true, everything is allowed,—in sooth, that was freedom of thought, thereby was taking leave of the very belief in truth. Has indeed any European, any Christian freethinker, ever yet wandered into this proposition and its labyrinthine consequences ? Does he know from experience the Minotauros of this den.—I doubt it—nay, I know otherwise. Nothing is more really alien to these monofanatics, these so-called free spirits, than freedom and unfettering in that sense; in essay on utilitarianism no respect are they more closely tied, the george orwell 1931 the hanging absolute fanaticism of their belief in truth is unparalleled. I know all this perhaps too much from essay on utilitarianism experience at close quarters—that dignified philosophic abstinence to ap essays scored which a belief like that binds its adherents, that stoicism of the intellect, which eventually vetoes negation as rigidly as it does affirmation, that wish for standing still in front of the actual, the factum brutum , that fatalism in petits faits (ce petit faitalism , as I call it), in essay which French Science now attempts a kind of essay about love moral superiority over German, this renunciation of interpretation generally (that is, of forcing, doctoring, abridging, omitting, suppressing, inventing, falsifying, and all the other essential attributes of interpretation)—all this, considered broadly, expresses the asceticism of virtue, quite as efficiently as does any repudiation of the senses (it is at bottom only short essay on utilitarianism, a modus of that repudiation). But what forces it into that unqualified will for truth is the faith in the ascetic ideal itself , even though it take the form of its unconscious imperatives,—make no mistake about it, it is the faith, I repeat, in a metaphysical value, an intrinsic value of truth, of a character which only warranted and guaranteed in this ideal (it stands and falls with that ideal).

Judged strictly, there does not exist a science without its hypotheses, the thought of such a science is inconceivable, illogical: a philosophy, a faith, must always exist first to enable science to gain thereby a direction, a meaning, a limit and method, a right to existence. (He who holds a contrary opinion on the subject—he, for example, who takes it upon for christmas, himself to establish philosophy upon a strictly scientific basis—has first got to turn upside-down not only short essay on utilitarianism, philosophy but also truth itself—the gravest insult which could possibly be offered to two such respectable females!) Yes, there is no doubt about it—and here I quote my Joyful Wisdom , cp. One Million Dollars! Book V. Aph. 344: The man who is truthful in that daring and extreme fashion, which is the on utilitarianism presupposition of the orwell celebrated the hanging faith in science, asserts thereby a different world from that of life, nature, and history; and in so far as he asserts the existence of that different world, come, must he not similarly repudiate its counterpart, this world, our world? The belief on which our faith in science is on utilitarianism, based has remained to this day a metaphysical belief—even we knowers of to-day, we godless foes of thesis on software metaphysics, we, too, take our fire from that conflagration which was kindled by a thousand-year-old faith, from that Christian belief, which was also Plato's belief, the belief that God is short essay on utilitarianism, truth, that truth is ap essays, divine. . . Essay! . But what if this belief becomes more and more incredible, what if nothing proves itself to be divine, unless it be error, blindness, lies—what if God Himself proved Himself to be our oldest lie?—It is necessary to essay one million stop at this point and to essay consider the orwell 1931 situation carefully. Science itself now needs a justification (which is not for short on utilitarianism, a minute to say that there is such a justification).

Turn in this context to about one million the most ancient and the most modern philosophers: they all fail to realise the extent of the need of a justification on the part of the Will for on utilitarianism, Truth—here is a gap in every philosophy—what is it caused by? Because up to the present the ascetic ideal dominated all philosophy, because Truth was fixed as Being, as God, as the Supreme Court of Appeal, because Truth was not allowed to be a problem. Do you understand this allowed? From the minute that the belief in the God of the ascetic ideal is repudiated, there exists a new problem : the problem of the value of truth. Essay Spend Dollars! The Will for Truth needed a critique—let us define by these words our own task—the value of truth is tentatively to be called in question . . . . Short! (If this seems too laconically expressed, I recommend the reader to peruse again that passage from the Joyful Wisdom which bears the title, How far we also are still pious, Aph. 344, and best of all the whole fifth book of that work, as well as the Preface to The Dawn of essay on heros Day . No!

You can't get round me with science, when I search for the natural antagonists of the ascetic ideal, when I put the question: Where is the opposed will in which the opponent ideal expresses itself? Science is not, by a long way, independent enough to fulfil this function; in every department science needs an ideal value, a power which creates values, and in whose service it can believe in itself—science itself never creates values. Its relation to the ascetic ideal is not in itself antagonistic: speaking roughly, it rather represents the short on utilitarianism progressive force in the inner evolution of that ideal. About Love! Tested more exactly, its opposition and antagonism are concerned not with the short essay on utilitarianism ideal itself, but only with that ideal's outworks, its outer garb, its masquerade, with its temporary hardening, stiffening, and dogmatising—it makes the life in essay about the ideal free once more, while it repudiates its superficial elements. These two phenomena, science and the ascetic ideal, both rest on the same basis—I have already made this clear—the basis, I say, of the same over-appreciation of truth (more accurately the same belief in short on utilitarianism the impossibility of valuing and of criticising truth), and consequently they are necessarily allies, so that, in scored the event of their being attacked, they must always be attacked and called into question together.

A valuation of the ascetic ideal inevitably entails a valuation of science as well; lose no time in seeing this clearly, and be sharp to short essay catch it! ( Art , I am speaking provisionally, for essay about love, I will treat it on some other occasion in greater detail,—art, I repeat, in which lying is sanctified and the will for deception has good conscience on on utilitarianism, its side, is much more fundamentally opposed to the ascetic ideal than is science: Plato's instinct felt this— Plato, the essay for christmas greatest enemy of art which Europe has produced up to the present. Plato versus Homer, that is the complete, the true antagonism—on the one side, the short wholehearted transcendental, the great defamer of life; on the other, its involuntary panegyrist, the golden nature. An artistic subservience to the service of the ascetic ideal is consequently the most absolute artistic corruption that there can be, though unfortunately it is one of the most frequent phases, for nothing is more corruptible than an 1931 essay, artist.) Considered physiologically, moreover, science rests on short essay, the same basis as does the essay for christmas ascetic ideal: a certain impoverishment of life is the presupposition of the latter as of the former—add, frigidity of the emotions, slackening of the essay tempo , the substitution of dialectic for essay for christmas, instinct, seriousness impressed on mien and gesture (seriousness, that most unmistakable sign of on utilitarianism strenuous metabolism, of Struggling, toiling life). Consider the periods in a nation in essay on heros which the learned man comes into prominence; they are the periods of exhaustion, often of short on utilitarianism sunset, of decay— the essay about how to one million dollars effervescing strength, the confidence in life, the confidence in the future are no more. The preponderence of the mandarins never signifies any good, any more than does the advent of democracy, or arbitration instead of war, equal rights for women, the religion of pity, and all the other symptoms of declining life. (Science handled as a problem! what is the meaning of science?—upon this point the Preface to the Birth of Tragedy .) No! this modern science—mark you this well—is at essay on utilitarianism times the best ally for that 9, the ascetic ideal, and for the very reason that it is the ally which is most unconscious, most automatic, most secret, and most subterranean! They have been playing into each other's hands up to the present, have these poor in spirit and the scientific opponents of that ideal (take care, by the bye, not to think that these opponents are the antithesis of this ideal, that they are the short essay on utilitarianism rich in spirit—that they are not; I have called them the hectic in spirit). As for these celebrated victories of science; there is no doubt that they are victories—but victories over what? There was not for a single minute any victory among their list over the ascetic ideal, rather was it made stronger, that is to say, more elusive, more abstract, more insidious, from the fact that a wall, an outwork, that had got built on to the main fortress and disfigured its appearance, should from mother time to time be ruthlessly destroyed and broken down by science.

Does any one seriously suggest that the downfall of the short essay on utilitarianism theological astronomy signified the thesis on software downfall of short essay that ideal?—Has, perchance, man grown less in need of testing a transcendental solution of short essay his riddle of existence, because since that time this existence has become more random, casual, and superfluous in the visible order of the essay universe? Has there not been since the on utilitarianism time of Copernicus an unbroken progress in that the self-belittling of man and his will for belittling himself? Alas, his belief in his dignity, his uniqueness, his irreplaceableness in the scheme of existence, is gone—he has become animal, literal, unqualified, and unmitigated animal, he who in his earlier belief was almost God (child of God, demi-God). Since Copernicus man seems to have fallen on short essay, to a steep plane—he rolls faster and faster away from the centre—whither? into nothingness? into the thrilling sensation of essay on heros his own nothingness? —Well! this would be the straight way—to the old ideal?— All science (and by no means only astronomy, with regard to the humiliating and deteriorating effect of short essay on utilitarianism which Kant has made a remarkable confession, it annihilates my own importance), all science, natural as much as unnatural —-by unnatural I mean the self-critique of reason—nowadays sets out to talk man out of his present opinion of george 1931 himself, as though that opinion had been nothing but a bizarre piece of conceit; you might go so far as to say that science finds its peculiar pride, its peculiar bitter form of stoical ataraxia, in preserving man's contempt of himself , that state which it took so much trouble to short essay on utilitarianism bring about, as man's final and most serious claim to self-appreciation (rightly so, in essay on heros point of fact, for he who despises is always one who has not forgotten how to appreciate). Essay On Utilitarianism! But does all this involve any real effort to counteract the essay on heros ascetic ideal? Is it really seriously suggested that Kant's victory over short essay the theological dogmatism about God, Soul, Freedom, Immortality, has damaged that ideal in any way (as the orwell essay theologians have imagined to be the case for a long time past)?—And in short this connection it does not concern us for a single minute, if Kant himself intended any such consummation. It is certain that from the time of essay on heros Kant every type of transcendentalist is playing a winning game—they are emancipated from the theologians; what luck!—he has revealed to short them that secret art, by george orwell the hanging, which they can now pursue their heart's desire on their own responsibility, and with all the respectability of essay on utilitarianism science.

Similarly, who can grumble at the agnostics, reverers, as they are, of the essay on heros unknown and the absolute mystery, if they now worship their very query as God? (Xaver Doudan talks somewhere of the ravages which l'habitude d'admirer I'inintelligible au lieu de rester tout simplement dans l'inconnu has produced—the ancients, he thinks, must have been exempt from those ravages.) Supposing that everything, known to essay on utilitarianism man, fails to satisfy his desires, and on the contrary contradicts and horrifies them, what a divine way out of all this to be able to look for the responsibility, not in the desiring but in knowing!—There is no knowledge. Consequently there is a God; what a novel elegantia syllogismi! what a triumph for the ascetic ideal! Or, perchance, does the whole of for christmas modern history show in its demeanour greater confidence in life, greater confidence in its ideals? Its loftiest pretension is now to be a mirror ; it repudiates all teleology; it will have no more proving; it disdains to short essay on utilitarianism play the judge, and thereby shows its good taste—it asserts as little as it denies, it fixes, it describes. All this is to a high degree ascetic, but at the same time it is to a much greater degree nihilistic; make no mistake about essay for christmas, this! You see in the historian a gloomy, hard, but determined gaze,—an eye that looks out as an isolated North Pole explorer looks out (perhaps so as not to look within, so as not to look back?)—there is snow—here is life silenced, the last crows which caw here are called whither? Vanity, Nada—here nothing more flourishes and grows, at the most the meta-politics of St. Petersburg and the pity of on utilitarianism Tolstoi. But as for that other school of celebrated essay historians a perhaps still more modern school, a voluptuous and lascivious school which ogles life and the ascetic ideal with equal fervour, which uses the word artist as a glove, and essay on utilitarianism, has nowadays established a corner for itself, in all the praise given to contemplation; oh, what a thirst do these sweet intellectuals excite even for ascetics and winter landscapes! Nay!

The devil take these contemplative folk! How much liefer would I wander with those historical Nihilists through the gloomiest, grey, cold mist!—nay, I shall not mind listening (supposing I have to choose) to one who is on software, completely unhistorical and anti-historical (a man, like Duhring for instance, over short essay whose periods a hitherto shy and unavowed species of beautiful souls has grown intoxicated in contemporary Germany, the species anarchisica within the educated proletariate). The contemplative are a hundred times worse—I never knew anything which produced such intense nausea as one of those objective chairs, [14] one of those scented mannikins-about-town of history, a thing half-priest, half-satyr (Renan parfum ), which betrays by the high, shrill falsetto of his applause what he lacks and where he lacks it, who betrays where in this case the Fates have plied their ghastly shears, alas: in too surgeon-like a fashion! This is distasteful to me, and irritates my patience; let him keep patient at such sights who has nothing to thesis on software lose thereby,—such a sight enrages me, such spectators embitter me against the play, even more than does the essay on utilitarianism play itself (history itself, you understand); Anacreontic moods imperceptibly come over me. This Nature, who gave to george orwell celebrated essay the steer its horn, to the lion its ????' ??????? , for what purpose did Nature give me my foot?—To kick, by St.

Anacreon, and not merely to run away! To trample on all the worm-eaten chairs, the essay cowardly contemplators, the essay lascivious eunuchs of history, the flirters with ascetic ideals, the righteous hypocrites of impotence! All reverence on my part to the ascetic ideal, in short on utilitarianism so far as it is honorable! So long as it believes in essay about spend one million dollars itself and plays no pranks on essay on utilitarianism, us! But I like not all these coquettish bugs who have an insatiate ambition to essay smell of the infinite, until eventually the infinite smells of bugs; I like not the whited sepulchres with their stagey reproduction of life; I like not the tired and the used up who wrap themselves in wisdom and look objective; I like not the on utilitarianism agitators dressed up as heroes, who hide their dummy-heads behind the stalking-horse of an ideal; I like not the ambitious artists who would fain play the essay on heros ascetic and the priest, and are at bottom nothing but tragic clowns; I like not, again, these newest speculators in idealism, the Anti-Semites, who nowadays roll their eyes in the patent Christian-Aryan-man-of-honour fashion, and by an abuse of moralist attitudes and agitation dodges, so cheap as to exhaust any patience, strive to on utilitarianism excite all the blockhead elements in the populace (the invariable success of every kind of intellectual charlatanism in present-day Germany hangs together with the almost indisputable and already quite palpable desolation of the German mind, whose cause I look for essay on heros, in a too exclusive diet, of papers, politics, beer, and Wagnerian music, not forgetting the condition precedent of this diet, the national exclusiveness and short on utilitarianism, vanity, the george orwell celebrated 1931 strong but narrow principle, Germany, Germany above everything, [15] and finally the paralysis agitans of modern ideas). Europe nowadays is, above all, wealthy and ingenious in essay on utilitarianism means of testing excitement; it apparently has no more crying necessity than stimulantia and alcohol.

Hence the enormous counterfeiting of ideals, those most fiery spirits of the mind; hence too the repulsive, evil-smelling, perjured, pseudo-alcoholic air everywhere. Short! I should like to know how many cargoes of imitation idealism, of hero-costumes and high falutin' clap-trap, how many casks of essay about mother love sweetened pity liqueur (Firm: la religion de la souffrance ), how many crutches of righteous indignation for the help of essay on utilitarianism these flat-footed intellects, how many comedians of the Christian moral ideal would need to-day to be exported from Europe, to essay how to dollars enable its air to smell pure again. It is obvious that, in regard to this over-production, a new trade possibility lies open; it is obvious that there is a new business to short on utilitarianism be done in little ideal idols and obedient idealists—don't pass over this tip! Who has sufficient courage? We have in our hands the possibility of idealising the whole earth. But what am I talking about courage? we only need one thing here—a hand, a free, a very free hand. Enough! enough! let us leave these curiosities and thesis testing, complexities of the modern spirit, which excite as much laughter as disgust.

Our problem can certainly do without them, the problem of the on utilitarianism meaning of the ascetic ideal—what has it got to do with yesterday or to-day? those things shall be handled by me more thoroughly and severely in another connection (under the title A Contribution to the History of European Nihilism, I refer for this to a work which I am preparing: The Will to that 9 Power, an Attempt at short a Transvaluation of All Values ). The only essay for christmas, reason why I come to allude to it here is this: the ascetic ideal has at times, even in the most intellectual sphere, only one real kind of enemies and damagers : these are the comedians of this ideal—for they awake mistrust. Everywhere otherwise, where the mind is at work seriously, powerfully, and without counterfeiting, it dispenses altogether now with an ideal (the popular expression for this abstinence is Atheism)— with the exception of the will for truth . But this will, this remnant of an ideal, is, if you will believe me, that ideal itself in its severest and short essay, cleverest formulation, esoteric through and through, stripped of about spend one million all outworks, and short on utilitarianism, consequently not so much its remnant as its kernel . Unqualified honest atheism (and its air only do we breathe, we, the most intellectual men of this age) is not opposed to that ideal, to the extent that it appears to be; it is rather one of the final phases of its evolution, one of its syllogisms and pieces of inherent logic—it is the awe-inspiring catastrophe of thesis testing a two-thousand-year training in essay truth, which finally forbids itself the orwell celebrated 1931 essay lie of the belief in God . (The same course of development in India—quite independently, and on utilitarianism, consequently of some demonstrative value—the same ideal driving to the same conclusion the decisive point reached five hundred years before the European era, or more precisely at the time of Buddha—it started in the Sankhyam philosophy, and then this was popularised through Buddha, and made into a religion.) What , I put the question with all strictness, has really triumphed over the Christian God? The answer stands in ap essays that 9 my Joyful Wisdom , Aph. 357: the Christian morality itself, the idea of truth, taken as it was with increasing seriousness, the confessor-subtlety of the Christian conscience translated and short on utilitarianism, sublimated into the scientific conscience into ap essays that scored intellectual cleanness at short essay on utilitarianism any price. Regarding Nature as though it were a proof of the goodness and essay on heros, guardianship of God; interpreting history in honour of essay a divine reason, as a constant proof of a moral order of the ap essays 9 world and a moral teleology; explaining our own personal experiences, as pious men have for long enough explained them, as though every arrangement, every nod, every single thing were invented and sent out of love for the salvation of the essay soul; all this is now done away with, all this has the conscience against it, and is regarded by essay on heros, every subtler conscience as disreputable, dishonourable, as lying, feminism, weakness, cowardice—by means of this severity, if by essay on utilitarianism, means of anything at all, are we, in sooth, good Europeans and heirs of Europe's longest and bravest self-mastery. . . . All great things go to ruin by essay on heros, reason of themselves, by reason of an act of self-dissolution: so wills the law of life, the law of necessary self-mastery even in the essence of life—ever is the law-giver finally exposed to the cry, patere legem quam ipse tulisti [16] ; in thus wise did Christianity go to ruin as a dogma, through its own morality; in thus wise must Christianity go again to ruin to-day as a morality—we are standing on essay on utilitarianism, the threshold of this event. After Christian truthfulness has drawn one conclusion after the other, it finally draws its strongest conclusion , its conclusion against itself; this, however, happens, when it puts the question, what is the meaning of every will for truth? And here again do I touch on my problem, on our problem, my unknown friends (for as yet I know of no friends): what sense has our whole being, if it does not mean that in our own selves that will for truth has come to its own consciousness as a problem? —By reason of this attainment of self-consciousness on the part of the will for truth, morality from essay on heros hence-forward—there is no doubt about it—goes to pieces: this is that great hundred-act play that is reserved for the next two centuries of Europe, the most terrible, the most mysterious, and perhaps also the on utilitarianism most hopeful of all plays.

If you except the ascetic ideal, man, the ap essays animal man had no meaning. His existence on earth contained no end; What is the purpose of man at all? was a question without an answer; the will for man and the world was lacking; behind every great human destiny rang as a refrain a still greater Vanity! The ascetic ideal simply means this: that something was lacking , that a tremendous void encircled man—he did not know how to short justify himself, to explain himself, to affirm himself, he suffered from the problem of his own meaning. He suffered also in other ways, he was in essay love the main a diseased animal; but his problem was not suffering itself, but the lack of an answer to that crying question, To what purpose do we suffer? Man, the short essay bravest animal and about love, the one most inured to suffering, does not repudiate suffering in itself: he wills it, he even seeks it out, provided that he is shown a meaning for it, a purpose of suffering.

Not suffering, but the senselessness of suffering was the curse which till then lay spread over humanity— and the ascetic ideal gave it a meaning! It was up till then the only meaning; but any meaning is short essay, better than no meaning; the ascetic ideal was in that connection the scored faute de mieux par excellence that existed at that time. Short On Utilitarianism! In that ideal suffering found an explanation ; the essay tremendous gap seemed filled; the door to all suicidal Nihilism was closed. The explanation—there is essay on utilitarianism, no doubt about essay for christmas, it—brought in its train new suffering, deeper, more penetrating, more venomous, gnawing more brutally into essay life: it brought all suffering under the perspective of guilt ; but in spite of all that—man was saved thereby, he had a meaning , and from henceforth was no more like a leaf in essay on heros the wind, a shuttle-cock of chance, of nonsense, he could now will something—absolutely immaterial to what end, to what purpose, with what means he wished: the will itself was saved. It is absolutely impossible to disguise what in point of fact is on utilitarianism, made clear by complete will that has taken its direction from the ascetic ideal: this hate of the essay about how to one million dollars human, and even more of the short on utilitarianism animal, and more still of the material, this horror of the senses, of reason itself, this fear of happiness and beauty, this desire to get right away from all illusion, change, growth, death, wishing and even desiring—all this means—let us have the that scored 9 courage to grasp it—a will for Nothingness, a will opposed to life, a repudiation of the most fundamental conditions of life, but it is and remains a will! —and to say at the end that which I said at short the beginning—man will wish Nothingness rather than not wish at all .

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essay times A more apt assertion than “college as America used to short, understand it is coming to an end” is essay spend one million, that America as America used to short, understand it has already ended. Higher education, both the idea and tangible manifestation, is not the same as it was forty years ago. For Christmas? But neither is the United States, or the world, for that matter. Expecting the current collegiate crowd to undergo an undergraduate experience like that of their parents is to short, put campus life in a formaldehyde-sealed, shrink-wrapped bubble, immune to the cultural, socio-political, economical, and essay on heros technological changes of the past four decades. College used to short on utilitarianism, be not only a privilege but also something to look forward to as Rick Perlstein points out in “What’s the essay for christmas, Matter with College.” Today’s students, the baby-boomers’ babies, are jaded by the time they enter college, now an expectation. According to figures on essay the National Center for how to, Education Statistics’ website, the 18 24 year old population rose 15% between 1995 and 2005, prompting a 33% increase of the number of full-time students. NCES predicts that this number will increase an additional 13% by the year 2015. Because today’s American college education is mostly the norm, graduate school enrollment has also skyrocketed, rendering the undergraduate degree itself unimportant if one wishes to become a significant and successful component in the consumer culture in essay, which this generation is saturated. Growing up in the fast-paced New York City prep school circuit, I was educated among peers who knew what Ivy League school they wanted to attend by the age of essay for christmas, twelve. Competition was fierce and is becoming even fiercer.

It’s hard to determine the source of the ever-prevalent competitive nature: is short, it the fourteen-year-olds negotiating for an extra two points on celebrated essay an exam like their lawyer-parents or the parents who make their kid practice the trumpet or glockenspiel for two hours a day starting at the age of short on utilitarianism, five, hoping to guarantee acceptance at that scored 9, Ivy League University X, regardless of essay on utilitarianism, SAT scores and GPA, when the time comes? College has changed because high school has changed. You can blame the Internet or televised violence or whatever but it’s unreasonable to expect that the college experience of essay, previous generations can prevail in a country that’s no longer as hopeful or innocent. We don’t have a common cause. We’re not fighting, united, against a draft for a war we don’t believe in. There may be some (or a lot) who don’t believe in the war, but we’re not united.

That’s not to say that we don’t care; we do. It’s just that as a generation, we care about a cornucopia of causes. On Utilitarianism? One student wants to save Darfur, another is a gay-rights activist fighting for gender-neutral housing, and another is trying to thesis testing, protect migrant workers by kicking Coca-Cola off campus. We do have movements and there are people trying to short essay on utilitarianism, do what’s right but there’s no primary, umbrella cause that has gripped every student across the country. Today, colleges make headlines because of shootings, not protests. This is a collegiate generation that watched Columbine and September 11th on their 70? high-definition, plasma televisions. We’ve grown up with the essay on heros, world, both good and bad, at our fingertips from our wireless laptops. We are the short essay, product of the consumer culture America has become.

Student life is no longer an American centrality because rather than steering culture, we feed it. We absolutely adore our iPods and celebrated 1931 essay cell phones and retro converse sneakers and designer jeans. We are a generation rooted in irony and cynicism, raised by technology that has trained us to essay, dismiss the once present value inherent in the idea of about, college: that it’s a place to short on utilitarianism, transform, to learn, and to grow into our adult selves who will, someday soon, be calling the shots. We come, see, and conquer, and often don’t consider how it affects others. Thesis On Software? We’re emotionally stunted because we spent our formative teen years replacing a large percentage of our peer interactions with instant messaging, isolating ourselves and arriving at college with a heightened sense of individuality, perhaps, but not much sense of community. Technology is the only thing we have in common we’re fragmented across all other arenas: religion, culture, politics, economics.

We’ve misinterpreted Mr. Rogers’ message and have taken the concept of “special” to new, unimagined levels. We’re hardcore individualists and it’s near impossible to find cohesion in short on utilitarianism, a population of people who think that they’re different from everybody else. The application process itself encourages the notion through its predominant, overarching question: “What makes you so special?” We arrive at college already incredibly individualized and aware of who we are (or who we think we are, at about how to spend one million dollars, least), prompting us to try harder to preserve our individuality, the feeling that we are each a special, unique snowflake different from all others, than to become a part of something bigger and more powerful. Most of us prefer to be separate from our peers rather than unified. College campuses and the students they house have lost their place as this nation’s focal point because, as disparaging as it may be, college is now a waiting room for the real world. Essay On Utilitarianism? It’s not that everyone’s miserable and spends four years isolated from their peers but that they know that this is essay on heros, not the end of the line.

That there’s a lot more waiting for them and expected because the world is different. We’ve seen the world change before our eyes and are far too cynical to believe it’s going to stop. And because we’re so individualistic, it’s hard to effect positive change. We may each think that we’re special in our own way, but not very many of us think we can change the world all by ourselves. So we recede to our respective corners of the ring, fight our own battles, inner and essay outer, and continue to devote our energies to thesis testing, our continuing self-discovery, perhaps over-emphasized and short essay over-developed. We spend our undergraduate years waiting to take control of an orwell essay the hanging, ever-changing world as a generation mostly fragmented. And while forbearing college generations may have stood united, the short essay on utilitarianism, truth is that we are very much divided, prompting college as American used to understand it, to fall. “What’s The Matter With College”: A Rejoinder. College is ap essays that scored 9, known to be a citadel of learning.

It could as well serve other purposes to different people depending on one’s perspective. Therefore a person could either ‘pass’ through college or have College ‘pass’ through him or her. Although a lot has been written in the past about students and short essay college life both past and present, but none of those articles ‘wear a crown’ of criticisms as to for christmas, be compared with what Mr. Rick Perlistein wrote in ‘what’s the short essay, matter with college.’ I agree that every author has its own style of for christmas, writing and it is evident in short, each piece of his work. The same way college life experiences in the 70’s and celebrated 1931 essay the hanging now have been portrayed in on utilitarianism, writing in so many different ways by so many different authors, across the pages of so many different print media’s. However a reader may find differences and similarities in the opinions of these authors about college life experiences then and now including the one written by Perlistein which is an in dept analysis of how college life in America is coming to essay, an end due to its being less critical to the nation than it use to be a generation ago. Peristein in the article summed up college life experiences as it affects students in the late 60’s and 70’s and how those experiences has made them better students and an enviable generation. This is against the back drop of today’s generational colleges and what it offers. Although the article did not address major issues-like standards of education and learning achievements as it concerns colleges in the 60’s and today’s colleges, rather it dwelt on the social transformation offered to students through college life experiences as they transit through it. Essay On Utilitarianism? However, one could argue from the standpoint of Mr.

Perlistein as he viewed college life then which actually shaped his belief about today’s colleges loosing its central place in thesis testing, the broader society as being real and true. The picture painted by Perlistein about students and colleges in the 70’s is in short essay, no doubt incomparable to today’s college and students. I quite agree that in the 70’s, according to essay on heros, Perlistein that student’s and the structures in it; make up colleges which tend to be the heart and soul of essay on utilitarianism, politics. In as much as every adult should have a say on how he or she is governed, by participating in essay on heros, politics, I never knew that college students of the 70’s shouldered such huge political responsibility to the point that they became the bedrock of modern politics.-that is good to know. This actually explains the on utilitarianism, intensity that comes with student’s body elections in ap essays 9, colleges then in the 70’s. Research shows that a whole semester could be dedicated to such game of politics and little or no attention paid to essay on utilitarianism, studying during such election period. Now I understand the involvement of the essay, 70’s graduate in today’s politics more than any other generation.

My discussion with Matt, a close friend, a product of the 70’s college and the head of a small group here in south bay-Los Angeles working as one of the small political front canvassing support for Barrack Obama- who is seeking for Democratic Presidential nomination come 2008 actually confirmed my fears. He relived his college days experience for me in a short story and crowned it up with ‘that is why I am a politician. Consequently, the anti war movements in short, colleges then in the 70’s thrived beyond expectation. The tendency to affect societal change socially bore heavily on the shoulders of these people who called themselves students. They sacrificed so much in other to alleviate the social change that society needs as against their own self goal attainment.

Therefore, is it not interesting to note that a generation of thesis, students-70’s college students is known to short essay on utilitarianism, be trendsetters especially and only culturally? What an achievement! Most of us benefited from this infamous ideology. More so, Perlistein mentioned about the structural makeovers colleges got then in the 70’s. He attributed this to the economic boom then, but one thing he mentioned which is quite interesting is the idea that ‘between 1957 and 1967, the number of college students doubled.’ Meanwhile is thesis on software testing, this an indication that 70’s colleges turned out more graduate professionals as compared with today’s colleges? While there are reasons to be concerned and also applaud the achievements of the 70’s college students with regards to their role in essay, the society then, today’s college and essay about one million students by many measures are actually faring as well or better than the on utilitarianism, 70’s students. Essay On Heros? Therefore it is pertinent to say that college as America used to understand it is not coming to an end, rather it is blossoming beyond Perlistein comprehension. No wonder Perlistein’s views about today’s college students are ‘mauled’ with skepticism and frustration-with due respect sir. Come to think of it, if getting into college becomes one’s innate desire as a way of succeeding in life, which I know truly confront many of short essay, today’s college student. Then it is debasing to say the for christmas, least that college students with such big viable dreams could be branded dissidents and labeled noisy as the case with the 70’s college students.

Yet it seems to essay, be alright as agreed by Perlistein. What then do people call a person who is excited and going to the ‘circus’ to essay for christmas, have fun? Nevertheless, college life experiences then in short essay, the 70’s is still the essay about how to spend one million dollars, same with college life today except with few distinctions which has to do with generational time gap, modernization, and technological advancement, new breed students with better focus as well as job market place competition. These distinctions are generational exceptions with regards to time which separate the world of the essay on utilitarianism, 70’s from today’s world. College students in essay on heros, the 70’s, acts out movie scripts written by societal norms, produced by the students themselves and directed by the schools they attend. The movie set becomes their dorm lounge. Short? Yet their reward does not speak volumes in terms of success like that of real actors and actresses rather it comes, based on hard work and one’s ability to scale through the hurdles of graduation if at all it is possible. Therefore if we say that college in the 70’s is better in thesis, cultural setup, we mean that school is ‘fun.’ yes school is fun both then and now, although then in the 70’s, it is a creed recited by every student.

Having fun had an upper hand in the life of the 70’s student and on utilitarianism that is what defined college education in the 70’s. Essay On Heros? Perlisten wrote ‘school was fun.’ There is nothing wrong in having fun in school. I am a big advocate of the popular saying ‘all work and no play make jack a dull boy.’ But should fun define citadel of short essay, learning? Even so, when fun in ap essays scored, colleges cease to be in full swing just as it is today, should it be seen that college as it used to short, be is coming to orwell essay the hanging, an end? No of course! It is just a generational gap problem. Again, does modernization have a hand in this issue? Maybe yes, what of technological advancement? Oh good idea, for how else do one explain the essay, role and importance of that 9, modern educational gadgets like computers and internets in today’s college student life.

The evolvement of technology from the essay, 70’s to what it is today, speaks volume about the difference in 70’s college students and mother love today’s college students. If at all technology mean anything in this issue, it is short on utilitarianism, absolutely an ‘abracadabra’ to the students of the 70’s. Essay Mother? They really missed out on this, no wonder instead of them surfing the internet and doing educational research work, they are busy partying and inviting artiste to the campus to perform. These generation of fun loving students accounted for the decline in the number of graduate professionals that would have filled the job vacuum in an ever growing economy. Although 70’s experienced an short on utilitarianism, increase in the number of registered students, but survey showed that fewer students graduated. That? what happened to the rest? Surprisingly, those that graduated did so in areas not so competitive and short which is considered less professional, for example majoring in linguistics as oppose to medicine. The so called graduates of the 70’s college education were no less important to the nation and celebrated essay the economy. The ignorant attitude of the American college students in the 70’s, contributed immensely to the shortage of professionals in areas like Medicine, Engineering and Information Technology etc. This resulted in American ever increasing need of short, professionals in those fields mentioned earlier. Eventually, the economy resorted to the ‘importation’ of george orwell 1931 essay the hanging, these professionals from other countries in other to fill the on utilitarianism, vacuum. Out sourcing of jobs which started in essay on heros, the 80’s, although it has stopped is a direct consequence of the inability of the 70’s college students to meet up with the short essay, ‘professional manpower’ of about spend one million dollars, Americas growing economy.

If all is essay on utilitarianism, well with the college of the essay on heros, 70’s with all these lapses and it did not come to short on utilitarianism, an end then, therefore, somebody should tell Perlistein that college is george orwell celebrated essay, not coming to an end now instead it is getting better. Interestingly, today’s college is a new experience inspired by the desire to learn and perfected by short essay on utilitarianism the numerous competitions out there in the job market. Thesis On Software Testing? How else would one explain to Perlistein that the world today especially when it comes to college and learning is no more about fun? It is now a world driven by the desire to be self reliant and having money to meet one’s need. This can only short, be achieved with a good college education in a recognized field that allows one to compete in the world of money making by getting a good job. Having fun in college instead of trying to achieve these feats, which 70’s college students did, amounts to one writing an that scored 9, ‘obituary’ in essay on utilitarianism, his future. Today’s college students avoid politics as much as they can, but do more of studying.

They have relinquished the essay about love, title of short essay, ‘social reformers’ and have back slide in essay on heros, terms of championing cultural trendsetting. Instead they have challenged themselves to setting educational goals and reaching self actualization. As an advocate of the short on utilitarianism, popular saying, ‘children are our future, teach them well and essay on heros let them lead the way.’ I have stopped imaging and started believing in on utilitarianism, Perlstein word puzzles that college in the 70’s use to essay one million dollars, have social ‘boundless verve’ a panacea for failure because having fun or socializing in short essay on utilitarianism, college is not a recipe for goal accomplishment. Therefore I will be stuck with the reality that if not for today’s college students and what they have to offer, our future looks bleak and unassuming. Finally Ronald Reagan and brown in politicizing education then in thesis on software testing, the 70’s, insist that they value college either as a moral training camp or as a mere structure respectively; however that is where their agreement ends. What followed next becomes a testimony of how politics as a cankerworm ate deep into short essay on utilitarianism our college education system in the 70’s by coarsening unsuspecting student who ought to be pursuing their dream and finalizing arrangements on how to ap essays that scored, solidify their tomorrow into a nasty game of politics. What did the students get in return, nothing but their final grades at the end of the whole saga? This is the short on utilitarianism, one reason why many students in about mother, the 70 ‘passed through school’ but did not allow school ‘to pass’ through them? According to Perlisten ‘good colleges were social- mobility prerequisite then’ so what? The question remains what did the students achieved.

Nothing but fun! What Perlisten stated, did not justify the learning standard of colleges then. Remorsefully in contrast, the same Perlisten wrote ‘it does not mean that all of them graduated.’ Why not? What happened! So it is not a priority to graduate from college then. I guess it is essay, a priority in today’s college system. On Software Testing? I now know why today’s colleges are better and is not coming to short on utilitarianism, an end as against ap essays scored, the notion that ‘college as America used to understand it is coming to essay, an end.’ Who is going to be the judge?

You I guess. For dedicated parents living in America, there is essay on heros, no goal they truly want more for their children then for them to have a lifetime of success and to on utilitarianism, be happy. Most children have to grow up constantly listening to their parent(s) lecture about maintaining good grades and going to essay on heros, college. To children, this was just their parent’s harassing them. But to parents, it’s them instilling the voice that constantly echoes in the back of their heads. For the most part, children plan to go to college right after high school. On Utilitarianism? Some vow to celebrated, become doctors. Essay? Others may decide that teaching will be their passion. Their ambitions are endless. But somewhere between puberty and essay college, their minds change. Essay? With the influences among our children and orwell 1931 with the growing population of technical schools, children veer off the road to college.

Unfortunately, because of this decision, not only is the future of our lawyers, doctors, teachers, and short essay a plentiful amount of other careers in danger, the celebrated essay the hanging, road to a one tracked mind world has already been set to be paved. Although electing to go to short essay on utilitarianism, a technical school rather than a traditional college is not a bad decision to make, it does have its drawbacks. When responding to inquiries about technical schools, recruiters make sure they express how much money can be made once the program is completed. However, what they don’t express is that the classes that have been taken and the certificate that is earned have no bearing on a transcript when it comes to college. So if a decision is made to testing, go back to on utilitarianism, school, whether during the time of the program or long after the orwell celebrated 1931 essay the hanging, program is completed, it’s back to square one. Short? A strong knowledge in a specific task can make your success in that field easier but a continuous knowledge of everything will serve a better purpose and can give more opportunities for endless experiences. In today’s society, many careers do not enforce the thesis testing, requirement of a college degree.

Everyday on T.V. they advertise how easy it is to start a moneymaking career and boasts about how it cuts out years of time spent learning in school. It suggests a quick and easy fix to society’s financial problem and with the economy’s status and the price increases, who could blame a person for wanting to find an easier way to make money fast? Most people have obligations that cannot wait for years while a person works on their college degree. Nevertheless, many careers cannot risk the short essay on utilitarianism, hefty time cut that technical schools make toward their education. Would anybody feel comfortable putting their life in the hands of a doctor who only took a sixteen month course on a couple of specific tasks? Would it be ok if an elementary teacher only had a few months of training on about a specific subject but no training or experience with children and their endless needs? Or how about entrusting a criminal lawyer who saw a flashy commercial and decided to cut their time in school to earn money fast? Experience does not start on the job; rather the classroom and essay slashing class time would be like drawing conclusions without all the facts.

The conclusion may be right, but knowing all the celebrated 1931 essay, facts can rule out other possibilities and turn that “maybe” into “it is”. It’s the reassurance most people need. By no means am I trying to diminish the importance of technical schools that have been slowly integrating into short essay mainstream. Their education has resulted in some of the how to, best workers around and short essay has given people the on software, opportunity to gain financial freedom without the long wait. Nevertheless, in doing this we’re slowly brainwashing people by enticing them with their fast learning, easy money motto. Not only is college a learning experience for independence and maintaining balance in short essay on utilitarianism, life, but also a guarantee that the graduate has had extensive training both physically and mentally in their chosen career and also other aspects of essay for christmas, life. With the popularity of technical schools rising, one must acknowledge the short essay, consequences. If more people keep feeling forced to avoid the essay for christmas, experience a traditional college gives us, what will become of our future doctors, our lawyers, and all the other careers that can’t be condensed to sixteen months of schooling? Moreover if we keep going in the direction we’re headed, it may bring us back to a method long forgotten…the barter system. Is the college experience less critical to the nation than it was a generation ago?

College as a higher education institution is short on utilitarianism, critical to the individual student and to essay how to one million dollars, the nation as a whole but, the “college experience” is of much lesser value than it was in the 1960’s and 1970’s. Today, the essay on utilitarianism, college student is more competitive; career focused and has a different agenda for their education than they had in the past. Students now are taught by the very nature of the essay about how to dollars, college admission process that they must compete with grades, SAT scores and many other individuals to be admitted to the college of essay, their first choice. Students have been groomed from essay on heros, a very young age with the question, “What do you want to short essay on utilitarianism, be when you grow up?” that many have been focused on their life’s aspirations for about how to spend one million dollars, many years prior to essay on utilitarianism, stepping foot on campus. Students seem to almost grow up quicker and have many more life experiences prior to college age. They read books in high school that were once required reading for college and essay on heros this puts them ahead of where previous college students were at the start of their college experience. They have the essay on utilitarianism, chance to go abroad on school trips and have life experiences that were once reserved for for christmas, the college student. Students in the 1960’s and 1970’s led more sheltered lives prior to short essay on utilitarianism, college.

Theses student’s life experiences with politics, taking action for essay on heros, a cause and new found freedoms, began when they left the confines of their homes and arrived on a college campus. Students today have much more information available to them via the internet and 24 hour cable news reports and are informed and aware of the essay on utilitarianism, world around them at a much younger age. Essay Love? The students from a generation ago had a more limited amount of exposure to the world’s events. Their parents had more control over the amount of information one received from radio, television and newsprint. Good or bad the children of today are exposed to a constant amount of news from short on utilitarianism, all areas of media. Today’s students have already had opportunities to george celebrated 1931 the hanging, join and be part of many causes such as Relay for Life or MS walk and short on utilitarianism do not have to wait until they are out of the essay about mother, house and on a college campus before becoming part of a cause.

So to answer the short, question, “Is the college experience less critical to the nation than it was a generation ago?” I believe the answer is yes. George Celebrated? The competitiveness of high school students to on utilitarianism, achieve high grade, win scholarships and choose lucrative careers for essay, themselves all before they even graduate is much higher than that of the past generation. Generations past were allowed the luxury of their trip to college for short essay on utilitarianism, the “experience” and take the time to find themselves, discover the world around them and choose a life’s path without the competitive pressure that today’s students face. Essay Love? In a sense, incoming students have already experienced a large portion of their lives or had more life experiences than their counterparts had in essay, the 60’ and 70’s. I also think that because this generation has grown up with the news all around them for so long that going off to college is not the sense of major discovery about the world that it once was. There are no great political items that had been kept from them that would make the need to picket and protest a necessity.

I also think that this generation does not have that burning desire to cause waves or stir up trouble on on software testing campus. I think they are focused and goal orientated and are on campus for on utilitarianism, a specific reason and have goals and objectives for their lives that take greater preference over about dollars the doings about the world. So, whether it be right or wrong, or just plan disheartening to short, those who truly went to college for the “college experience” I think that the days of the college campus being a hot bed for social issues big and small has come to a close. The hipsters and hippies have destroyed college for that, my generation. Now to be fair, I do not completely blame them for the deterioration of the college experience. They had such a great time in short essay, college–sitting the sit-ins and walking the malls, creating, discovering, writing poems, smoking–that they have taken the experience that was once remote and essay for christmas discrete and projected in saturation to our entire culture. In receiving, we must be grateful, and grateful we are. Our generation has accepted the hand-me-downs of the short essay, hippie aftermath and written thank-you cards in the form of reviving the art of homemade granola making and resurrecting folk-rock music as homage. We are able to discover previously banned books, independent films, innovative music and controversial conversations.

They have enabled us to receive quality education, to live freely, to discuss, to discover, to create without question. But as nice as the hand-me-downs may be, any youngest child will attest that they are not always appreciated. The youngest-child generation of college students is responding similarly. We’ve lost the motivation to be innovative, to discover on our own, because at times, it seems as it has all been done for us 40 years ago. Generations before us have paved the way of creative discovery by seemingly ending the road with construction of technologies and essay on heros cultural freedoms that simultaneously shrink and on utilitarianism expand our world. Whenever a question arises, the Internet in that scored 9, all its glory waits with open arms to coddle us with answers. Our culture has been both blessed and cursed with an explosion of information, entertainment and possibilities for creativity, thankfully made possible by those who attended college a generation ago.

With this emerging ease of exploration–an onslaught of information and ideas handed out essay like blinking trinkets slapped with sponsor logos at concerts–we have lost the idea of discovering for ourselves. If this were an episode of “History’s Mysteries” on the History Channel, I’d say the lost passion of discovery in college students is lying in the dust in the basements of limestone university buildings. On the essay about spend one million, back-end of the Renaissance, Romanticism, Realism; beatniks, hippies and dot-comers, our generation has relied on others to develop ideas. We simply master their creations, quite well, if I may. Essay On Utilitarianism? We can create facebook and myspace with their technology to end up finding each other, but we are often left in the dark when looking for ourselves and discovering new ways of thinking. We’ve hit a growth stunt in creating the self due to the bright reflection of the culture. We are not likely to discover the thesis on software, next ideologies, poems, paintings, medical breakthroughs, and solutions for world peace without some thought growth-hormones. Unlike what some may believe, the problems that lay at the feet of the nation today are matters of importance to our young minds. We are not as apathetic as the essay, stereotypes portray. Unfortunately though, we do not take a stand as those who protested on the malls and essay sat the sit-ins did before us.

By now, we have resigned ourselves to the fact that we are not necessarily in control of the volume of our voices. With so many to on utilitarianism, be heard, is one really much more important than another? We attempt to on software testing, make a dent in din, but the conflicting opinions and essay growing number of venues–each wonderful attributes in the freedom of speech and essay mother acceptance of on utilitarianism, differences in all people–make it more than difficult for our generation to have a unified voice. While we can follow the news in ap essays that 9, free newspapers handed out in the Starbucks on campus and discuss our thoughts and feelings on short essay the issues in Intro to Poli-Sci, we know that the world moves too fast with too many decibels for us to directly impact what is happening right now. Modern students must prepare for a global environment that acts similar to the neighborhood soccer star who could always tally more juggles than us or the kid with the perfect SAT score. From this day forward, the world will always be a step ahead. We have inherited the obligation to discover a way to work in mother love, this world by creating a solution to the technology that crafted our thoughts and life as we know it.

The generation before us, the pioneers of short on utilitarianism, creativity with booming imaginations may have invented the Internet, but we are left to essay on heros, master it. Taming the goddess and beast that is the technological world will not be an essay on utilitarianism, easy feat. It is not important now that we have discrete solutions to problems that are developing in our world. In its quick-witted nature, exact solutions are impossible. There is not one right answer for any question. (Just try googling your name–the Internet does not even agree with who we are, unless we are Lindsay Lohan. But then, even that is debatable: super-star or super-screw-up?) The world is full of challenges that are still awaiting creative elucidation.

We are in essay on heros, the unique position as college students to rely on our professors to on utilitarianism, teach us how not to rely on the technology their generation created. About Mother? In their dorm days they learned how to be creative, how to discover, how, in fact, to short essay on utilitarianism, learn. In a world that no longer allows for ap essays scored, textbook answers and step-by-step procedure, they can help us revert back to a thinking that existed in a world without technology as a cross to bear. We must continue the tradition of on utilitarianism, discovery on a college campus, preferably taught this vanishing art form by those who perfected it. Our professors went to college in thesis, the ’60s and ’70s surrounded by the magic air of the edge of a cultural revolution. Short Essay? Who better to teach our lost generation such important ideals that are imperative to developing minds as we totter on our developing future?

It is here in the mess of technology that makes up our world and college campuses that our professors may be able to give us the principal lesson of for christmas, learning. While they are busy teaching us why a Russian Cherry Orchard is short essay on utilitarianism, important to a political climate that is essay on heros, not our own or how pH levels effect the oxidation of guaiacol by short essay catalase, they are also imparting upon us the real reason we still go to college: that we learn is more important than what we learn. In our future, our majors, GPAs, and campus activities will not necessarily matter. What we discussed will be less important than how we discussed. Abandoning the ideas of technological developments will allow us to see a bigger picture than what even the george orwell 1931 essay, wide-screen monitors can hold. Essay On Utilitarianism? As we reach for essay on heros, discovery that does not hinge on the Internet, we will regain the sense of short on utilitarianism, free love, free ideas and free discovery, as our professors did before us. The only place this can happen is on a college campus. It is the only place these hippies with their great ideas still truly exist. Essay On Heros? And I would like to give them a real thank-you card one day for showing our generation that there is a world beyond the World Wide Web. If they are lucky, I may also throw in a batch of homemade granola.

Students of the American Nightmare. I’m a young woman from a well-educated, upper middle class Caucasian family in the Northeastern United States. I’ve lived in on utilitarianism, the same three-story suburban house my entire life, taken tennis and horse-back riding lessons. I play classical piano and thesis on software testing sing. Short Essay On Utilitarianism? I got a combined SAT score of scored 9, 1500 and applied to a total of short essay, three colleges chosen primarily on the basis of family history and the “prestige factor” (Harvard, Princeton, etc…). I don’t stand out in any statistics and mother no admissions offices are scrambling over themselves to fill the “upper-middle class Caucasian woman” quota… so I guess you could say I’m that faceless college student that we’re all competing against, the overachiever that threatens us with their well-rounded resume and short impressive GPA. I’m everyone’s worst nightmare, just like every other college student with their original ideas and their up-‘n-at-’em attitude are incentives for making my own college. experience a living hell. Mr.

Perlstein asked, ‘What’s wrong with colleges today?’ I reply that the rat race mentality has poisoned the intellectual atmosphere of our nation’s universities and turned “college” into just another cog in the societal machine that rushes us into our graves on the 9-to-5-shift assembly line. Instead of being leaders of our national culture, the how to one million, college-age. cohort has been demoted to the bottom of the corporate ladder, and on utilitarianism as college students we’re all battling for the next promotion. The summer after graduating from high school is usually when college stops being an exciting prospect. Forty-something year old family members inevitably whine, “Oh, to be young and in essay on heros, college again,” or “I would kill to be a freshman in college one more time.” You also receive plenty of warnings about the inevitability of gaining 15 pounds, bad mornings-after, the wailing siren of on utilitarianism, procrastination and mother subsequent all-nighters.

By the essay, time September arrived, I was so nervous about everything related to college that I had backed myself into a corner: I was going to work really hard on my school work, not gain the thesis testing, freshman 15, strengthen my resume, start a new club, improve my leadership skills, and essentially avoid any mistake anyone has ever made in college. After all, there’s always Harvard Law. Interestingly, upon arriving at a prestigious woman’s college in an upscale Philadelphian suburb, I realized everyone was planning to work really hard and be thinner and short leaner and on software testing meaner and get into Harvard Law, while simultaneously being good, sociable networkers and having fun on the weekends. I was stung and confused and didn’t understand why it wasn’t easier to prove my worth as a human being when I was staying up until 4:00 am to finish calculus and short essay on utilitarianism ecology labs, going for days without speaking to 1931, anyone and eating meals in the dining halls alone, not daring to short, look up and make eye contact for testing, fear of essay, striking up a. conversation and throwing off my tightly organized schedule. I just knew that if I didn’t stay one step ahead of everyone else academically I would be unremarkable and utterly unemployable. Hence, everything I did was devoted to sculpting a well-focused resume with adequate extracurricular range: I headed multiple clubs, participated in internships, externships, campus jobs, lab work, tutoring, volunteered for essay on heros, community service, and essay applied to scholarships during.

most of my free time. Testing? If this is college, who needs the real world? So by the end of my sophomore year, I maintained a 3.9 GPA, was a semester ahead with the short essay on utilitarianism, amount of credits I had taken, and had secured exactly zero friendships. There was an underlying sense of apathy in everything I did: in every essay, at thesis on software testing, every political protest, with every music ensemble and club meeting, I felt the essay on utilitarianism, absence of any real passion. I felt as though I. was doing nothing for my own benefit; it was all for improving my resume, for “the future.” By that time I had begun to realize that something was significantly wrong with how I was approaching the whole concept of “college”: I was behaving as if for these four years my quality of life was of minimal importance compared to the wondrous expanse of real life that awaited me. after graduation, when I would be wearing a white collar, making all that delicious money. On Software? The agony, the relentless self-torture would all be worth it once I landed a job at the big, impressive law firm with the two-story fountain in the lobby. At least that’s how I justified it to myself. Until I started to feel that someone was cheating me out of enjoying life. Why was I not experiencing the dynamic, perspective- changing force of college that I had heard so much about from my parent’s generation? Why was I not discovering myself, finding out what I wanted out of essay, life?

Interestingly, this kind of education isn’t being encouraged anymore in the higher tiers of America’s university system. One step into the career guidance/major adviser/dean’s office and you’ll be up to your eyebrows in george orwell 1931 essay the hanging, graduate school fact books, internship applications, and some guy coaching you on short essay how to be yourself in an interview. Wait a minute, wait a minute! I want to shout. WHO IS MYSELF?? I don’t even know anymore. This is how college has become one more introductory step in crushing the human spirit, making nineteenth century warehouse factory jobs look like the solution to man’s alienation from himself. “Student” is just another occupation in thesis testing, a long list, and essay on utilitarianism if you can’t do your job well there’s a thousand other people just like you ready and willing to take your position. So much of the college experience has been reduced to a series of judgments: exams, applications, interviews. The weak students are consistently being weeded out, made aware of essay for christmas, their inadequacy and encouraged to step aside for the brighter individuals to continue up the ladder of short essay, success. The students that excel in the tests of organization, memorization, professor-pandering and busy work are able to make it to the top of the class and move on to the best graduate schools, lucrative careers and decision-making positions. Essay Mother Love? Competition for these limited positions.

of success has gotten so fierce that college students have no time to question their motives for performance, or to discover how to live in a way most conducive to essay on utilitarianism, overall happiness. This beats down the spend, human spirit of the individual student while simultaneously. estranging students from one another, completely destroying the short essay, symbiotic relationships that are so necessary to essay, functioning academia. Short? We must be willing to bravely critique each other, break down our theories and arguments together so that they can be built again, stronger and more resilient to the tests of time (and, dare I say, sexier to the society at large). Instead, we’re. encouraged to educate ourselves in preparation for jobs, not to work together in preparation for the rest of our lives. Essay On Heros? We should be working to build on short to the expanse of essay on heros, knowledge that we have obtained from centuries of rigorous academic thinking, not just rounding out our resumes. When I began college at short essay, the University of essay spend, Mississippi in short on utilitarianism, the fall of 2004, I did not expect too much change from my high school experience. Out of 150 people in my graduating class, 60 made the trek 160 miles north on on software I-55 from our private high school in Jackson, Mississippi, to Ole Miss. I felt more than adequately prepared for college work.

My high school courses were primarily Advanced Placement courses, and short on utilitarianism I had earned over 24 college credits as a result. Essay? But when I graduated this past May, I realized how provincial my outlook was coming into college and how much more nuanced and global my perspective was as a result of not only three years of short essay on utilitarianism, studying English and classics but also three years of studying the ironies and complexities of my university, my state, and our world. In Oxford, Mississippi, many present conversations invoke the past, true to our spiritual guide William Faulkner who said, “The past is not dead. For Christmas? In fact, it’s not even past.” We are a town devoted to essay, remembering with narratives and photographs, with Confederate war memorials and Civil Rights monuments, with historical preservation districts and special collections rooms. These tangible reminders are equal parts “Lest we forget” and “Lest we think we’ve come far enough.” True to testing, the essence of these monuments and on utilitarianism memorials, the forces of tradition and progress continue to play large roles in the lives of students at Ole Miss and the broader university community. On one of the hottest days this past fall, James Meredith stood in essay, the shadow of the short on utilitarianism, very building he had been denied access in essay about mother, 1962 as a bronze monument was dedicated in essay on utilitarianism, commemoration of the ap essays that 9, fight he led for access for everyone to higher education. Short? Rep. John Lewis gave a rousing speech; Morgan Freeman made some remarks; a choir sang “Ride on King Jesus” just as Leontyne Price performed in concerts. Beyond the grandeur and stifling heat of the occasion, I noticed a group of orange-shirted students in essay, the crowd of sweating hundreds.

Their shirts read “Respect Mississippi,” the short, name of a newly formed student group aimed at addressing the stigmas attached to the state and ending the de facto campus segregation. Their statement was more than appropriate – on a day when the community celebrated “progress” and “freedom,” it was clear that James Meredith’s work must be continued. At that moment, I realized why fellow Oxonian William Faulkner said, “To understand the world, you must first understand a place like Mississippi.” Only a few hundred feet from this Civil Rights monument, between the Lyceum and thesis the library, stood the statue of a Confederate soldier with his back forever turned to the north. In that very space flanked by memories of Civil Rights and Civil War, both Union and Confederate soldiers received treatment for their battle wounds over short essay a century earlier. Essay For Christmas? And this fall, in celebration of football, tents with lavish spreads of food, gentlemen in seersucker suits, ladies in too-high heels, and essay cups brimming with toddies as potent as the essay for christmas, heat will make that same space a storm of Southern drawls. There are layers and layers of seemingly paradoxical narratives on short the campus, infinite instances of irony.

But, as Faulkner noticed, so is the rest of the world. Over time, the same poets who have sung the greatest accomplishments of our human race often have mourned our deepest cruelties. College is an opportunity to read, to learn, and to orwell essay the hanging, investigate these very complexities that make human life interesting, difficult, and rich. The opportunity to encounter the essay on utilitarianism, unanswerable, to struggle with the unjust, and to on software testing, articulate what is valuable makes college matter. Short Essay On Utilitarianism? The opportunity to express dissent with civility in essay about, a classroom or around campus makes college matter.

Though I, as much of my generation, am exposed to massive amounts of information, I am often discouraged by the void, vapid popular political discourse. We live in the age of the illiterate presidency; a time when political speech is reductive and polarizing rather than well-informed and consensus-building. The success of the essay on utilitarianism, “us” versus “them” mentality of the current administration, which has held office for the entirety of my high school and mother college education, has only fueled my drive to understand and use language judiciously and correctly. Words like “troop surge,” “evildoers,” “stay the course,” “weapons of mass destruction” have been beaten senseless, bled to death. Language has suffered; it is our duty to reclaim it and to revitalize it. Otherwise, our ideas and communities will fail to communicate meaningfully. At Ole Miss – and throughout the short on utilitarianism, South – language had to essay spend one million dollars, be reassessed, reclaimed, and revitalized from short on utilitarianism, racist and bigoted to respectful and on software inclusive. And as the short essay, language changed and the racial diversity of the campus changed, certain long-revered symbols had to go.

The Confederate battle flag, which was frequently waved by fans at athletic contests, is no longer allowed at such events. And “Colonel Reb,” the official mascot until 2003, no longer is on software testing, present on the sidelines. These changes were particularly important at Ole Miss considering its position as the state’s flagship university and its reputation among Mississippians as an short on utilitarianism, intellectual and cultural leader. Essay How To Spend One Million? Ole Miss realized exactly what Nobel Laureate Derek Walcott said: “To change your language you must change your life.” In college, we converse with ourselves, our neighbors, great thinkers of the essay, past and essay on heros present, cultures and ethnic groups different from our own, and ideas that urge us towards reevaluating our own perspectives. Ideally, those conversations make us more humane individuals – respectful and gracious; quick to consider before acting; reasonable and just. Over my three years in college, some of the world’s sharpest minds and most influential voices have come to campus and essay talked with us students. King Abdullah of Jordan brought to the forefront of my mind the need for developing interfaith dialogue among the many world religions. He pointed us to his reasoning in the Amman Message. Salman Rushdie talked about language’s effects on identity and the ability of art to make the universe wider and about mother love more wondrous for others.

Samantha Power urged us to be neither indifferent nor uninformed concerning the history of genocide and current atrocities. The names and short essay on utilitarianism ideas continue on and on, and so do the conversations and for christmas people they have shaped. In Oxford, we all walk in on utilitarianism, Faulkner’s shadow as well as in scored 9, the presence of great contemporary writers like Barry Hannah, Beth Ann Fennelly, Tom Franklin, and Ann Fisher-Wirth. We are a community built on creation as a means of essay, progression; we are a community invested in people and their stories. Ap Essays Scored 9? We are a community of students well-versed in the past and short on utilitarianism traditions and equally committed to cultivating fresh ideas and new solutions. We are wordsmiths and worldsmiths. I’ve heard several people say, “If you stay in Oxford long enough, the world will come to you.” I must agree. The world has come in for christmas, bluesmen and short on utilitarianism foodies, poets and spend one million storytellers, rock stars and essay royalty, preachers and protestors, actresses and modern dancers, photographs and medieval manuscripts, quilts and ap essays that hand-carved drums, live oaks and Japanese magnolias. That’s why college matters: the world stretches out its hand to meet you; it’s your chance to take and shape it. Dealing with Overcrowded Universities.

If you think that the battle is over once you get your acceptance letter this spring, think again. Transferring juniors who thought that they had bid their community colleges a fond farewell are finding themselves back on too-familiar campuses when they aren’t able to get the classes they need at short essay, their university. Instead, students like Jenna Young say that they are frustrated when other CSUN students get priority for registration because they have more units. “It’s so ridiculous,”; said Young, Moorpark. College transfer student.”; In order to essay about mother, be a full time student and keep my health insurance, I have to go back to short essay, Moorpark College to take two classes, because I only essay on heros, got into short essay on utilitarianism two classes that I needed at CSUN. In my experience transfer students are not a priority. According to the CSUN Institutional Research Department, Young is one of essay for christmas, 86.8% of short essay, undergraduate students, which transfer to CSUN from a community college each year.

The students are ready to dive into ap essays university life, but find themselves still attached to their junior colleges instead. However, Erik Forbes the Dean of Admissions said that should not be the case. According to Forbes, enrollment is growing each year by 2.5 percent however; CSUN gets more funding. from the government to essay on utilitarianism, fund more buildings and essay mother hire more staff to accommodate the increase in enrollment. As of Fall 2006 the student to teacher ratio is 23 to essay, 1 at CSUN. CSUN is ap essays that scored, not overcrowded at all. stated Forbes. On the contrary, that hasn’t been the short on utilitarianism, experience of some CSUN students, especially students who have recently transferred in from community college. Just because they received an acceptance letter and paid their tuition, it didn’t guarantee that they would get into the classes that they needed.

Most classes fill up fast, with long waiting lists. Some majors are so over 9 crowded that some students said that they deliberately transferred to a university under a different major, just so they can get accepted to their college of on utilitarianism, choice, later switching back to their original major once they are accepted. Every semester there are more and more students having to essay on heros, scrabble to get into classes. “I always have more students wanting to take the class than seats,” said Cathy Lynne Costin, professor of anthropology. Short? “The problem is there are never enough seats for the demand.” Getting housing accommodations is another problem that students are faced with. At UCSB there is a major problem with getting students’ housing on and off campus. “Housing is not guaranteed and is based on lotto”; said Walter Boggan, UC Santa Barbara transfer representative. “It’s extremely important to apply early for housing, not just at UCSB but at every university.” Every administrator, faculty member, and student has their own opinion based on their own personal experiences at their university. About? However, one thing is for sure if you are planning on transferring to a university make sure that you come prepared and that you follow your counselors and teachers advice. “It’s extremely important that you see a counselor at the beginning of every semester, Christiana Albarez, transfer advisor at Moorpark College. “Students need to know the transfer agreement that their college has with their transfer university.

Staying on track with your classes and knowing the short essay, required prerequisites for about how to dollars, your major is essential. There are over 34,500 students that attend California State University Northridge as of Spring 2007 and the number of enrollment keeps on growing. I’m not sure that I would have put the on utilitarianism, time or thought necessary to write this essay had it been offered during the time when I attend college. I’ve read Perlstein’s essay several times since I was notified about mother this essay at the beginning of July. Only now at short essay, the beginning of essay about mother, August have I committed myself to sitting down and organizing my thoughts into short essay a manner that others might follow. The reason for my hesitancy to address this issue stems from my anger at being judged from afar and being asked to defend myself. When Perlstein asks “What’s the Matter with College?” I read “What’s the Matter With College Students?”. The institution ceases to exist without students, and so, since I am among those who allow colleges to exist, I see this essay as a direct challenge to who I am as a person. “Is the college experience less critical to the nation than it was a generation ago?” It is patently absurd to define the “college experience” when you consider the thesis on software testing, plethora of diversity among individuals attending college today.

This was obviously not so in the 1960’s, and there is no common denominator for comparing the short on utilitarianism, events of the ’60’s with the events of today. The world is a strikingly different place than it was in the ’60’s. The fact that a generation ago a gubernatorial campaign was centered not upon essay on heros, the education of college students but upon their behavior indicates two things to me: 1) the short essay on utilitarianism, lack of essay on heros, integration of technology most are connected with today and 2) a political scam to essay, direct the nation’s attention away from more pressing concerns. In the latter regard, politics has not changed so much. As far as the first is concerned, however, technology, most notably, the Internet has revolutionized the way people absorb life. Ap Essays Scored? It allows the opportunity for rapid communication through e-mails, instant messages, and the uploading of short essay on utilitarianism, pictures. The inherent downfall of essay for christmas, rapid communication is that it is not a forum for all types of communication as thought should be put into some messages. We must put more time into our messages because our audience has expanded and become much less precise.

In order to produce a message that leaves a profound mark, a mark that will not be easily reversed when the next generation of leaders comes around, college students must accept the short on utilitarianism, role that money plays in society. Nurturing ideas based on essay about intellectual merit is only the short on utilitarianism, first step because ideas cannot put food into the stomachs of about love, starving children or medicine into the system of individuals ravaged by a disease that has yet to find a cure. It is short essay on utilitarianism, not enough to understand material at essay about, an advanced level and discuss this understanding with colleagues. Ideas must be presented in a manner that incites action. Being aware of the commercial potential of ideas when one begins college allows one more time to essay, ponder which action is best to take. Along those lines, Perlstein mentions the Internet’s affect on students in essay spend, that most experience their “first forbidden book” and such before experiencing college. Experiencing more of life before attending college allows one to discard unwanted paths before traveling too far down them. Conversely, one may explore avenues already traveled in more depth once granted the freedom that college offers.

If the Internet allows individuals access to more information, then “Why aren’t people paying attention to the campuses?” Perlstein asks. In the 1960’s, college was an asylum for eighteen-year-old boys assigned a number to protect freedom thousands of miles away from their home. There was hardly a person who didn’t know someone who was fighting in Vietnam, or who wasn’t hoping that their brother, son, friend, sweetheart didn’t get drafted. Essay? Naturally, college campuses would be a central place for political activism. I don’t know anyone who is fighting in Iraq. But I can recall at least two marches that took place locally in Sarasota last year while I was attending school. It would have been around this time that the forum would have been flooded with e-mails as people voiced their opinions regarding the status of the war. Activism no longer occurs solely on college campuses or with regards to only American problems. People are aware of the crises that plague the world at a younger age and because of the influence of the media more people are becoming involved. Since campuses are no longer asylums, people are looking to george celebrated the hanging, themselves for answers. A collective effort from short on utilitarianism, individuals of all ages and essay on heros backgrounds creates a solidarity that perpetuates action.

Because colleges are more integrated into society, more people can become involved in putting their beliefs into actions, and short essay on utilitarianism college students can extend the work they’ve begun in for christmas, their undergraduate years after they’ve graduated from college. So is essay on utilitarianism, what college students experience truly less critical to that, the nation? Perhaps for some students, college is short essay on utilitarianism, no longer a break from society. However, assuming college no longer is a drastic break from society allows students to channel restless enthusiasm into concrete action. Higher education is no less based on intellectual merit because students are conscious of how they are going to apply their knowledge. I will grant you that the college experience is different but not that it is less critical to on software testing, the nation. The next leaders will come from this generation. Our college experience is different because society is rearranged differently. The battles of the ’60’s are not our battles.

Although there are aspects of society that demand reform, if college continues to be a radical break from society as we know it, the time it takes graduates to adjust to society again is valuable time lost. A four year hiatus from society creates apathy in short essay, response to the problems of society. We cannot advocate making love and not war when the threat of deadly STD’s ravages so many. The adage that ignorance is bliss rings true in essay, most circumstances. Because of our increased awareness of life outside of our claustrophobic sphere, we must accept responsibility for essay on utilitarianism, our actions and look forward to a long-term solution that is in the best interest of everyone involved. Jim Morrison said, “There can’t be any large-scale revolution until there’s a personal revolution, on essay on heros an individual level. It’s got to happen inside first.” An institution cannot be responsible for liberation.

It must come from within. College matters because it still offers that opportunity for growth, for liberation. By serving as a stepping point rather than an escape from life, college possesses an ability to influence individuals to imagine and take action. It is not enough to imagine the world the on utilitarianism, way one would like. How easy when detached from society it is to become trapped in one’s imagination so that it appears as if action is futile. Scored? Perhaps college campuses are not the focus of the nation’s attention. That has not deterred individuals from essay on utilitarianism, taking action.

We’re not going to wait around for society to essay for christmas, notice what we’re doing. We don’t need acknowledgment from the media to short, confirm our accomplishments. We’re moving forward. Essay On Heros? There’s no need for short, imitation. We’re creating our own style, and we’ll add our signature as we go.

If You’re Not a Part of the Problem… Last April, while sifting through my college acceptances trying to make a decision, I tried to picture myself on each campus, which I imagined as vibrant places with intellectual vigor, constant conversation, and orwell celebrated the hanging people with contagious passions. I ended up choosing Dartmouth College, which is a terrific place for me and which does have very passionate people and short essay on utilitarianism a lot of thriving intellectualism. About Spend One Million? I love it there. Essay? During my first spring at Dartmouth I took a course in Recent US History where the professor showed us a film entitled “Berkeley in the Sixties,” about the antiwar student movement. Essay One Million? I saw students staging a massive sit-in in the administration building being dragged out by policemen. I saw hundreds and hundreds of students surrounding a police car trying to take away one of the more vocal students.

These kids were all our age and were doing all of these very bold things. I believe that college, at its core, has never changed. College has always been the short essay, first time away from home, a time to try new things and to meet new people, and a time to cultivate and discover your intellect and george orwell 1931 your passions. In his article “What’s the Matter with College?,” Rick Perlstein argues that college today, however, is on utilitarianism, nothing like college of testing, yesteryear and that the explosive college experience no longer exists for today’s student. So what happened? It seems most obvious to say that the college experience has changed because students have changed. In his article, Perlstein describes our parent’s generation as a bunch of radical, passionate, independent, free-thinkers who took college campuses and the nation by storm in contrast to short on utilitarianism, the high-achieving, overworked, grade- obsessed drones of today. I agree with this. We are much different. But that is hardly our fault. I would argue that students have changed because the way that they are parented has changed.

If our parents parented in the same way that they were parented, maybe college students today would be just as zealous as before. My parents always talk about how when they were growing up, they pretty much raised themselves. They don’t recall their parents being concerned if they were smoking or drinking and their every move certainly wasn’t monitored by cell-phone surveillance. Parents didn’t push them into a million after-school activities or do their homework for them. The independence that they experienced forced them to make their own decisions and to become self-sufficient at essay on heros, an earlier age. Moving out of their parents’ house was really moving out.

After college they weren’t likely to live at home again. Nowadays you hear more and more about thirty-somethings still trying to find their way. This hovercraft parenting of today extends to the college process itself. Applying to college has become a family affair. On Utilitarianism? Parents take their children on college tours where they go around the country visiting dozens of possible schools for their kids to apply to, asking the same questions about SAT scores, recommendations, and how this school will help their child in the long run. Parents push their student child to thesis, apply to upwards of ten schools with a good representation of “reaches”, “targets”, and “safety schools”, just to be sure that their child will end up somewhere. This phenomenon alone shows sharp contrast. My parents remember each applying to about three schools and never going on a college visit. My mom’s best friend chose three schools to short, apply to on the basis that none of them required an admissions essay.

This process really just turns college into thesis a prize for on utilitarianism, a game that has been played for eighteen years. It is dominated by soccer moms and dads out to gain a competitive edge. Orwell 1931 Essay The Hanging? Once kids win the prize–admission to the school of their (or their parents’) dreams–they feel that they have arrived and essay have reached the end. As a result, a culture has emerged in which the essay about, bright, passionate, committed high schooler turns into a slacker college student whose whole life had been dedicated to getting into college. They feel as though they are finished and can finally just relax. Colleges are filled with these kids who the admissions office had thought would make great contributions to their campus but instead end up just blending into the crowd, working for the grades and partying and making the campus climate less than exciting. College has become the endpoint. It is the last step before the real world. College has become a controlled environment in which 18 to on utilitarianism, 22-year-olds can see what the real world might be like before actually venturing off into it.

We get to see what it’s like to live away from our parents, to choose what we eat and when we go to sleep, to work on george orwell essay the hanging our own time, and to be accountable for our actions–without the on utilitarianism, added pressures of paying bills, actual grocery shopping, or, for many, having a job. Forty years ago, college was the real world. College was a time to challenge the george 1931 the hanging, system and to come up with new ideas and new passions. Now it’s a place to teach young adults how to become a part of the short essay, system and to cultivate practical passions that will serve them later in life. Depressing, yes, I agree. At Dartmouth we describe this safety-netted pseudo-real- world as “The Dartmouth Bubble,” which we are all blissfully happy to float around in for four years. The shocking thought is what is essay on heros, going to happen after this bubble breaks and we have to finally live in short essay, the real world. A common phrase around campus is “There’s always grad school,” which, I think epitomizes what is wrong with college today. College is simply a bridge between your parent’s house and the real world–a bridge that has been carefully selected by your parents (or the US News and World Report) for the purpose of essay on heros, placing you in a position that will ease the essay on utilitarianism, transition for you.

But I’m not blaming the decline of the george orwell the hanging, explosive nature of college campuses on parents. After all, it’s not the parents’ fault that the way that they were raised is no longer relevant in society. It’s society’s fault. The world we live in is an age of heightened security and uncertainty. Because of this, parents need as much assurance as possible that their child will be safe both while living at short on utilitarianism, home and thesis after. Security comes in all forms: giving your child a cell phone, knowing who his friends are, knowing if she is drinking or smoking, and, of course, knowing that he is in a place where he can not only practice being an adult before actually stepping into the real world, but also one that will propel him into a life of short essay on utilitarianism, security afterwards.

If the world hadn’t become so scary, if liberalism hadn’t declined, and if a million other cultural changes hadn’t taken place causing parents to parent over-protectively, causing students to be blinded by grades and the future rather than the ap essays scored, promise of intellectual cultivation, then yes, Mr. Perlstein, we could be going to short essay on utilitarianism, college not just college. But don’t blame us. It is not us who destroyed the college experience that you created, you did it yourselves. The Stepping Stone Between Childhood and Adulthood. “I’m not an mother, adult. I’m still just a big kid with some adult responsibilities!” This feeling runs through the mind of every college-bound teen at essay, least once. Rick Perlstein’s article “What’s the 1931 essay, Matter With College?” studies how the college atmosphere has changed, but these changes do not alter why college matters. On Utilitarianism? College teaches responsibility and accountability like no other educational system can, and it exposes students gradually to life expectations, while providing a safety net of for christmas, guidance and support to prevent failure. One of the main attributes that a college education instills is short essay, a sense of responsibility. Responsibility is one of the chief concerns that arises with age.

The older one gets the more responsibilities he or she carries; yet, most college bound teens are not familiar with true responsibility. Honesty and accountability to their parents perhaps, but certainly the essay, responsibility of paying taxes, or keeping up with finances, or even of maintaining a job is unfamiliar to teens. College offers teens the ability to learn to live up to adult expectations, while still providing a safety net that does not exist post graduation. It is this part of the atmosphere surrounding campuses that makes the college experience so important. The college atmosphere, like many other aspects of society, grows and changes with the people that construct it. When Rick Perlstein attended college, the atmosphere reflected the essay, need for an outlet from the strict social norms of the surrounding society. A college campus was it’s own “city-state” complete with stimulating dorm lounge debates. It represented a backlash against society.

College was a place where people discovered films, books, articles, even plays with which they previously would not have come in contact. These forbidden fruits allowed the spend dollars, students to experiment with the unfamiliar and explore their budding interests. Now, these students are adults raising their children and sending them off to college. Their experiences in college have impacted the style in which they raised their children. There are now students like Hamilton Morris, who experimented with the previous generation’s forbidden fruits before he even entered the college campus. In his article “What’s the Matter With College?” Perlstein described, “You used to have to go to college to short on utilitarianism, discover your first independent film, read your first forbidden book, find freaks like yourself, who, say, share an interest in Lenny Bruce. Now, for essay on heros, even the most provincial students, the Internet, a radically more democratic and diverse culture – and those hip baby-boomer parents – take care of the essay on utilitarianism, problem” (Perlstein 5).

This has changed the demands placed on the college atmosphere. The atmosphere, whatever it reflects, consistently serves as an intermediate stage or middle ground between childhood and adulthood. It is a coming of age period, during which teens experiment with their interests and responsibilities. Without the college years teens would unfairly be expected to orwell, make the leap from their happy-go-lucky high school years directly into the world of essay on utilitarianism, adulthood. College is akin to a practice round. Ap Essays 9? It eases students out of the protection of youth and into on utilitarianism the world of adulthood, while still providing the safety net of teachers, advisors, even the clearly defined expectations. Turning a paper in late, while more serious than in high school, is thesis, not as problematic or as costly as paying a bill late. The college education system gradually places more responsibility and expectations upon the students, while simultaneously offering an atmosphere ripe for short essay, exploration of the unfamiliar. What other system can offer this atmosphere or these experiences?

Without college teens would be thrown into a world unforgiving of thesis on software, mistakes where second- chances are rare. On Utilitarianism? They would be set up for failure rather than success. On Software? Perlstein is short essay, correct in scored, saying that college has changed since he attended, but so has the world. College campuses cannot be expected to serve their important purpose of preparing students for on utilitarianism, adulthood and the trials ahead while remaining relics of on software, previous eras. In the essay on utilitarianism, past year I realized that my greatest sorrow will be to have lived in a time saturated in testing, such apathy that even the small minority which has created all of the short essay, change in human history can not be churned up out of the depths of market culture. Economic competition, not intellectual freedom, has a hold on educational communities and it is about spend dollars, not letting go. In The Trouble with College Rick Perlstein identifies why college matters to most people: cold, hard capital. Every American loves it, which is why high school civics teachers have to spend so much time reminding students of its central importance to a democratic society. Interestingly enough, the essay, aims of democracy, like diversity, excellence and independent thought, have become selling points for American colleges and universities.

Not goals or values, just selling points, making people like me and many of essay, my friends commodities to be inventoried. To many of the students who make up the current surge in college enrollment, college will be the short essay on utilitarianism, determining factor in social mobility. Essay About Mother Love? Ironically, it is short, parents of the impoverished- those who are most victimized by capitalist violence- who push their children into institutions that are ruled by market thinking and the most powerful tools in ap essays that scored 9, maintaining such systems. It’s a wonder no one tells the story of women who send their children off to become the kind of people they themselves lose their lives working for. The decision becomes whether to be educated into becoming a capitalist or dying at the hands of capitalism. It was a choice I had to face, a decision I’m not sure I have finished making yet. What a student hears before college is “blah blah, critical thinking, blah blah, questioning norms and values,” which peak our biologically supported need for short essay, rebellion. It also gives us hope for an end to the days of being stared at scored 9, while we tell our government teacher his analysis of racial politics is borne of engrained eurocentrism.

Or being branded an annoyance for feeling morally compelled to shut down English class to protest against essay, apartheid because, even though its just an exercise to introduce us to themes in George Orwell’s 1984, if we do not resist now how can we have count on ourselves to scored, have the courage to do so later? I, like many of the students who go to liberal arts colleges across the short, country, thought I would be safe in essay on heros, the magical world that is youthful idealism combined with the sense of community that comes from being ostracized because of revolutionary ideals. I did not come from a middle-class suburb that killed creativity; I came from poverty that tends to have the same affect but provides less time to feel angst about it. This made it even cooler that I was still willing to sleep in short essay, a tent in North Carolina winter to show solidarity with protesters in Oaxaca, Mexico even though I knew what a house with no heat felt like. It is also why I was surprised by how many voices silenced my political awakening with “get yours first,” and “nobody is going to care about you as much as you care about saving the essay for christmas, world”. It is a sad thing, the first time an activist realizes just how hard saving the world is going to be. Not just the pain that marks the end of the naivete that leads to blind optimism, but the searing burn that is short, looking into the eyes of someone who serves as a carrier of apathy and knowing a lifetime could be used trying to on software, change one person and short failing. It has a way of branding the hopeful, of leaving a permanent mark. The saddest thing about our time is that we are spending it living in the shadows of our heroes, not in their footsteps.

What we forget when we idolize the former civil rights leaders, flower children, beatniks and revolutionaries is that they all failed us- by essay about how to dollars not pushing themselves far enough, by bowing to strategic failure, by forgetting to short on utilitarianism, tell us, as they raised a new generation of Americans, that their failure does not have to translate into our fear to act radically. They went to college to attend their first protest, to essay on heros, question their first value, to hold their first sit-in or take-over or write their first manifesto without that fear of failure. Many of us on the working- class end (and there are a lot of us) are put in short on utilitarianism, a position where the stakes are too high (the federal government reserves the right to cut all federal aid to a student arrested during any kind of protest and orwell 1931 the hanging will not provide aid to young men over eighteen years old if they refuse to register with the short essay, selective service) to fight against george orwell celebrated essay, the hegemonic values of market thinking and fall into a pattern of short essay, accomplishment that actually reinforces them. This use of market incentives to prohibit change in the status quo intensifies immeasurably when colleges and universities are induced to compete or die (sounds like a 50 Cent movie I know). After a surge of student anger at my college, the administration went from “Guilford is committed to thesis on software testing, its Core Values” to “Despite its emphasis on Core Values, Guilford is really just a microcosm with the same issues and problems as the culture.” My college was saving its image to maintain its marketability and in the process repudiating its role as an institution that called American society into question. It was, in short on utilitarianism, effect, equating itself to nothing more than the about dollars, reproductive gene of a deadly virus, bound to short, forever reproduce the for christmas, shortcomings of the culture it claims to critique. As it stands, college does not matter to on utilitarianism, our future as a nation. It is the determining factor in social mobility, and often the difference between wage slavery and a chance at george celebrated essay the hanging, a good life. On Utilitarianism? Because college matters so much to individual fate in the American system, it matters so little to the collective fate of our nation and, ultimately, our world. People are too busy being college students to have a genuine college experience.

But college can matter, as it matters to me. Thesis Testing? It matters every time students stage a walk out to assert that their administration was lying to the press. It matters every time a student misses class to attend an SOA protest, or stays in short on utilitarianism, their room crying for two weeks about institutional racism until she finds a friend who has been feeling the same way she has. College matters not because of what it is, or even what it was. College matters because it has the orwell celebrated 1931, resources, the minds, the essay on utilitarianism, motives, the questions, the youthful rage, the defiant love, the intoxicated rambling, the naked teenagers, the brilliant outcasts, and the bonfire kerosene all in the same place. Everybody knows college kids can’t be trusted not to light the match. Today’s American College Experience: Quiet Revolution.

In Rick Perlstein’s article “What’s The Matter with College”, he asserts that the essay for christmas, discrete college experience, a time and place separate from essay on utilitarianism, everything that came before and everything that would follow after, no longer exists. Celebrated The Hanging? As a current undergraduate, I have to agree. In most ways, college life for me has been an extension of my high school years and short essay simultaneously the essay about mother love, start of my immersion into the infamous “real world.” Instead of disassociating myself from the short essay on utilitarianism, friends, interests, and beliefs I had before college, I, along with most of thesis on software testing, my fellow classmates, are building on what came before college. Short Essay? We are also looking ahead to what will come after, which often translates to our professional lives. As Perlstein points out, for those who came of age in the cataclysmic 1960s and 1970s, the essay, college experience of today often seems tame and even depressing. After all, to the outside eye my generation is not breaking down entrenched social barriers or reshaping the political landscape like my parents’ generation did.

We appear to stand for short essay, little and act on even less. Mostly, we seem disaffected and essay unaware of the troubles facing our country and world. My challenge to anyone who feels that way is to take another look. For, while the college experience now is short on utilitarianism, not the distinct time and george orwell essay the hanging place that it once was, it is short essay, most certainly revolutionizing America. To step onto most college campuses today is often like entering a meeting of the United Nations. It is essay on heros, hard walk a couple of feet without encountering someone who speaks another language or wears a different type of clothing. Even more common is to see students of multiple races, ethnicities, and socioeconomic backgrounds sitting together having lunch.

In my college world, these occurrences are so much a part of daily life that few students would even take notice of such sights let alone think that they are in any way extraordinary. The small parts of the day that rarely receive any attention and the people who engage in them are, however, extraordinary. For, without fuss or fanfare, my generation of college students is continuing the work started by the generation that demanded, fought for, and won the essay, great battles of the 1960s and 1970s. The students of that great era created a new culture through music, literature, and poetry because the for christmas, one they grew up in was stifling and unrepresentative of them. They paved unique paths because they lived with parents who wanted futures for them that were different from what they wanted for themselves. They made diversity trendy because they were raised in communities that believed in suffocating and, often discriminatory, conformity. They walked out on their classes to protest because their friends and siblings were being robbed of short, their civil liberties by violent racism and essay oppressive sexism at short on utilitarianism, home and were being killed abroad by a war they were drafted into and did not believe in. College became the focal point in all of these distinct yet integrated battles because it was the first time and place that young Americans could spread their wings. For Christmas? Never before had they been surrounded by like-minded people who saw the world for what it could be not for essay, what it was. With little more than passion and resolve to thesis, live in a safer and more accepting world than the essay, one they had known, college students reshaped America. They did it though, because they had too.

College life for orwell, my generation could never be the same as it was for that generation because we grew up in separate paradigms. For the essay, most part, my generation was not told that we could not be friends with someone because the color of essay about mother, his or her skin or that being a woman means less than being a man. We were not told that hatred and violence could be justified or that diversity in appearance, ideas, and ways of life are wrong. And so, we have little to protest against, march for, and battle over. It can not be denied that college students are a relatively pacifistic and even sometimes materialist group, which separates us from the on utilitarianism, students of that other era. That does not mean, however, that we are any less passionate and worldly than our forbearers. In fact, we may be more so.

Since I have come to college I have met students who have spent their summers rebuilding schools devastated by Hurricane Katrina, have organized anti-war rallies, and have traveled to Africa to essay, teach young women and men how to remain HIV-free. It is true that their works have not centered on the college campus as an entity but why should it? Since the 1960s, the world has become integrated in a way that few could have imagined back then, and students, just as they did in on utilitarianism, the past, have utilized new opportunities to make positive changes in our world. The greatest changes though, that college students are making today are actually happening on ap essays scored college campuses. They are those simple acts of being a part of a diverse social group and willing to open up to short essay, new points of view. Becoming friends with a gay student or an Indian student or a Black student may not be a big deal for those who live in liberal parts of the country or were raised in accepting environments. For others it is significant. One Million Dollars? And it is facilitated by college life. The baby boomers fought for women and African Americans to be admitted into our nations universities. Now female applicants outnumber male applicants.

The doors the previous generation pushed opened have allowed students from all walks of life to be represented on American college campuses. While a student may not speak to essay on utilitarianism, someone on essay for christmas the street in his home town because he is from short essay, a group with beliefs antithetical to his own, college does not afford students such a luxury. We must learn to respect one another regardless of their views or background because he or she could be our lab partner or roommate. However, for some students, living and for christmas socializing with someone who is different than the people they knew is extremely different. It is revolutionary. This revolution that is taking place on college campuses today is not one of the masses, it is personal. It is between students one on one. We are forced to short essay, live and learn with each other and that allows us to essay, see the individual, not the race, gender, religion, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background of short essay on utilitarianism, a person. We are taking what our parents did further by showing that acceptance and equality are not just legal terms but ways of live.

We are taking the public battles that they fought has taken the fighting indoors, into our dorms, our common rooms, and our study lounges. The college experience of today hardly resembles that of the 1960s and for christmas 1970s. For some, that is demoralizing because so much of the short, 20th centuries great movements took place on college campuses in those years. Love? If they go to a college campus today though, they are likely to see that my generation is short essay on utilitarianism, picking up where they left off. They fought for equality, regardless of scored 9, any other differentiating characteristic.

The students of those decades helped pass laws, create institutions, and build coalitions to change the way America treats its citizens. My generation is changing the way those citizens treat each other. In his dismayed, flimsily-argued essay on the state of the American undergraduate experience, Rick Perlstein asks whether college remains “interesting enough to become a topic of national obsession.” He quickly concludes that it is not. Perhaps Perlstein is not a regular reader of the short on utilitarianism, paper that published his piece. The Times’s Most-Emailed list is a useful if crude gauge of the national water cooler, and certain kinds of articles top the list every time: those examining contemporary Jewish culture often compete with recipes for ten-minute wonder-meals. But none rocket to emailed infamy more rapidly than articles concerning the growing locust cloud of wringing hands that is American college admissions (February 22nd: “As School Choice Starts Earlier, So Does the ap essays that scored 9, Frenzy”). At first I hesitated to rely on data from the Times’s website, just as I worried about my ability to comment on the whole of our university system while cloistered at Dartmouth; both perspectives, I reasoned, were more Ivory Tower than State U.

Then I realized that Mr. Perlsteain commits the same error. Short Essay On Utilitarianism? The great majority of his evidence comes from personal experience and interviews at University of Chicago, which was elite when he attended it and is yet more elite today. Another primary source is a guy named Hamilton (“Danger…) who went to art school (…Will…) and is now attending one of “the nation’s great universities” in New York City (…Robinson!”). Perlstein’s research is clearly confined to ap essays scored, the very smart and very priviledged, but the biases do not end there.

Chicago’s reputation is notable even among the top tier: it is widely known, even by its own students, as “Where Fun Goes to Die.” The essay’s laments of overscheduled “Organization Kids” are fatally overgeneralized from essay on utilitarianism, what is arguably the most overworked undergraduate body in george essay, the country. Every college harbors students addicted to collecting club officerships and short on utilitarianism resume bullet points, but they are outnumbered by specialists who predate even Perlstein’s generation: lushes, slackers, and teachers pets are as pervasive today as ever, and their respective cliques continue to exert far more influence on the individual student’s day-to-day experience than the essay spend dollars, forces that Perstein perceives sweeping the national campus: market consciousness and on utilitarianism vast discontent. Despite his acknowledgement that “Most of my interviewees were happy,” many of the students he depicts are deeply unhappy. If they are not, he deems them sadly blind to the tragedy of their busyness. At one point Perlstein asks a student named Jonathan about the consequences of colleges becoming more attuned to market forces.

He does not share the student’s answer, instead opting to patronize: “He’s a bright kid, but I’m not sure he understood the question.” Perlstein allows his subjects no agency, making it easy to support his contention that college has lost its vitality. College is not less vital; instead, it is now so crucial-to students’ futures, to employers, to parents’ pride-that its basic worth and celebrated 1931 the hanging fundamental questions of its culture are no longer newsworthy. Essentially, Perlstein cannot believe that college is essay, not exactly what it was in 1967. It’s true that a widespread student uproar over Iraq has failed to materialize. But as Perlstein also points out, we simply have more on our plate.

This is the era of the Long Tail, of splintering culture and diversifying opportunities. Some students are passionate about ending the war, but just as many are invested in animal rights, while others devote themselves to the environment or free trade or urban poverty. I spent three months volunteering on the Gulf Coast; like anyone who’s done Katrina relief, I can report with certainty that college students and young alumni are doing as much as anyone to fill the void left by essay on heros government abandonment. In other words, students today are doing more good with more energy than ever before. Those are the essay on utilitarianism, Organization Kids Perlstein is griping about. Of course, there is plenty to be said about the virtues of free time and personal reflection. But wasn’t the primary complaint against Gen-X-the generation that preceded mine-their alleged listlissness and lack of passion? Perlstein tries to argue that “as a discrete experience, ‘college’ has begun to disappear.” That is a fabrication. A four-year residential college is still all-enveloping, a new world, and more and more kids are attending them. (And Perlstein ignores the truly vital question of how to enable even the poorest students to join them.) Moreover, more students, not fewer, are leaving their home states to yet more “discrete” collegiate environs. That is essay, made feasible, of short essay, course, by the increased contact allowed by the Internet and affordable cellular service-which, bizarrely, Perlstein also complains about. “As I write this at a coffee shop near campus, a kid picks up her cell phone – ‘Hi, Dad!'”

Really, Rick? I shouldn’t even keep in touch with my parents? They beg to for christmas, differ. Perlstein would have me lounge around my dorm and talk all night, the kind of scene he depicts with misty eyes in the essay. I assure you, such pleasures are still staples of essay on utilitarianism, freshman year. But he goes on orwell essay the hanging to nostalgically recount the days when any schmuck student could-am I reading this right? Call up John Coltrane? Cultural opportunities on campus-musical and otherwise-are booming everywhere. They have to in order to keep colleges competitive in the very increasingly-market-focused system Perlstein laments.

And frankly, when it comes to speaking directly to a living legend on a whim, I just don’t believe him. Perlstein places a premium on spontaneity and exploration. Everyone recalls their college experience as four straight years of such bliss. In 1967 and short on utilitarianism today, the reality is more complicated. Spontaneity and exploration are still valued. Streaking, political arguments, creative parties, and pot-fueled intellectual debates are still everywhere, I am happy to report. And it is true that politicians are no longer stumping their shock at co-ed orgies and radicalism, but that does not mean sexual freedom and trangressive culture have disappeared from colleges. Quite the opposite, as is obvious to anyone who’s observed small-college-town anger and disgust at the students in their midst, or anyone who’s seen prurient news coverage of the ascendant hookup culture.

Perlstein is wrong. College is still transformative, still central, still dangerous. Rick Pearlstein believes that he’s found a problem with college, quoting several students to support his hypothesis that “College as America used to understand it is coming to about mother love, an end.” He makes a logical fallacy in projecting his own opinion of what he remembers as his own college experience and applying it to “America” with that statement. Having been born in 1988, I don’t know what the short essay, standard college experience was at Pearlstein’s time. Having gone to Indiana University for a year now, I believe that college is not “coming to an end,” but simply evolving into something different. Whether that evolution is good or bad varies from person to person. Different students are looking for different things in college. Some people are hoping for a life-changing experience, some see it as just another step in their academic careers, and others see college as a way to escape the comforting shelter of home life and venture out into the unknown. From what I know, there is no such thing as a universal college experience.

As technology has evolved, some services on campus have been rendered redundant or even obsolete: Technically, you can now sign up for classes, pay off your tuition, and search for information without even leaving your room. Papers can be completed and ap essays that scored turned in through E-Mail, without ever having to talk to the professor one-on-one. But even through this, colleges are still quite relevant, helping students explore areas they were unwilling or unable to before. What other place contains men and women willing to teach you the Arabic language, Tae Kwan Do, and Turkish folk music in short essay on utilitarianism, the same area? What other institution in America can allow one to elaborate on the virtues and vices of Socialism, Democracy or Theocracy without being immediately shot down as a fool?

How many organizations in essay about, America offer “study abroad” programs, allowing students to broaden their horizons and learn more about short essay on utilitarianism foreign languages and cultures than they ever could back home at no extra cost? It may be true that colleges are seen as their own little city-states, islands of liberal thought from a sea of conservatism like Bloomington to most of Indiana or Austin to much of Texas. But college is not “infantilizing” or “emasculating” unless you wish to simply cruise through your college career with as little effort as possible. There are plenty of students who simply do not feel motivated to put forth the effort to succeed in their classes or expand their social horizons, and yet have plenty of energy to complain about their lot in life. Of course, Pearlstein manages to celebrated 1931, find those people to essay on utilitarianism, support his hypothesis and make it seem like a plurality of opinion supports it, despite not putting forth any poll numbers or statistics to back up his collected anecdotes. There are plenty of arguments that can be made against testing, the college system, like the harshness of the student loan system or whether some of the lessons learned in college are truly applicable when college theories run into “Real World” problems. But to paraphrase a Mark Twain quote, “The rumors of the American college’s death have been greatly exaggerated.”

In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an short essay, essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to respond. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to on software testing, understand it is coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to short, critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the entries in essay on heros, a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)